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  1. 1. TRIZ
  2. 2. TRIZ - Theory of Inventive Problem Solving <ul><li>What is TRIZ? </li></ul><ul><li>A methodology for systematic problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Based on extensive research of numerous inventions and patents </li></ul><ul><li>A proven tool for solving engineering problems </li></ul><ul><li>Successfully adapted to other industries </li></ul><ul><li>Has solved IT problems </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits of TRIZ </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction in the “trial & error” of innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Compromise-free solutions for complex problems </li></ul><ul><li>Prediction of technology evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Planning and problem avoidance </li></ul><ul><li>Inventions and patents </li></ul><ul><li>Elements of TRIZ </li></ul><ul><li>Laws of technological system evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Contradictions (general problems) </li></ul><ul><li>Principles (general solutions) </li></ul><ul><li>Contradiction matrix </li></ul><ul><li>Algorithm for inventive problem solving (ARIZ) </li></ul>Key Postulates of TRIZ Technological evolution is not random Certain laws guide the evolution of technology Best innovations resolve conflicts Compromise-free solutions are often possible, leading to a higher degree of ideality Solutions with higher degrees of ideality are more successful in the market Degree of Ideality = Functionality Costs + Problems Example: Law of Transition to Higher-level Systems
  3. 3. Value of TRIZ <ul><li>Inventively solving existing IT problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing complexity requires radical innovation to ensure high levels of functionality, quality and performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Innovation is risky and expensive (random trial & error) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IT planning and problem avoidance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TRIZ can objectively evaluate the winning potential of solutions being considered </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Predicting the evolution of technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TRIZ can predict the evolution of technology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More inventions and patents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Out-of-the-box and patentable inventions. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Levels of Inventiveness <ul><ul><li>5 levels of inventiveness (based on patent analysis) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Anti-vibration device </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5- Breakthrough: Avoid vibration </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4- New concept: Anti-vibration </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3- Major improvement: Air pillow </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2- Minor improvement: Rubber mat </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1- Obvious solution: Bolt </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>TRIZ helps here Obvious solution (32%) Minor improvement (45%) Major improvement (18%) New concept (4%) <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Breakthrough (1%) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>5 4 3 2 1
  5. 5. The Key Postulate of of TRIZ <ul><li>Evolution of technological systems is not random, but is governed by certain laws </li></ul>Selection and analysis of ~25,000 breakthrough inventions Worldwide patent databases: ~400,000 inventions Altshuller’s research <ul><li>Laws of Technological System Evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Algorithm for Inventive Problem Solving </li></ul><ul><li>Standard Solution </li></ul>
  6. 6. Analogy: Laws of Motion and Laws of Evolution Predictable Trajectory Predictable Inventions Law: Transformation to higher-level systems
  7. 7. General Technology Evolution Vector Rigid Modular Programmable Autonomous Governed by the Laws of Technological System Evolution
  8. 8. Key Concepts <ul><li>There are universal laws of evolution leading toward the “peak value” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be used to predict the next big thing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Best innovations resolve conflicts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compromise-free </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., Top of a soda can </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Must retain fluid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Must easily pour fluid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>There are universal principles for resolving conflicts. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Problem Solving with TRIZ <ul><ul><li>Systematic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More predictable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solves specific problems using general techniques </li></ul></ul>Requires TRIZ Expertise Requires Domain Knowledge My Problem My Solution Standard Problem Standard Solution Generalize Specialize
  10. 10. ARIZ (condensed) <ul><ul><li>Algorithm for Inventive Problem Solving (ARIZ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A non-computational algorithm (70 + steps) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A process for analysis of vaguely defined problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brings together most concepts of TRIZ </li></ul></ul>Why does the system exist? 1 2 3 4 What are the useful and harmful interactions (system conflicts)? What system conflicts should be resolved? How can the system conflicts be resolved? Identification of the Primary Function Problem formulation and analysis Rules for selecting the promising system conflict Rules for resolving system conflicts
  11. 11. Example <ul><li>Goal: Make a faster boat </li></ul><ul><li>Problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boats must float on water to support their weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water’s viscosity increases with speed, requiring more energy, which slows down the boat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contradictions ( standard problem ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weight of moving object </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of energy by moving </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Principle ( standard solution ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-Weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To compensate for the weight of an object, merge it with other objects that provide lift </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Solution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Raise the boat above water by using lifting surfaces under the boat (hydrofoil boat) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Basic Concepts of TRIZ
