By the end of this sub-module unit, the trainee
should be able to:
define terms used in menu planning
state the importance of menu planning
identify types of menu
explain factors to consider when planning menus
explain factors to consider when compiling menus
explain how to cost and price menus
prepare a time plan for production of a menu.
Definition of terms used in
is a list of dishes to be served in a
Menu planning is the selection of a menu for
an event. Such as picking out the dinner for
your wedding or even a meal at a Birthday
Party. Improve answer.
planning is the act of advanced
planning of the menu for different situations
such as for a family or a restaurant. It is
important to consider the dietary needs of the
people one is preparing for. Beginner cooks
may find the task too daunting at first, but
luckily there are wide range of resources on
line to help with the planning process.
Importance of menu planning
Reference by customer and management
Facilitate evaluation and improvements
Guides the catering staff on how to
Help the catering staff to prepare in terms
of attitudes, skills ordering etc.
Some menu requires special preparation
like decorations and equipment therefore
menu will help in availing the necessary.
Types of menu
A set menu forming a complete meal at a set price
A choice of dishes may be offered at all courses.
Choice and number of courses is limited to two,
three or four.
A La Carte
Menu with all the dishes individually priced.
Customers compile their own menu from the list.
The meal is cooked to order.
The customer should be prepared to wait for this
Menu for banquets or functions of all
All guests start the meal at the same
Seasonable foods must be available if
the menus are printed well in advance to
Can be al carte or table d’hôte specializing in
the food or religion of the country or in a
specialized food itself e.g.
a) Ethnic: - Chinese, Indian, Kosher, Kenyan,
b) Specialty: - steak, fish, pasta, vegetarian etc
Kitchen staff must know how to obtain and use
The ambience (mood) of the restaurant must
reflect the menu.
Hospital menus/Institutional menus.
It’s a form of a menu given to the patient.
The day before service the patient ticks
A dietician is usually involved with menu
compilation to ensure nothing is given to
the patients that would be detrimental to
The patient’s meals are usually 2-3
Menu for people at work
Menus served to people at the work place.
They vary in standard and extent from one
employer to another depending on the company
They are usually served in staff canteens or
Some companies charge for the meals and
some ask for a token sum and offer meals at a
The menu offers 2 or 3 course meal with a
selection of items.
Traditional menus/Ethnic menus
Traditional recipes form a sound foundation of
knowledge for the chef/caterer.
However fashions in food change and customers
look for new dishes, different combinations of
food, fresh ideas on menu etc
Some of the most successful menus contain a
sensible balance of traditional and contemporary
Menu for children
They emphasize on healthy eating and a
balanced diet in schools.
Schools with children from different cultural and
religious backgrounds should have appropriate
items available o the menu.
Most establishments provide special children’s
menus which concentrate on favorite foods.
Factors to consider when
Several factors direct what kind of menu to
1. Nutrition requirements
like scurvy, diabetes,
3. Availability of foodstuffs
4. Number of courses
5. Sequence of courses
Roughage – acts as a “broom” along the
Fats and oils
Factors to consider when
policy based on cost
Facilities for cooking and service
Business promotion and marketing
Availability and season of supplies
Costing and pricing menus
When costing include the following:
Cost of individual ingredients in a recipe
Cost of each recipe
Total cost of each dish
Total cost of the whole meal
Profit margin and price per portion
Preparation of a time plan for
production of a menu
A production time plan should include the
Food order list
Timed order of work
Presentation and garnishing