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Cite it Right: ESLW05

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APA citation (6th edition) style instruction for Okanagan College Library.

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Cite it Right: ESLW05

  1. 1. ESLW05Cite It Right!
  2. 2. What is APA? APA = American Psychological AssociationThe Publication Manual of the American PsychologicalAssociation is a style manual that provides guidanceand standards in: • research ethics • the publication process • article format and presentation • AND
  3. 3. Why do we cite?“Scholarly communication is the entireset of activities that ensure thatresearch and new knowledge can bemade known” (DeFelice, 2009).
  4. 4. Publication (Registration andCreation Certification) Dissemination Manuscript & IP Editor Academic Publisher Library Peer Reviewers Reformulation
  5. 5. Why do we cite?• Citations demonstrate how you developed your argument and ideas from the ideas of others• Citations give credit where credit is due• Citations give the reader of your work a path to the sources you used, so they can investigate those sources if interested (Mohanty et al., 2009)
  6. 6. Why do we cite?• If you don’t acknowledge other people’s work, words or ideas you commit plagiarism “Penalties for plagiarism serve both to educate students about standards of scholarship and to deter deception and poor scholarly practices. Penalties will reflect the seriousness of the offence; including whether the offence was intentional or unintentional and whether it was a first or a repeat offence” (Okanagan College, 2010, Penalties section, para. 1 ).Okanagan College Academic Offenses regulations and policies
  7. 7. What do we cite?• Direct quotes (“ “)• Paraphrases (re-write in your own words)• Words or terminology specific to or unique to theauthor’s research, theories, or ideas• Use of an authors argument or line of thinking (ideas)• Historical, statistical, or scientific facts (data)• Graphs, drawings, etc. (pictures, images)• Articles or studies you refer to in your work (primary andsecondary research) (Mohanty et al., 2009)
  8. 8. “Direct Quotes”• “Repeat or copy out (a group of words from a text or speech), typically with an indication that one is not the original author or speaker” (New Oxford American Dictionary, 2010).• “Always provide the author, year, and specific page citation or paragraph number for non- paginated material in the text and include a complete reference in the reference list” (APA, 2009, 170).
  9. 9. Block QuotesAPA (2009) says:– “If the quotation is fewer than 40 words, incorporate into text and enclose with double quotation marks” (p. 170).– If it appears in mid sentence, end the passage with quotation marks, cite the source in parentheses immediately after the quotation marks, and continue the sentence (p. 170).– If the quotation is 40+ words, display it in a block of text and do not include quotation marks (p. 171). • Block quotes begin on new lines and are indented about ½ inch • If there is an additional paragraph within the quotation, indent the first line an additional half inch • Double space the entire quotation, cite the quoted source and the page or paragraph number in parentheses after the final punctuation mark.
  10. 10. Paraphrasing• “Express the meaning of (a passage) in other words; render or translate freely” (Canadian Oxford Dictionary, 2004).• Includes referring to an idea contained in another work• Must rework the idea brought forward by the sentence, into your own words.• Rewriting the sentence with or without, and, the, of, but, etc., does not qualify as paraphrasing
  11. 11. How do we cite? Refer to APA resources to determine citation style. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 6th ed., second printing Available at all OC Library campuses; Call no. BF 76.7 .P83 2009 OC Library APA style guide webpage • PDF and HTML versions of most common APA examples • Links to other APA resourcesImportant: The APA manual is the definitive source of APA citationinformation. If a resource contradicts the manual – use the manual.
  12. 12. How do we cite?In text citations: citations given in the body of thearticle, essay, paper, or assignment.Example: (Morgan & Hunt, 1994) Morgan and Hunt (1994) noted that….Reference list citations: “provides the information necessary toidentify and retrieve each source” (APA, 2009, p. 180).Example:Morgan, R. M., & Hunt, S. D. (1994). The commitment-trust theory of relationship marketing. Journal of Marketing, 58, 20–38.
  13. 13. How do we cite?From article by Xie and Peng (2009):In marketing literature, for example, Morgan and Hunt (1994) regard trust as aprerequisite and a central factor for successful relationship marketing. Trust has beendefined both in connotative and evaluative terms, such as “a willingness to rely on anexchange partner in whom one has confidence” (Moorman, Zaltman, &Deshpande, 1992, p. 315). References Moorman, C., Zaltman, G., & Deshpande, R. (1992). Relationships between providers and users of market research: The dynamics of trust within and between organizations. Journal of Marketing Research, 29, 314–328. Morgan, R. M., & Hunt, S. D. (1994). The commitment-trust theory of relationship marketing. Journal of Marketing, 58(3), 20–38.