  13. 13. Systems <ul><li>All artificial creations are systems </li></ul><ul><li>A system is made up of interacting parts and each of these parts, in turn, may consist of smaller parts </li></ul><ul><li>Any system is designed to perform functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pencil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vehicle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Systems Conflicts <ul><li>A system can belong to other systems that may impose conflicting requirements on this system </li></ul>
  15. 15. Example of Conflict: Watch Dilemma <ul><ul><li>A watch is used for time keeping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A watch may be used as a status symbol (e.g., gold) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A watch may be in contact with skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some people experience eczema when gold touches their skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This may present a challenge for designers of high-end watches. </li></ul></ul>Conflict Time Keeping Physiology Status
  16. 16. Components of a TRIZ Model <ul><li>Object (O) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Component to be controlled </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tool (T) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Component that directly controls objects’ parameters </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Action (A) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The effect of a tool on an object </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Function (F) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intended action of the tool on the object. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Basic TRIZ Model Function Tool Object Action
  18. 18. Examples of Function
  19. 19. Types of Functions <ul><li>Primary Function (PF) </li></ul><ul><li>Justifies existence of the system </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Roof of the car protects occupants from the elements </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate HR trains employees </li></ul><ul><li>Auxiliary Function (AF) </li></ul><ul><li>Supports the primary function </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Paint on the car roof protects the roof from the elements </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate HR runs and updates enterprise training software </li></ul>
  20. 20. Auxiliary Functions <ul><li>Enabling : support the PF </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Handle of the hammer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Procurement (in a manufacturing company) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enhancing : boost the performance of the PF </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arms of a lounger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free technical support </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Measuring : gauge the system’s parameters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control strip on a battery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marketing research </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Correcting : alleviate/eliminate undesirable effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thermal insulation in a beverage container </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warranty repair. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Ideal System <ul><li>Ideal system does not exist as a physical entity, but its function is fully performed </li></ul>System Object System Object Action Action
  22. 22. Types of Actions Inadequate useful action Absent useful action Adequate useful action Harmful action X
  23. 23. System Conflict <ul><li>A system conflict occurs when useful changes in one part of a system make another part inadequate </li></ul>B A Improvement
  24. 24. Typical System Conflicts T O X T O X T O X AT MT O X T O E X e.g., hammer bends the nail e.g., cutting tool is worn by the workpiece e.g., engine overheats e.g., chemical pesticides harm the environment e.g., coolant corrodes the cutting tool
  25. 25. TRIZ Value-enhancing Heuristics (examples) <ul><li>Goal: Resolve system conflicts without compromise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminate auxiliary tools (AT) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduce auxiliary tool (AT) to eliminate harmful action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create new auxiliary functions (PF) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminate either conflicting component </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminate harmful actions by changing conflicting components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify better main tools (MT) that avoids harmful action. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Example: Ideality Tactics T O X E Ideality tactic 3 T O X Ideality tactic 1 T O X Ideality tactic 2 T O X System Conflict
  27. 27. Example: Auxiliary Tool Elimination T O Action 1 Action 3 AT X Action 2
  28. 28. Contradictions <ul><ul><li>39 Contradictions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conditions that lead to system conflicts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When the same object must be in mutually exclusive states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A system conflict is caused by a pair of contradictions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Weight of moving object </li></ul><ul><li>Weight of stationary object </li></ul><ul><li>Length of moving object </li></ul><ul><li>Length of stationary object </li></ul><ul><li>Area of moving object </li></ul><ul><li>Area of stationary object </li></ul><ul><li>Volume of moving object </li></ul><ul><li>Volume of stationary object </li></ul><ul><li>Speed </li></ul><ul><li>Force </li></ul><ul><li>Stress or pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Shape </li></ul><ul><li>Stability of the object's composition </li></ul><ul><li>Strength </li></ul><ul><li>Duration of action by a moving object </li></ul><ul><li>Duration of action by a stationary object </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Illumination intensity </li></ul><ul><li>Use of energy by moving object </li></ul><ul><li>Use of energy by stationary object </li></ul><ul><li>Power </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of substance </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of Information </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of Time </li></ul><ul><li>Quantity of substance/the matter </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Measurement accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing precision </li></ul><ul><li>External harm affects the object </li></ul><ul><li>Object-generated harmful factors </li></ul><ul><li>Ease of manufacture </li></ul><ul><li>Ease of operation </li></ul><ul><li>Ease of repair </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptability or versatility </li></ul><ul><li>Device complexity </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty of detecting and measuring </li></ul><ul><li>Extent of automation </li></ul><ul><li>Productivity </li></ul>
