Apa Citation Style

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A quick, very basic introduction to APA citation style for student papers.

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Apa Citation Style

  1. 1. The Basics of APA Style A guide to student papers
  2. 2. Three areas of concern: <ul><li>Part I: Formatting your paper </li></ul><ul><li>Part II: The reference list </li></ul><ul><li>Part III: Parenthetical, or in-text citation </li></ul>
  3. 3. Part I: Formatting your paper <ul><li>Use 8½ X 11 inch paper </li></ul><ul><li>12 point, New Times Roman, or similar font </li></ul><ul><li>1 inch margins, 1½ inch for left-hand margin (Journal submissions call for 1 inch margins all around) </li></ul><ul><li>Double-space your text </li></ul>
  4. 4. Part I: Formatting your paper <ul><li>Number pages consecutively </li></ul><ul><li>Use a “running header” </li></ul><ul><li>The first page is your title page: </li></ul><ul><li>Title </li></ul><ul><li>Your name </li></ul><ul><li>Your affiliation </li></ul>
  5. 5. Part I: Formatting your paper <ul><li>Abstract (summary) on page two, if required by instructor </li></ul><ul><li>Next page: center full title, followed by the main body of the text on the next line </li></ul><ul><li>Indent the first line of each paragraph by five spaces (tab button) </li></ul><ul><li>Figures, tables, charts may be incorporated into the body of the text </li></ul>
  6. 6. Part II: The reference list <ul><li>Reference sources used in your paper must be listed. Start references on a new page after the body of your text. </li></ul><ul><li>List alphabetically by author’s last name (or title, if author not known). </li></ul>
  7. 7. Part II: The reference list <ul><li>The purpose of the reference list is to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify and credit the sources you used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enable the reader to locate your sources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>APA style is used in the social sciences, education, engineering and business. </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasizes the date of publication </li></ul>
  8. 8. Example of reference list <ul><li>References </li></ul><ul><li>Heinerman, J. (1988). Heinerman’s encyclopedia of fruits, vegetables and herbs. Paramus, NJ: Prentice Hall. </li></ul><ul><li>Kowalchik, C. & Hylton, W. (1998). Rodale’s illustrated encyclopedia of herbs. Emmaus, PA: Rodale Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Wardlaw, G. M. & Smith, A. M. (2006). Contemporary nutrition. Boston: McGraw Hill. </li></ul><ul><li>Weiss, S. E. (Ed.). (1997). Foods that harm, foods that heal. Pleasantville, NY: The Reader’s Digest Association, Inc. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Part II: The reference list <ul><li>If you have more than one source by the same author, arrange by year of publication beginning with the earliest. </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalization: titles of books and articles are treated like sentences with only the first word capitalized. (Proper nouns should be capitalized, just as they would in a sentence.) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Part II: The reference list <ul><li>Single-author entries precede those with co-authors. </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple authors are joined with an ampersand “&” instead of with the word “and”. </li></ul><ul><li>Authors’ first names are always reduced to initials. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Part II: The reference list <ul><li>Periodicals </li></ul><ul><li>Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, xx (x) , xxx-xxx. </li></ul><ul><li>Sacks, S. E. (2004). Fraud risk: are you prepared? Journal of Accountancy, 198 (3), 57-63. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Part II: The reference list <ul><li>Nonperiodicals </li></ul><ul><li>Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work. Location: Publisher. </li></ul><ul><li>Lipson, C. (2004). Doing honest work in college. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Part II: The reference list <ul><li>Part of a nonperiodical (e.g., a book chapter) </li></ul><ul><li>Author, A. (Year). Title of chapter. In A. Editor (Ed.), Title of book (pp. xxx-xxx). Location: Publisher. </li></ul><ul><li>Lipson, C. (2004). Plagiarism and academic honesty. In S. Jones (Ed.), Integrity in scholarship (pp. 32-48). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Part II: The reference list <ul><li>References to Electronic Sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In general, include the same information as you would for a print resource, and add as much electronic retrieval info as needed to locate the source. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content with no fixed publication date should include a retrieval date. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If the source has a DOI (Digital Object Identifier), use it instead of a URL </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Part II: The reference list <ul><li>Article with DOI assigned </li></ul><ul><li>Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, xx, xxx-xxx. doi: </li></ul><ul><li>Belli, B. (2007). Nuking food: Contamination fears and market possibilities spur an irradiation revival. E: The Environmental Magazine, 18 (4), 136-142. doi: 10.1037/0002-9432.76.4.482 </li></ul>
  16. 16. Part II: The reference list <ul><li>Article with no DOI assigned </li></ul><ul><li>Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, xx, xxx-xxx. Retrieved from URL </li></ul><ul><li>Belli, B. (2007). Nuking food: Contamination fears and market possibilities spur an irradiation revival. E: The Environmental Magazine, 18 (4), 136-142. Retrieved from http://www.emagazine.com/view/?3790 </li></ul>
  17. 17. Part II: The reference list <ul><li>Encyclopedia </li></ul><ul><li>Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article. In A. Editor (Ed.), Title of work. Retrieved month day, year, from URL </li></ul><ul><li>Ennis, W. (2006). Sign Language. In G. Albrecht (Ed.),  Encyclopedia of Disability .  Retrieved August 28, 2007, from Gale Virtual Reference Library, Pima County Public Library, www.tppl.org </li></ul>
  18. 18. Part II: The reference list <ul><li>Newspaper article </li></ul><ul><li>Author, A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of newspaper. Retrieved from URL </li></ul><ul><li>Rico, G. (2007, August 28). Hayden could get Superfund cleanup. The Arizona Daily Star. Retrieved from http://www.azstarnet.com/metro/198476 </li></ul>
  19. 19. Part II: The reference list <ul><li>Podcast </li></ul><ul><li>Creator, Producer, Director, etc. (Person’s title). (Year, Month Day). Title of show, segment, etc. [Number or other identifier]. Title of podcast. Podcast retrieved from URL </li></ul><ul><li>Glass, I. (Producer). (2007, August 3). Blame it on art [Show 73]. This American Life. Podcast retrieved from http:// www.thisamericanlife.org </li></ul>
  20. 20. Part II: The reference list <ul><li>Article on web site, no date </li></ul><ul><li>Author, A. A. (n. d.). Title of article. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from URL </li></ul><ul><li>Doughan, D. (n. d.) J. R. R. Tolkien: A biographical sketch. Retrieved August 28, 2007, from http:// www.lordotrings.com/noflash/biography.asp </li></ul>
  21. 21. Part III: Parenthetical, or in-text citation <ul><li>Within the body of your text, you must cite your sources as you use them. </li></ul><ul><li>You must cite any and all data, facts, information, opinions, ideas, tables, charts, graphics, photographs, etc. that you obtained in your research. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Part III: Parenthetical, or in-text citation <ul><li>Paraphrasing </li></ul><ul><li>One idea is to surround quotations with big Q’s to distinguish the author’s words from your own ideas (Lipson, 2004). </li></ul><ul><li>In Doing honest work in college, Lipson (2004) suggests surrounding quotations with big Q’s to distinguish the author’s words from your own ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>___________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Lipson, C. (2004). Doing honest work in college . Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Part III: Parenthetical, or in-text citation <ul><li>Direct quote </li></ul><ul><li>Lipson’s first rule of academic honesty is, “When you say you did the work yourself, you actually did it” (2004, p. 3). </li></ul><ul><li>A good rule to follow is “When you say you did the work yourself, you actually did it” (Lipson, 2004, p. 3). </li></ul><ul><li>___________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Lipson, C. (2004). Doing honest work in college . Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Conclusion <ul><li>Formatting rules make research papers uniform and easy to read </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to verify facts through proper citation of sources is essential to good scholarship </li></ul><ul><li>In-text citation and the reference list </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify and credit the sources you used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enable the reader to locate your sources </li></ul></ul>

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