  14. 14. How do we cite?What is it?• Journal article• Newspaper article• Magazine Building blocks?• Book • Author(s)• Edited book (i.e. • Publication datetextbook) • Title• Report • Publication information (title, location, format)What format? • Other details (i.e. page numbers, doi)• Print• Electronic
  15. 15. How do we cite? Chapter in an edited book: Some APA rules to note• Authors: “invert all authors’ names; give surnames and initials for up toand including seven authors…” (APA, 2009, p. 184). (Smith, R.) NOT (R. Smith)• Chapter authors in edited book: invert the chapter authors’ names.• Publication date: “Give in parentheses the year the work was published”(APA, 2009, p. 185). (2012)• Chapter title: “Capitalize only the first word of the title and of thesubtitle…and any proper nouns” (APA, 2009, p. 185). Tigers: Large cats• Do not invert book editors’ names … the name of the book editor shouldbe preceded by the word In” (APA, 2009, p. 184). Place (Ed.) or (Eds.)following editor(s). In R. Smith (Ed.)
  16. 16. How do we cite? Chapter in an edited book: Some APA rules to note• Book title: “Capitalize only the first word of the title and of thesubtitle…and any proper nouns; italicize the title” (APA, 2009, p. 185). A book about wild animals: With a focus on North America• Pagination: Include chapter page numbers (beginning and end). pp. 123-167.• Publication Information: “Give the location… where the publisher is locatedas noted on the title page for books…use a colon after the location; finish theelement with a period” (APA, 2009, p. 186-187). Using city and province isacceptable. New York, NY: Random House.
  17. 17. How do we cite? Chapter in an edited book: Reference List CitationBonson, A. (2002). Jessie Nagle and Susan Nagle. In K. Carter (Ed.), The small details of life: Twenty diaries by women in Canada, 1830-1996 (pp. 119-122). Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.“Place a description of content in brackets following the title *brochure+” (APA, 2009, p.203)Bonson, A. (2002). Jessie Nagle and Susan Nagle. In K. Carter (Ed.), The small details oflife: Twenty diaries by women in Canada, 1830-1996[ebrary version], (pp. 119-122). Retrieved from http://www.utpress.utoronto.ca/NOT:Retrieved fromhttp://site.ebrary.com/lib/okanagan/docDetail.action?docID=10226270
  18. 18. How do we cite: In text• In text: “References … are cited in text with an author datecitation system” (APA, 2009, p. 174).• In text, direct quotes: “always provide the author, year, andspecific page citation or paragraph number for nonpaginatedmaterial” (APA, 2009, p. 170). (Bonson, 2002) According to Bonson (2002)… “direct quote” (Bonson, 2002, p. 120)
  19. 19. Tips• “Online” – But where did you find it online? • In a database? A web page? A report on a website? An online version of a print book? A streaming video retrieved from the Library catalogue?• You cannot trust the citation creator tool in databases – Levine, D., & Oreskovic, A. (2012, Mar 13). Yahoo sues facebook over advertising patents; lawsuit marks escalation of litigation among major social media companies. The Ottawa Citizen, pp. D.2. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.okanagan.bc.ca/login?url=http://search.pro quest.com/docview/928303169?accountid=28352
  20. 20. How do we cite?What is it?• Journal article• Newspaper article• Magazine Building blocks?• Book • Author(s)• Edited book (i.e. • Publication datetextbook) • Title• Report • Publication information (title, location, format)What format? • Other details (i.e. page numbers, doi)• Print• Electronic
  21. 21. How do we cite?Journal article retrieved online: Some APA rules to note • Author: “Invert all authors names; give surnames and initials for up to and including 7 authors” (APA, 2009, p. 184). • (Smith, M.) instead of M. Smith • Publication date: “Give in parentheses the year the work was published” (APA, 2009, p. 185). • (2012) • Article title: “Capitalize only the first word of the title and of the subtitle, if any, and any proper nouns; do not italicize the title or place quotation marks around it” (APA, 2009, p. 185). • The big mountain: An adventure. • The cold winters in Canada.