  29. 29. Principles <ul><ul><li>40 Principles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to eliminate or resolve conflicts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General inventive concepts that guide the user toward the solution. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Segmentation </li></ul><ul><li>Taking out </li></ul><ul><li>Local quality </li></ul><ul><li>Asymmetry </li></ul><ul><li>Merging </li></ul><ul><li>Universality </li></ul><ul><li>Nested doll </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-weight </li></ul><ul><li>Preliminary anti-action </li></ul><ul><li>Preliminary action </li></ul><ul><li>Beforehand cushioning </li></ul><ul><li>Equipotentiality </li></ul><ul><li>The other way round </li></ul><ul><li>Spheroidality - Curvature </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamics </li></ul><ul><li>Partial or excessive actions </li></ul><ul><li>Another dimension </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical vibration </li></ul><ul><li>Periodic action </li></ul><ul><li>Continuity of useful action </li></ul><ul><li>Skipping </li></ul><ul><li>Blessing in disguise </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Intermediary </li></ul><ul><li>Self-service </li></ul><ul><li>Copying </li></ul><ul><li>Cheap short-living objects </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanics substitution </li></ul><ul><li>Pneumatics and hydraulics </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible shells and thin films </li></ul><ul><li>Porous materials </li></ul><ul><li>Color changes </li></ul><ul><li>Homogeneity </li></ul><ul><li>Discarding and recovering </li></ul><ul><li>Parameter changes </li></ul><ul><li>Phase transitions </li></ul><ul><li>Thermal expansion </li></ul><ul><li>Strong oxidants </li></ul><ul><li>Inert atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Composite materials </li></ul>
  30. 30. Contradiction Matrix <ul><ul><li>A system conflict is caused by a pair of contradictions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The contradiction matrix “points” pairs of contradictions to the applicable principles </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Physical Contradiction & Separation Principle Same object must be in mutually exclusive physical states Depending on the state of object C, part A improves, while part B deteriorates, and vice versa C B A Improvement
  32. 32. Separation Principle <ul><li>Separation in Time </li></ul><ul><li>Separation in Space </li></ul><ul><li>Separation between the whole and it’s parts </li></ul>
  33. 33. TRIZ Examples
  34. 34. Example: Physical Contradiction Required Trade-Offs Required
  35. 35. Applying the Separation Principle Property P at time T 1 , anti-property -P at time T 2 Separation in Time One part has property P , another part has anti-property -P Separation in Space Object has property P , Its components have property -P Separation between the Whole and its Parts No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No
  36. 36. Example: Efficient Support Spiles <ul><ul><li>Foundation supporting spiles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contradiction: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to Drive vs. Good Support </li></ul></ul></ul>Sharp Spile: Easy to Drive in Blunt Spile: Good for Support Compromise
  37. 37. Problem Formulation <ul><li>System conflict diagram </li></ul>Principle: Separation in Time Solution: Separate sharp and blunt effects, in time, to avoid harmful effects GROUND SHARP SPILE BUILDING MOVES EASILY INTO X SUPPORTS POORLY GROUND BLUNT SPILE BUILDING X DOESN’T MOVE INTO SUPPORTS WELL
  38. 38. Compromise-Free TRIZ Solution Explosive Sharp when driven in Blunt when supports Concrete Filled
  39. 39. Example: Executive Travel Challenge <ul><ul><li>Executives traveling by jets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Private jets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial airlines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contradiction: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ease of Travel vs. Economies of Travel </li></ul></ul></ul>
  40. 40. System Conflict Diagram Principle: Separation in Time Solution: Separate time and budget effects, in time, to avoid harmful effects
  41. 41. Solution – Joint Ownership Company A Company B Company F Company E 1/6 1/6 1/6 1/6 1/6 1/6 Company C Company D
  42. 42. Merger Dilemma <ul><ul><li>In a European country a major bank merged with a major insurance company </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The new company slashed costs by laying off a big chunk of its employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This caused former insurance agents to become brokers and vice versa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In that country, people address their investment needs with brokers and their insurance issues with insurance agents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A broker-insurer was perceived neither as an expert broker nor as a professional underwriter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This resulted in the diminished loyalty of the individual customers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The problem persisted for 1½ years, before TRIZ was applied to it. </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. System Conflict Advantage Disadvantage Reduced operational costs Individual clients are alienated Associates combine duties of insurers and brokers Associates separate duties of insurers and brokers Loyal individual clients Increased operational costs
  44. 44. System Conflict Diagram
  45. 45. Physical Contradiction An associate must be a full-time underwriter An associate must be a full-time broker
  46. 46. Overcoming the Physical Contradiction <ul><li>Separation of the conflicting demands in time: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impractical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These demands must be maintained all the time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Separation of the conflicting demands in space: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impractical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Applied literally, would mean splitting an associate in two </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Separation in function: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Practical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The roles can be separated </li></ul></ul></ul>Function A B Action
