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History 110 (Fall 2012)


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History 110 (Fall 2012)

  1. 1. Library Skills Roën Janyk Web Services Librarian “Information literacy is a survival skill in the Information Age” (ALA, 1989).
  2. 2. Introduction to Information LiteracyResearch SkillsUsing Library ResourcesEvaluating Academic & Popular Sources
  3. 3.  Definition:Information Literacy is the set of skills needed to find,retrieve, analyze, and use information (ACRL, 2012). “Ultimately, information literate people are those who have learned how to learn. They know how to learn because they know how knowledge is organized, how to find information, and how to use information in such a way that others can learn from them. They are people prepared for lifelong learning, because they can always find the information needed for any task or decision at hand” (ACRL, 2000).
  4. 4.  Step 1: Defining a topic and planning for research Step 2: Information seeking strategies Step 3: Critical evaluation of information sources Step 4: Reading, examining, taking notes on sources Step 5: Citing sources & constructing reference list
  5. 5.  Step 1: Defining a topic and planning for research Interpret the research question/assignment, define the information need  Look for command words  Directing words that tell you what to do. i.e. Evaluate, discuss, comment, critique, analyze, compare  Identify the assignment topic  Area of discussion for the assignment. Take the command word and ask “what?” after it. I.e. Evaluate “what”? Compare & contrast “what”?  Develop a focus (select a specific topic)  Area of the topic/assignment you will concentrate on.  In other words, evaluate what, in relation to “what”?  Take your focus and develop a thesis statement Example: What led to the fall of the Roman Empire?
  6. 6.  Step 1: Defining a topic and planning for research Step 2: Information seeking strategies Step 3: Critical evaluation of information sources Step 4: Reading, examining, taking notes on sources Step 5: Citing sources & constructing reference list
  7. 7. “More than 31% of all respondents use Internet search engines to find answers to their questions. However, people who use Internet search engines express frustration because they estimate that half of their searches are unsuccessful” (OCLC, 2002).
  8. 8.  Step 2: Information seeking strategies Design your search strategy  Develop a question (brainstorming, concept-mapping)  Identify central concepts  Identify key words and synonyms  Identify investigative tools (research guides, other libraries) Locate and gather relevant resources  Identify key databases, catalogue, reference works, etc.  Coverage, disciplines, time periods, publication types, etc.  Search expressions & Boolean operators (AND, OR, NOT)  Broaden or narrow your research question Example: The fall of the Roman Empire was largely due to political, economic, and social causes
  9. 9.  Library Catalogue  Find books, e-books, reserves, videos/DVDs, request items from other campuses, place items on hold, mobile friendly. OCtopus (library search engine)  One-stop shopping Research Databases & E-Resources  Organized by subject, search databases for journal articles, e-books, & more. Also find reference works.
  10. 10.  Research & Course Guides  Created by librarians for students in specific classes or working in certain subject areas Electronic Journals Listing  Search for specific journal and search within the title Reference sources  Dictionaries, encyclopedias, directories found online or in campus reference collections Print Journals (Level 3)
  11. 11.  Keyword searching: typically retrieve more information with less precision  Good for broad or unknown topic areas Field searching: typically retrieves less information with more precision  Good when looking for few results or source son specific topics ; Includes subject searches, title searches, author searches, etc. Too much information?  Examine irrelevant records in search results  Where did your search term match in search results? (Subject, title, etc.)  Use limiters (Boolean, field searching, database limiters) Too little information?  Spelling  Eliminate long phrases or natural language  Use alternate terms, try broadening your terms
  12. 12. Function Search Strategy DefinitionNarrow AND Retrieves only records that contain both words NOT Eliminates material you dont want. Careful to not lose valuable info.Broaden OR Retrieves matches for either term, more records. Use with terms with the same meaning. Wildcard To search variations of a word. Use 1  Colo?r or more symbols within a word to  Global (w5) Warming replace 1 or more letters Truncation Use a symbol at the end of a word to  Using opera* to search for operations = opera, replace any number of letters operant, operable, etc.Combine Nesting Combine AND and OR in a single  NO: media AND politics OR election retrieves search. Divide your terms into units records that match "media that also like an equation. match politics" OR retrieves records that match "election.“  YES: media AND (politics OR election) retrieves records that match media that also
