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Information communication technology (ict)

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Information communication technology (ict)

  1. 1. Information Communication Technology (ICT) Learning Material for the CIM Course
  2. 2. What is your Previous Experience with Computers?
  3. 3. <ul><li>Work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Email, memos and letters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Numerical and financial analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>School </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instructions and grading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assignments and research </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Home </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Play games and surf the internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicate with friends and family </li></ul></ul>How many people have a computer in their home? School? Work? Other locations?
  4. 4. A computer is… <ul><li>A collection of hardware components that function together as a system </li></ul><ul><li>An electronic device, operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory, that can… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accept data (input) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process the data according to specified rules (process) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce results (output) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Store results for future use (storage) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Information processing cycle is comprised of four basic operations
  6. 6. Why are computers so powerful? <ul><li>A computer derives its power from its </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capability to perform the information processing cycle with amazing speed, reliability (low failure rate), and accuracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity to store huge amounts of data and information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to communicate with other computers </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. How many other examples of hardware and software can you think of? How does a computer know what to do? <ul><li>Software – Set of instructions used to tell a computer what to do (computer program) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Microsoft Windows and Office etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hardware – A physical component of a computer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. keyboard, monitor, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. There are six major components of a computer Can you give an example of these components?
  9. 9. Can you give an example of these components? There are six major components of a computer <ul><li>Output devices – Make the information resulting from processing available for use </li></ul><ul><li>Storage devices – Store instructions, data and information when they are not being used in memory </li></ul><ul><li>Communication devices – Enables user to send (transmit) and receive data, instructions and information to and from one or more computers </li></ul>
  10. 10. Processor Memory Storage Devices Output Devices Input Devices Data Information Instructions Data Information Instructions Data Information Communication Devices
  11. 11. What is ICT ? <ul><li>It consists of 3 technologies . </li></ul><ul><li>Information Technoogy </li></ul><ul><li>Computer Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Communication Techno;ogy </li></ul>
  12. 12. Why are we using ICT? <ul><li>Extending the learning experience </li></ul><ul><li>Extending learning </li></ul><ul><li>Enriching the curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Expanding learning horizons </li></ul><ul><li>Helping with assessment </li></ul>
  13. 13. Teaching and learning with ICT at key stages 1 and 2 <ul><li>ICT as a subject </li></ul><ul><li>ICT in subjects </li></ul><ul><li>ICT as a teaching and learning tool </li></ul>
  14. 14. The 4 Ps <ul><li>Policy </li></ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Practice </li></ul><ul><li>Proof </li></ul>
  15. 15. ICT tools that improve security <ul><li>Firewall and virus protection </li></ul><ul><li>Software filters </li></ul><ul><li>Accredited ISPs </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness of wireless technology issues </li></ul><ul><li>Policy on using personal devices </li></ul><ul><li>Internet safety </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Telecommunications is the exchange of information in any form (voice, data, text, image, audio, video) over computer based networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Entertainment  Information Transactions  Communications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. High-definition TV  Distance learning  Cellular systems </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>When computers are networked, two industries – computing and communications – converge, and the result is vastly more than the sum of the parts. Suddenly, computing applications become available for business-to-business coordination and commerce, and for small as well as large organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>The global Internet creates a public place without geographic boundaries – cyberspace – where ordinary citizens can interact, publish their ideas, and engage in the purchase of goods and services. In short, the impact of both computing on our society and organizational structures is greatly magnified. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Systems which are being used to network business processes and employees together and connect them to their customer, suppliers and other business stakeholders: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intranets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extranets </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>The Internet is a massive network of networks, a networking infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>It connects millions of computers together globally, forming a network in which any computer can communicate with any other computer as long as they are both connected to the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Information that travels over the Internet does so via a variety of languages known as protocols </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>The explosive growth of the Internet is a revolutionary phenomenon in computing and telecommunications </li></ul><ul><li>Thousands of business, educational, and research networks now connect millions of computer systems </li></ul><ul><li>The Internet does not have a central computer system. Instead each message sent has a unique address code so any Internet server in the network can forward it to its destination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No headquarters - International advisory and standards groups of individual and corporate members promote use of the Internet and the development of new communications standards </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>The Web is a way of accessing information over the medium of the Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An information-sharing model that is built on top of the Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Web uses the HTTP protocol, only one of the languages spoken over the Internet, to transmit data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web services, which use HTTP to allow applications to communicate in order to exchange business logic, use the Web to share information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Web also utilizes browsers, such as Internet Explorer or Firefox, to access Web documents called Web pages that are linked to each other via hyperlinks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web documents also contain graphics, sounds, text and video </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>The Internet, not the Web, is also used for e-mail, which relies on SMTP, Usenet news groups, instant messaging and FTP </li></ul><ul><li>The Web is just a portion of the Internet, albeit a large portion, but the two terms are not synonymous but are often confused and used interchangeably   </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>The most popular Internet applications are e-mail, instant messaging, browsing sites on the Web, and participating in newsgroups and chat rooms </li></ul><ul><li>You can make online searches for information at websites using search engines such as Google and Yahoo! </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>WAN (Wide area networks): Connecting a large geographic area such as a city </li></ul><ul><li>LAN (Local area network): Connect within a limited physical area such as an office </li></ul><ul><li>VPN (Virtual private network): A secure network that uses the Internet to connect participating organizations </li></ul>
  25. 25. PC Workstation PC Workstation PC Workstation PC Workstation PC Workstation PC Workstation Network Server Internetwork Processor to Other Networks Shared Printer Shared Databases and Software Packages
  26. 26. <ul><li>Client/server: Client computers (end user PC) are interconnected by LANs and share application processing with network servers, which also manage the networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have become the predominant information architecture of enterprise wide computing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peer-to-peer networking: The file-sharing software in the P2P network connects your PC with one of the online users in the network </li></ul>
  27. 27. Filter Software Web Server Mobile Information Appliance (e.g. PDA) Proxy Software Foundation of wireless mobile Internet and Web applications HTML or XML WML Wireless Access Protocol Wireless Communication Tower
  28. 28. <ul><li>Modems: Convert digital signal from a computer or transmission terminal at one end of a communications link to analog frequencies that can be transmitted over telephone lines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A modem at the other end converts the transmitted data back into digital form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most common type of communications processor </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Internetwork processors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Switches: Communications processor that makes a connections between telecommunication circuits and networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Routers: Interconnects networks based on different rules so a message can be routed to its destination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hubs: Port (connection for shared access to networks resources) switching communications processor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gateways: Connect networks that use different communications architecture </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Major network management functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traffic management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network monitoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity planning </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>How can you control your computer? How can you tell it what you want to do now? </li></ul><ul><li>You have to give it your command </li></ul><ul><li>You deliver your command through the use of input devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keyboard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mouse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Touch pad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Special Keys Arrow Keys Number Pad Additional Keys
  33. 33. The electronic mouse is the most popular pointing device used to move the cursor on the screen <ul><li>What is a mouse? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A hand held pointing device </li></ul></ul><ul><li>An arrow is displayed on the screen which is called a pointer </li></ul><ul><li>Performs four basic functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pointing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clicking (right and left) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Double clicking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Click and drag </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>When working with icons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Right Click (Click)  Select </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Left Click  Icon options/management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Double-click  Open </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When working with buttons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Click  Open </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Click and drag </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Move (icons) – pointer on icon, then click and hold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple selection – pointer on blank space, draw a rectangle to cover icons </li></ul></ul>When using the term “click” it assumed to reference the right click functionality