  47. 47. Solution <ul><li>Two groups of associates were formed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The first group: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Larger group </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Entry-level generalists </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proficient in fundamentals of both investment and underwriting </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It’s possible to delegate much of this group’s expertise to a computerized knowledge-base (expert system) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The second group: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller group </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seasoned experts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assist clients with specific, atypical, and complex inquires </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Example: Alloys Testing Problem <ul><ul><li>The corrosive effects of acids on metal alloys are studied in a chamber </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The chamber is filled with an acid, closed and various combinations of temperature and pressure are created inside </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To protect the chamber walls from destruction, they are lined with a corrosion-resistant glass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When an intense vibration was applied to the chamber, the glass cracked, thus exposing the chamber walls. </li></ul></ul>Protective coating Specimens Chamber Acid
  53. 53. Ideal System Diagram ACID SPECI- MEN VIBRAT. TABLE ETCHES VIBRATES VIBRATES CONTAINS What can this solution look like?
  54. 54. Ideal System Specimen Acid Specimen-chamber
  55. 55. Example: Slowing Traffic Down <ul><li>Police cars slow highway traffic, but police officers have more critical things to do </li></ul>
  56. 56. System Conflict Diagram
  57. 57. Eliminating the Auxiliary Tool
  58. 58. Focusing on the Primary Action <ul><li>The driver primarily sees the car surface </li></ul>
  59. 59. Solution: A Cut-out
  60. 60. TRIZ: IT Adaptation
  61. 61. Adaptation of TRIZ to IT <ul><li>Methodology + Knowledge-base </li></ul>General Purpose Engineering Centric <ul><li>IT Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>IT Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>IT Best Practices </li></ul>Innovative problem solving tool for IT
  62. 62. IT Adaptation <ul><li>Develop IT equivalents for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Laws of System Evolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Principles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contradictions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contradiction Matrix </li></ul></ul>Example Parallel processing Consolidation Open Source Inert atmosphere Modular design Segmentation Speed of CPUs Power Number of users Temperature Bandwidth Speed IT Analogy TRIZ Concept
  63. 63. IT Adaptation Guidelines <ul><li>High level of abstraction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid specific constraints or solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generalized concepts only </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Repeatability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concepts should be repeatable across all similar implementations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Longevity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid the current hypes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concepts should be long lasting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multiple domains (but not too many!) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Application development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul></ul>
  64. 67. IT Trend Laws <ul><li>Law 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IT advances in a direction to provide as much access to information, in as many modes, forms, and granularity, as possible </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Law 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IT advances in a direction to automate as many tasks as possible </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Corollary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IT invariably creates unmanageable complexity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Law 3 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IT advances in a direction to simply itself. </li></ul></ul>
  65. 68. IT Adaptation Examples <ul><li>Contradictions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accuracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptability / Versatility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amount of Data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ease of Use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of Data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Production Risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliability / Robustness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System Complexity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System Generated Harmful Effects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Principles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Segment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Normalization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Software agents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Divide an organization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use temporary staff </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self Service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Re-hire retired workers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quality circles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prior Action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use off-peak time to pre-compute answers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Define data integrity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Laws </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IT systems evolve in a direction to increase information visibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IT systems evolve in a direction to automate tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IT systems evolve in a direction to simplify operations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unlike laws of physics (traditional TRIZ), IT laws can be dynamic </li></ul>General Conflicts General Solutions