  22. 22. How do we cite?Journal article retrieved online: Some APA rules to note • Journal title:  “Give the periodical title in full, in uppercase and lowercase letters. Italicize the name of the periodical” (APA, 2009, p. 185). The Journal of Far Away Places.• Publication Information:  “Give the volume number after the periodical title; italicize it (APA, 2009, p. 186). The Journal of Far Away Places, 8.  “Include the journal issue number … along with the volume number if the journal is paginated separately by issue (APA, 2009, p. 186). 8(2) or 8  Give inclusive page numbers on the which the cited material appears” (APA, 2009, p. 186). 208-221.
  23. 23. How do we cite?Journal article retrieved online: Some APA rules to note • “Provide the DOI, if one has been assigned to the content” (APA, 2009, p. 191). • doi:10.54/J0K6784/73Pof • “When a DOI is used, no further retrieval information is needed to identify or locate the content” (APA, 2009, p. 191). • What’s a DOI? • “If no DOI has been assigned to the content, provide the home page URL of the journal….If you accessing the article from a private database, you may need to do a quick web search to locate this URL” (APA, 2009, pp. 191-2). • Retrieved from http://wwww.oxfordjournals.com
  24. 24. How do we cite?Journal article retrieved online: Some APA rules to note • “In general, it is not necessary to include database information” (APA, 2009, p. 192). • Retrieved from Academic Search Premier. • “Do not include retrieval dates unless the source material may change over time” (APA, 2009, p. 192). • Retrieved on March 16, 2012 from http://www.oxfordjournals.com
  25. 25. How do we cite? Journal article retrieved onlineAnderson, K., Durbin, E., & Salinger, M. (2008). Identity theft. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 22(2), 171-192. Retrieved from http://www.aeaweb.org/jep/index.php doi:10.1257/jep.22.2.171 No doi?
  26. 26. How do we cite? In-textJournal article retrieved online: Some APA rules to noteIn text: “When a work has two authors, cite both names, every time the reference occurs in text. When a work has three, four, or five authors, cite all authors the first time the reference occurs; in subsequent citations, include only the surname of the first author followed by et al. …. and the year if it is the first citation of the reference within a paragraph” (APA, 2009, p. 175).
  27. 27. How do we cite? Journal article retrieved online: CitationInitial citation:(Anderson, Durbin, & Salinger, 2008)Anderson, Durbin, and Salinger (2008) found that…“direct quote” (Anderson, Durbin, & Salinger, 2008, p. 190)Subsequent:(Anderson et al., 2008)Anderson et al. (2008) found that…“direct quote” (Anderson et al., 2008, p. 190)
  28. 28. How do we cite?What is it?• Journal article• Newspaper article• Magazine Building blocks?• Book • Author(s)• Edited book (i.e. • Publication datetextbook) • Title• Report • Publication information (title, location, format)What format? • Other details (i.e. page numbers, doi)• Print• Electronic
  29. 29. Newspaper Articles• “Precede page numbers for newspaper articles with p. or pp.” (APA, 2009, p. 200).• “If an article appears on discontinuous pages, give all page numbers, and separate the numbers with a comma” (APA, 2009, p. 200). – (e.g., pp. B1, B3, B5-B7)
  30. 30. Newspaper Articles cont.• “Give the URL of the home page when the online version of the article is available by search to avoid nonworking URLs” (APA, 2009, p. 201). – Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com• Newspaper published online, or news site? (New York Times online, or MSN news)
  31. 31. Building the Citation• Author? No Author?• Date? (Year, Month day)• Article title• Newspaper title• Section or URL• Online? Print? – Database? Website?
  32. 32. Example: Newspaper Article Retrieved from DatabaseWomack, B., & MacMillan, D. (2012, March 1). Facebook starts mobile advertising push: News feed feature to contain messages. The Gazette. Retrieved from http://www.montrealgazette.com/index.htmlFacebook woos advertisers. (2012, March 1). Calgary Herald. Retrieved from http://www.calgaryherald.com/index.html
  33. 33. How do we cite? Reference list: Some APA rules to note• “Double-spaced and … entries have a hanging indent”(APA, 2009, p. 180).• “Alphabetize by author surname” (APA, 2009, p. 181).• “References with the same authors in the same order arearranged by year of publication, the earliest first”(APA, 2009, p.182).