  13. 13. NOT AND OR NestingTruncation (University of Idaho, 2012)
  14. 14.  Reference list and article citations, bibliographies  Examine the reference lists of resources identified as being useful, and find other similar resources. Subject headings in databases & catalogue  Terms used to describe resources, controlled vocabulary, assigned by indexers Known authors  Search for other items by same author(s) Books or resources on similar topics  In-person or virtual ‘shelf browsing’ Searching journals directly  More direct and focused than databases
  15. 15.  Library Catalogue (Home page link, “books, media...”) “Find Articles”  History  Keyword  Reference “Find” Reference Sources (link on home page)  Online e-resources listing, “Narrow Your Search”  Choose content type  Reference (Remove subject to expand results) OCtopus (box on home page) Research & Course Guides: History (a.k.a. “Guides by Course & Subject”, “LibGuides”)
  16. 16.  Great starting point! Use subject headings, call number browsing, author searches Limit by location (Kelowna, Online) Request items from other campuses Renew items and place holds
  17. 17.  JSTOR Project Muse Historical Abstracts Ebrary (eBooks) Academic Search Premier Oxford University Press Journals OCtopus Humanities Abstracts
  18. 18.  Oxford English Dictionary (Online & Print) Encyclopedias (print & online)  Choose reference as a limiter in e-resources listing  Examples: Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace & Conflict, Encyclopedia of Sociology, Encyclopedia of World Cultures  Search library catalogue Gale Virtual Reference Library Chicago Manual of Style: Online!
  19. 19.  Library Catalogue Reference Sources OCtopus
  20. 20.  Library Reference Desks  Hours vary, phone, email, or in-person  Citation assistance, research help AskAway  Online, live chat reference service  Open longer hours than library ; Manned by librarians from post-secondary institutions across BC  Chat boxes on website & within databases E-mail  Response received within 24 hours Sept – April
  21. 21.  Step 1: Defining a topic and planning for research Step 2: Information seeking strategies Step 3: Critical evaluation of information sources Step 4: Reading, examining, taking notes on sources Step 5: Citing sources & constructing reference list
  22. 22.  Academic sources: Pass through peer review process. Authoritative and sourced. Objective and written for academics. Carry more ‘weight’. Popular sources are often related to general interest and do not require writers to provide research to support their stories.
  23. 23.  Wikipedia is considered an academic source.  False A book found in an academic library (i.e. college, university) is an academic source.  False
  24. 24.  Step 3: Critical evaluation of information sources Critically evaluate information Criteria and methods of evaluating information resources  Comprehensiveness, relevance, author, purpose and audience, accuracy and currency, objectivity In academia we are looking for sources that arereliable, accurate, objective, and up-to-date.
  25. 25. Academic Sources Popular SourcesAcademic Journals Newspaper Articles Periodicals Magazine ArticlesAcademic Books Trade Magazines Edited Books Organizational Profiles Media Reports Anthologies Reports from Other Conference Organizations Proceedings Websites (usually) Encyclopedias/D Grey Literature ictionaries Institutional Reports BrochuresPublished Reports Press Releases
  26. 26. Journal Magazine Academic,  General audience professional, technical audience  Easy reading May use jargon  Many advertisements In-depth articles  Broad coverage, not Thorough reference list usually in-depth Minimal advertising  Rarely peer-reviewed Peer-reviewed
  27. 27.  Who wrote it? What are the authors’ qualifications?  Academic authors are likely to come from a university or institute. Is there a sponsor, owner, funding agency? EXAMPLE  *important for online sources* Are sources listed?  Reference list, bibliography, citations Has the item or writing been peer-reviewed?  Editorial board or committee list, or provided instructions Who is the targeted audience?  Style of writing, advertising, jargon Is the writing objective?  Free from bias, blatantly one-sided Who is the publisher?  Academic writing is often published by a university press. What is the appearance?  Glossy pages, advertisements, graphs, images, photos.