  35. 35. There is a wide spectrum of telecommunication based technologies available today <ul><li>Telecommunications is the exchange of information in any form (voice, data, text, image, audio, video) over computer based networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Entertainment  Information Transactions  Communications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. High-definition TV  Distance learning  Cellular systems </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Businesses have become networked enterprises <ul><li>Systems which are being used to network business processes and employees together and connect them to their customer, suppliers and other business stakeholders: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intranets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extranets </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. It is important to understand some important characteristics and basic components of telecommunications Network Alternative Examples of Alternatives Network Infrastructures Internet, intranet, extranet, wide area, local area, client/server, peer-to-peer Media Twisted-pair wire, coaxial cable, fiber optics, comm. Satellites, wireless, LAN Processors Modems, multiplexers, routers, switches, hubs Software Network operating systems, web browsers, telecommunications monitors Channels Analog/digital, switched/nonswitched, bandwidth alternatives Topology/architecture Star, ring, and bus topologies, OSI and TCP.IP architecture and protocols
  38. 38. The basic components of a telecommunications Network <ul><li>Terminal </li></ul><ul><li>Telecommunications processors </li></ul><ul><li>Telecommunications channels </li></ul><ul><li>Computers </li></ul><ul><li>Telecommunications control software </li></ul>PC, NC, Other Terminals Processor Processor Computers Software 1 1 2 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5
  39. 39. Even Microsoft Office includes general as well as specialty applications <ul><li>The most popular Microsoft Office suite applications are… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft Word </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft Excel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft PowerPoint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft Access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft Outlook </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The latest version of Microsoft Office is Office 2007 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Other versions include 2003, XP etc. </li></ul></ul>Focus of this class
  40. 40. What is the purpose of Microsoft Word, PowerPoint and Excel? <ul><li>Microsoft Word – A word processing program that allows you to create professional looking documents and revise them easily </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft Excel – A spreadsheet program that allows users to organize data, complete calculations, make decisions, graph data and develop professional reports </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft PowerPoint – A complete presentation graphics program that allows you to produce professional looking presentations </li></ul>
  41. 41. Accessing, creating and modifying computer files is a common activity <ul><li>File </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A block of arbitrary information or resource for storing information which is available to a computer program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remains available for programs to use after the current program is finished </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. There are hundreds of different types of files on a computer <ul><li>File type of file is indicated by the file extension </li></ul><ul><ul><li>.doc  Microsoft Word </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.xls  Microsoft Excel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.pdf  Adobe PDF file </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.exe  Program Executable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Software programs are designed to open specific types of files </li></ul>
  43. 43. Folders provide structure and are used to organize a computer system <ul><li>Folder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A named location in memory where files are stored </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides organization and structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be created or deleted by user </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identified by a folder icon and folder name </li></ul></ul>Folder Icon Folder Name
  44. 44. Computer storage structure and hierarchy Hard Drive (C:) USB (Flash Drive) Optical Disk (CD-ROM) Physical Computer Programs Windows Users ... Misc.doc Homework Resume.doc Music.MP3 Music.MP3 Music.MP3 Music.MP3 Music.MP3 Music.MP3 Music.MP3 Music.MP3 FOLDERS FILES Misc.doc Misc.doc CPSHwk.xls CPSHwk.ppt Adobe MSOffice Skype Etc. ... Owner … Desktop My Documents My Music My Pictures … EXAMPLE Storage Devices
  45. 45. What is the purpose of Microsoft Word, PowerPoint and Excel? <ul><li>Microsoft Word (.doc)– A word processing program that allows you to create professional looking documents and revise them easily ( documents ) </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft Excel (.xls)– A spreadsheet program that allows users to organize data, complete calculations, make decisions, graph data and develop professional reports ( workbooks ) </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft PowerPoint (.ppt)– A complete presentation graphics program that allows you to produce professional looking presentations ( presentations ) </li></ul>
  46. 46. What are the parts of a Microsoft PowerPoint presentation? Title bar Tool Bars Task Pane Status Bar Rulers Tool Bars
  47. 47. What are the parts of a Microsoft PowerPoint presentation? Active Slide Slides Views Presentation Notes
  48. 48. You already know how to perform many tasks in PowerPoint <ul><li>The following tasks examples of tasks that are completed following the same steps as in Word </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FILE: Saving, opening, closing and printing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EDIT: Undo, redo, copy, paste, find, replace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VIEW: Zoom, ruler access, header and footer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>INSERT: Inserting a picture, chart, table, slide numbers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FORMAT: Formatting font, bullets, alignment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TOOLS: Spell check, research </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. Opinions of Mr. B. Singhateh of CPS 111 programme is gratefully acknowledged.
  50. 50. Thanks for your attention !!!

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