  34. 34. How do we cite? ReferencesAnderson, K., Durbin, E., & Salinger, M. (2008). Identity theft. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 22(2), 171-192. doi:10.1257 /jep.22.2.171Bonson, A. (2002). Jessie Nagle and Susan Nagle. In K. Carter (Ed.), The small details of life: Twenty diaries by women in Canada, 1830-1996 (pp. 119-122). Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.Ethier, C. R., & Simmons, C. A. (2007). Introductory biomechanics: From cells to organisms [Ebrary version]. Retrieved from http://www.cambridge.orgGu, W., & Wong, A. (2010). Estimates of human capital in Canada: The lifetime income approach (Catalogue no. 11F0027M, no. 062). Retrieved from Statistics Canada website http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub /11f0027m/11f0027m2010062-eng.htmLangowitz, N. S. (2010). Small business leadership: Does being the founder matter? Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, 23(1), 53-63. Retrieved from http://www.jsbe.com
  35. 35. How do we cite?But … what if there’s a missing building block?• No author?• No date?
  36. 36. Example
  37. 37. How do we cite? No author / no date: Some APA rules to note• “In a reference to a work with no author move thetitle to the author position, before the date ofpublication … A period follows thetitle.”(APA, 2009, p. 184). About Okanagan College.• “If no date is available, write n.d. inparentheses.”(APA, 2009, p. 185). (n.d.).• Follow rules appropriate to resource type.
  38. 38. How do we cite? Web page: Some APA rules to note• Non periodical title: “Capitalize only the first word of the title and of thesubtitle, if any, and any proper nouns; italicize the title (APA, 2009, p. 185).• Title: “Articles found on the web … are not italicized in the reference entry … just like a newspaper or magazine article. Reports found on the web would be italicized in the reference list,” (“How do you reference,” n.d.). About Okanagan College. (n.d.).
  39. 39. How do we cite? Web page: Some APA rules to note• Provide direct URL (see example in “How do you reference” (n.d.).• “Do no include retrieval dates unless the source material may change over time (e.g., Wikis)” (APA, 2009, p. 192). About Okanagan College. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.okanagan.bc.ca/about.html
  40. 40. How do we cite? In text• In text: “References … are cited in text with an author date citationsystem” (APA, 2009, p. 174).• “When a work has no identified author, cite in text the first few wordsof the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year. Use doublequotation marks around the title of an article, a chapter, or a web pageand italicize the title of a periodical, a book, a brochure, or a report”(APA, 2009, p. 176). (“About Okanagan,” n.d.) “About Okanagan” (n.d.)
  41. 41. How do we cite? In text• Direct quotes: “always provide the author, year, and specific page citationor paragraph number for nonpaginated material” (APA, 2009, p. 170).• “Many electronic sources do not provide page numbers. If paragraphnumbers are visible, use them… Use the abbreviation para.” (APA, 2009, p.172).• “If the document includes headings and neither paragraph nor pagenumbers are visible, cite the heading and the number of the paragraphfollowing it to direct the reader to the location of the quoted material”(APA, 2009, p. 172).• “In some cases … headings may be too unwieldy to cite in full. Instead, usea short title enclosed in quotation marks for the parenthetical citation”(APA, 2009, p. 172).• For more direction, visit APAstyle.org’s FAQ on citing website material.
  42. 42. How do we cite? In text“direct quote” (“About Okanagan,” n.d., “History of,” para. 2).
  43. 43. Other Examples• Report online: – PDF from company website – Government report• YouTube Video• Blog, Wiki, Forum• More!
  44. 44. How do we cite? How do I cite a blog post?
  45. 45. Example
  46. 46. How do we cite? Blog post: Some APA rules to note• See example in APA, 2009, p. 215• For more direction, visit APAstyle.org’s blogpost on how to site itemsfound on websites.
  47. 47. How do we cite? Blog postReference list citation:Lee, C. (2010, November 18). How to cite something you found on a website in APA style [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://blog.apastyle.org /apastyle/2010/11 /how-to-cite-something-you-found-on-a-website-in- apa-style.html In text citation: (Lee, 2010) According to Lee (2010) …
  48. 48. How do we cite?How do I cite streaming video?
  49. 49. Example
  50. 50. How do we cite? Video blog post: Some APA rules to note• See example in APA, 2009, p. 215• For more direction, visit APAstyle.org’s blogpost on how to site itemsfound on websites.
  51. 51. How do we cite? Video blog postReference list citation:PsycINFO. (2009, November 23). How to find DOIs in APA PsycINFO [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D9Afmknkzeo In text citation: (PsycINFO, 2009). According PsycINFO (2009) …
  52. 52. How do we cite?How do I cite a source I found in another source?