  28. 28. Print sources Online SourcesReliable: Sources that check their Reliable: Sources that check theirfacts: footnotes, list of references, facts: Footnotes, references, otherother evidence of research research evidenceAccurate & Objective: Quality Accurate & Objective: Qualitycontrol, editor, editorial board, peer Control, Evidence of peer review,review author identified Look for: Extravagant claims, URL (.com vs. .org), funding agenciesUp-to-date sources: What could have Up-to-date sources: Copyright date orchanged about this topic since indication when page was last updatedpublication In academia we are looking for sources that are reliable, accurate, objective, and up-to-date.
  29. 29. Primary Sources Secondary sources  Original & direct  Draw from primary evidence sources  First hand experience  Use evidence from  Historical documents, primary sources interviews, raw  May comment on experiment data primary sources TERTIARY SOURCES  Use primary sources to Compile, index, or organize construct argument Sources may have analyzed or  Books or articles that digest secondary sources provide analysis, critique, Abstracts, bibliographies, or a synthesis from a handbooks. Encyclopedias, range of sources indexes, catalogues. Cage, K. (2011). Identifying academic sources. Massey University. Retrieved July 9, 2012 from
  30. 30.  Step 1: Defining a topic and planning for research Step 2: Information seeking strategies Step 3: Critical evaluation of information sources Step 4: Reading, examining, taking notes on sources Step 5: Citing sources & constructing reference list
  31. 31.  Step 4: Reading, examining, taking notes on sources Interpret and synthesize information  Examine information source, identify source type Look at context, methods, results, discussion, etc.  Think critically: ask questions, examine the context (who did the research, what are the research questions), research methods used, results, conclusions  Verify accuracy Use and communicate information Write objectively (supported by findings, free from influence), concise, formal (formatting according to style)
  32. 32.  Step 1: Defining a topic and planning for research Step 2: Information seeking strategies Step 3: Critical evaluation of information sources Step 4: Reading, examining, taking notes on sources Step 5: Citing sources & constructing reference list
  33. 33.  “Scholarly communication is the entire set of activities that ensure that research and new knowledge can be made known” (DeFelice, 2009).  Citations demonstrate how you developed your argument and ideas from the ideas of others  Citations give credit where credit is due  Citations give the reader of your work a path to the sources you used, so they can investigate those sources if interested (Mohanty et al., 2009)
  34. 34. Publication (RegistrationCreation and Certification) Dissemination Manuscript & IP Editor Academic Publisher Library Peer Reviewers Reformulation
  35. 35.  Direct quotes Paraphrases Words or terminology specific to or unique to the author’s research, theories, or ideas Use of an authors argument or line of thinking Historical, statistical, or scientific facts Graphs, drawings, etc. Articles or studies you refer to in your work (Mohanty et al., 2009)
  36. 36.  Step 5: Citing Sources & Reference Lists Identify elements of citation you will need for each item Cite your sources as you go!  Try a numerical system for in-text citations  Write key author names with notes Compile list of database citations as a working document throughout research process Formatting rules provided style guides Reference list, works cited list, versus bibliography Do not trust MS Word or auto-formatting
  37. 37.  American Library Association. (1989). Presidential Committee on Information Literacy: Final Report. Retrieved July 9, 2012 from Association of College and Research Libraries. (2009). ACRL scholarly communication 101: Starting with the basics [PowerPoint]. Retrieved from Association of College and Research Libraries. (2012). Introduction to Information Literacy. Association of College and Research Libraries. (2000). Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education. American Psychological Association. (2009). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association. Washington, DC: Author. Cage, K. (2012). Reference list vs. bibliography. Retrieved July 9, 2012 from Jefferson Community College, 2012). Information literacy tutorial. Retrieved July 9, 2012 from Mohanty , S., Orphanides, A., Rumble, J., Roberts, D., Norberg, L., Vassiliadis, K. (2009). University libraries citing information tutorial. Retrieved from /instruct/citations/introduction/ OCLC. (2002). How Academic Librarians Can Influence Students’ Web-Based Information Choices. OCLC White Paper on the Information Habits of College Students. Retrieved from Okanagan College. (2010). Academic offenses. Retrieved from /Calendar.aspx?page=AcademicOffenses University of Alberta. Information literacy at the University of Alberta. Retrieved July 9, 2012 from University of Idaho. (2012). Information Literacy Portal: Module 3. Retrieved July 9, 2012 from