INTRODUCTION TOREFERENCINGAPA StyleDr. Taghreed Justinia, PhDAssistant Professor, Department of Health InformaticsEmail: JustiniaT@ngha.med.saTel: +966 (2) 6240000 ext. 26217 / 26210
Introduction to Referencing 3What is referencing?Referencing is a standardized way of acknowledging thesources of information and ideas that you have used in yourassignments and which allows the sources to be identified.It is important to be consistent when you are referencing.(DO NOT MIX DIFFERENT STYLES OF REFERENCING INTHE SAME PAPER).Referencing is important to avoid plagiarism, to verifyquotations and to enable readers to follow up what you havewritten and more fully understand the cited authors work.
Introduction to Referencing 4What is Plagiarism?Referencing is an academic requirement. It is unethical (andcan be illegal) to pass off the intellectual property of others asyour own. This is called plagiarism. Plagiarism is regarded asa very serious offence. Whenever you read, take notes, or photocopy any materialthat you might use in an assignment, immediately copy thefull reference information onto your copy.IF YOU CAN’T REFERENCE IT YOU CAN’T USE IT!
Introduction to Referencing 5Styles of ReferencingSome widely used referencing styles are:• The APA style (American Psychological Association)• The MLA style (Modern Language Association)• The Chicago style• The Vancouver style• The Harvard styleCheck with your college/lecturer for their preferred bibliographic style
Introduction to Referencing 6APA Style• APA (American Psychological Association) is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences.• For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition, second printing. Available at: www.apastyle.org/manual• The following slides are based on information obtained from the Purdue OWL website (Angeli et. al, 2011) and Curtin University Library (APA Referencing, 2009).
Introduction to Referencing 7In-Text Citations & Reference List• The APA style requires referencing in two different places:• 1. Within the body of your assignment or in-text referencing. The author and the year (and page numbers for direct quotes) are written into the text itself, next to where the information / idea is used. This is not a full reference itself, but rather a pointer to the full details, that are in the reference list.• 2. The reference list. At the back of your assignment will be your reference list. This is a complete list of all of the sources that you used in the construction of your assignment. The reference list contains the full details of your sources, sufficient that anyone can find them from the details given.
Introduction to Referencing 8APA Citation Basics• When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation.• This means that the authors last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text in this format; for example: (Jones, 1998)• All sources that are cited in the text must appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.
Introduction to Referencing 9Paraphrasing• If you are referring to an idea (paraphrasing) from another work, but NOT directly quoting the material, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication in your in- text reference.• APA guidelines encourage you to also provide the page number when paraphrasing, although it is not required.• Examples:• According to Jones (1998), APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners.• APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners (Jones, 1998, p. 199).
Introduction to Referencing 10Steps in Referencing1. Note down the full bibliographic details of the source from which the information is taken. Include the relevant page number(s).In the case of a book , ‘bibliographical details’ refers to: author/editor, year ofpublication, title, edition, volume number, place of publication and publisher as foundon the front and back of the title page. (Not all of these details will necessarily beapplicable/available).In the case of a journal article the details required include: author of the article, yearof publication, title of the article, title of the journal, volume and issue number of thejournal, and page numbers.For all electronic information from websites, you should note the date that youaccessed the information, and the database name or web address (URL).2. Insert the citation at the appropriate place within the text of the document3. Provide a reference list at the end of the document.
Introduction to Referencing 11In-Text Citations• Use the name of the author, followed by the year of publication when citing references within the text of an assignment.• Where authors of different references have the same family name, include the author’s initials in the in-text citation i.e. (Hamilton, C. L., 1994) or C. L. Hamilton (1994).• If two or more authors are cited at the same point in the text then they are included in the same in-text citation, separated by a semicolon, e.g. (Brown, 1991; Smith, 2003). They are presented alphabetically by author.((Remember))• When directly quoting from another source, the relevant page number must be given and double quotation marks placed around short quotes.• When paraphrasing or referring to an idea from another source it is preferred but not necessary to provide the page number.
Introduction to Referencing 12Short QuotationsIf you are directly quoting from a work, you will need to include theauthor, year of publication, and the page number for thereference (preceded by "p."). Introduce the quotation with a signalphrase that includes the authors last name followed by the date ofpublication in parentheses.Examples• According to Jones (1998), "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" (p. 199).• Jones (1998) found "students often had difficulty using APA style" (p. 199); what implications does this have for teachers?
Introduction to Referencing 13Short QuotationsIf the author is not named in a signal phrase, place theauthors last name, the year of publication, and the pagenumber in parentheses after the quotation.Example• She stated, "Students often had difficulty using APA style" (Jones, 1998, p. 199), but she did not offer an explanation as to why.
Introduction to Referencing 14Long Quotations• Place direct quotations longer than 40 words in a free-standing block of typewritten lines, and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, indented 1/2 inch from the left margin, i.e., in the same place you would begin a new paragraph. Type the entire quotation on the new margin, and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraph within the quotation 1/2 inch from the new margin. Maintain double-spacing throughout. The parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark.ExampleJoness (1998) study found the following: Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources. This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students failed to purchase a style manual or to ask their teacher for help. (p. 199)
Introduction to Referencing 15How to Create a Reference List• A reference list only includes books, articles etc that are cited in the text. In contrast, a bibliography is a list of relevant sources for background or for further reading.• The reference list is arranged alphabetically by author. Where an item has no author it is cited by its title, and ordered in the reference list or bibliography alphabetically by the first significant word of the title.• The APA style requires the second and subsequent lines of the reference to be indented (see examples in handout)
Introduction to Referencing 16Handout: Referencing Examples• Please refer to your handout• Notice the different examples of referencing• You can use the handout to help you work on the following exercise questions
Introduction to Referencing 17Exercise: Journal ReferenceWith the information given below for this journal reference, write the full reference APA style as itwould appear in the reference list.Authors: • Dean Sittig • Brian L. Hazlehurst • Ted Palen • John Hsu • Holly Jimiso • Mark C. HornbrookTitle: A Clinical Information System Research LanscapeYear: 2002Journal: The Permanente JournalVolume: 6Issue: 2
Introduction to Referencing 18Exercise: Book ReferenceWith the information given below for this book reference, write the full reference APA styleas it would appear in the reference list.Author: Peter DickenYear: 2007Title: Global Shift: Mapping the Changing Contours of the World EconomyCity: LondonPublisher: SageEdition: 5
Introduction to Referencing 19AnswersThe references cited in the text should be written in the reference list asfollows:Sittig, D., Hazlehurst, B. L., Palen, T., Hsu, J., Jimiso, H., & Hornbrook, M. C. (2002). A Clinical Information System Research Lanscape. The Permanente Journal, 6 (2).Dicken, P. (2007). Global Shift: Mapping the Changing Contours of the World Economy (5 ed.). London: Sage.
Introduction to Referencing 20ReferencesAngeli, E., Wagner, J., Lawrick, E., Moore, K., Anderson, M., Soderland, L., & Brizee, A. (2011). General format. Retrieved 25 September 2011 from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/APA Referencing (2009). Retrieved 25 September 2011 from http://library.curtin.edu.au/local/docs/referencing/apa.pdf