  53. 53. Example
  54. 54. How do we cite? Secondary source: Some APA rules to note• “Use secondary sources sparingly, for instance, when the originalwork is out of print, unavailable through usual sources, or not availablein English. Give the secondary source in the reference list; in text, namethe original work and give a citation for the secondary source”(APA, 2009, p. 178 ).• For more direction, visit APAstyle.org’s blogpost on secondarysources. Secondary source = McCallum (2007) Original source = Whyte (1930)
  55. 55. How do we cite? Secondary sourceReference list citation:McCallum, T. (2007). Vancouver through the eyes of a hobo: Experience, identity, and value in the writing of Canadas depression- era tramps. Labour/Le Travail, 59, 43-68. Retrieved from http://www.cclh.ca/llt/index.phpIn text citation:Whyte’s letter reveals the desperate conditions of Vancouver in the 1930s(as cited in McCallum, 2007).
  56. 56. How do we cite?What do I do with a citation in a quotation?
  57. 57. How do we cite? Citations within quotations: Some APA rules to note• “Do not omit citations embedded within the original material you arequoting. The works cited need not be included in the list of references(unless you happen to cite them as primary sources elsewhere in yourpaper” (APA, 2009, p. 173 ).
  58. 58. How do we cite? Citations within quotationsReference list citation:McCallum, T. (2007). Vancouver through the eyes of a hobo: Experience, identity, and value in the writing of Canadas depression- era tramps. Labour/Le Travail, 59, 43-68. Retrieved from http://www.cclh.ca/llt/index.php In text citation: “Parr (1995) captures the antihumanist sentiments that inform this critique” (McCallum, 2007, p. 46).
  59. 59. How do we cite?How do I cite an interview/conversation?
  60. 60. How do we cite? Personal communication: Some APA rules to note• Personal communications • Private letters • Memos • Email messages • Personal interviews • Telephone conversations, etc. (APA, 2009, p. 179)
  61. 61. How do we cite?Personal communication: Some APA rules to note• “because they do not provide recoverable data, personalcommunications are not included in the reference list. Citepersonal communications in text only. Give the initials as well asthe surname of the communicator, and provide as exact a date aspossible” (APA, 2009, p. 179).• “Some forms of personal communication are recoverable, andthese should be referenced as archival materials” (APA, 2009, p.179). Examples include items from anarchive, repository, transcript of a recorded interview, photograph.
  62. 62. How do we cite? Personal communicationIn text citation:(L. Jantzi, personal communication, October 19, 2011).According to L. Jantzi (personal communication, October 19, 2011) …Reference list citation: N/A
  63. 63. How do we cite? ReferencesAbout Okanagan College. (n.d.) Retrieved from http://www.okanagan.bc.ca/about.htmlLee, C. (2010, November 18). How to cite something you found on a website in APA style [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2010/11 /how-to-cite- something-you-found-on-a-website-in-apa-style.htmlMcCallum, T. (2007). Vancouver through the eyes of a hobo: Experience, identity, and value in the writing of Canadas depression-era tramps. Labour/Le Travail, 59, 43-68. Retrieved from http://www.cclh.ca/llt/index.phpPsycINFO. (2009, November 23). How to find DOIs in APA PsycINFO [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D9Afmknkzeo
  64. 64. Remember• Give credit where credit is due• Consult OC Library APA Citation Style guide• Consult APA Publication Manual• If you are unable to identify a specific example, use an example that is most like your source• OC Library Research Writing & Citing guide
  65. 65. HELP! http://www.okanagan.bc.ca/library• Library reference desk• AskAway: Online chat help• Email or contact a librarian
  66. 66. ReferencesAmerican Psychological Association. (2009). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association. Washington, DC: Author.Association of College and Research Libraries. (2009). ACRL scholarly communication 101: Starting with the basics [PowerPoint]. Retrieved from http://www.acrl.org/ala/mgrps/divs/acrl/issues/scholcomm/docs/SC%20101%20Introduction.pptBarber, K. (2004). Paraphrase. In The Canadian Oxford dictionary. Retrieved from http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t150.e50567Mohanty , S., Orphanides, A., Rumble, J., Roberts, D., Norberg, L., Vassiliadis, K. (2009). University libraries citing information tutorial. Retrieved from http://www.lib.unc.edu /instruct/citations/introduction/Okanagan College. (2010). Academic offenses. Retrieved from http://webapps1.okanagan.bc.ca/ok/calendar /Calendar.aspx?page=AcademicOffensesQuote. (2010). In A. Stevenson & C. A. Lindberg (Eds.), New Oxford American dictionary. Retrieved from http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t183.e1282573

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