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# TRIZ- Theory of Inventive Problem Solving

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# TRIZ- Theory of Inventive Problem Solving

TRIZ is one of the problem solving techniques for finding solution to some unknown problems in engineering and life.
Introduction
Orgine of TRIZ
Creator of TRIZ
40 Principles

TRIZ is one of the problem solving techniques for finding solution to some unknown problems in engineering and life.
Introduction
Orgine of TRIZ
Creator of TRIZ
40 Principles

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### TRIZ- Theory of Inventive Problem Solving

1. 1. TRIZ A Theory of Inventive Problem Solving
2. 2. INTRODUCTION: ▪ People faces two types of problems: 1. Problems with known solutions. 2. Problem with Unknown Solution. ▪ Problems with known solutions are solved by information provided by books, journals, etc., ▪ Problems with unknown solutions are known as inventive problems.
3. 3. TRIZ: ▪ “TRIZ” is the acronym in Russia (Теория решения изобретательских задач) for “Theory of Inventive Problem Solving”.
4. 4. CREATOR: ▪ Genrich Altshuller, was a patent investigator in Russian Navy in 1946. ▪ He screened over 200,000 patents and identified patterns frequently used in innovative patents. ▪ He found out that out of over 200,000 patents that he screened, only 40,000 has inventive solutions.
5. 5. SOLUTION CATEGORIZATION: ▪ He categorized solutions into five levels: Level One: Routine design problems solved by methods. Level Two: Minor improvements to an existing system. Level Three: Fundamental improvements to an existing system. Level Four: These types are solutions are found in science than in technology. Level Five: A rare scientific discovery of essentially a new system
6. 6. TRIZ 39 ENGINEERING PARAMETERS: 1. Weight of moving object 2. Weight of non-moving object 3. Length of moving object 4. Length of non-moving object 5. Area of moving object 6. Area of non-moving object 7. Volume of moving object 8. Volume of non-moving object 9. Speed 10. Volume 11. Tension, Pressure, Stress 12. Shape 13. Stability of object 14. Strength 15. Durability of moving object 16. Durability of non-moving object 17. Temperature 18. Brightness 19. Energy spent by moving object 20. Energy spent by non-moving object
7. 7. TRIZ 39 ENGINEERING PARAMETERS: 21. Power 22. Waste of energy 23. Waste of substance 24. Loss of information 25. Waste os time 26. Amount of substance 27. Reliability 28. Accuracy of measurement 29. Accuracy of manufacturing 30. Harmful factors acting on object 31. Harmful side effect 32. Manufacturability 33. Convenience of use 34. Reparability 35. Adaptability 36. Complexity of device 37. Complexity of control 38. Level of automation 39. Productivity
8. 8. ENGINEERING PARAMETERS CONFLICTS: ▪ Increasing the size of engine: – Increasing power of an engine requires increasing the size of an engine, so the inventor can partially increase the power to reduce the conflict. – Increasing speed of an airplane needs a new powerful engine. This increases the weight of an airplane.
9. 9. TRIZ: 40 INVENTIVE PRINCIPLES: ▪ Altshuller extracted 40 inventive principles from the worldwide patents. ▪ These principles can help an engineer find highly solutions to the problems.
10. 10. TRIZ: 40 PRINCIPLES: 1. Segmentation 2. Extraction 3. Local quality 4. Asymmetry 5. Merging/Combining 6. Universality 7. Nesting 8. Counterweight 9. Prior counteraction 10. Prior action 11. Cushion in advance 12. Equi potentiality 13. Inversion 14. Spherodality 15. Dynamicity 16. Partial or overdone action 17. Moving to new dimension 18. Mechanical vibration 19. Periodic action 20. Continuity of useful action
11. 11. 21. Rushing through 22. Convert harm into benefit 23. Feedback 24. Mediator 25. Self-service 26. Copying 27. An inexpensive short 28. Replacement of mechanical system 29. Use of pneumatic or hydraulic construction 30. Flexible film or thin membranes 31. Use of porous material 32. Changing the color 33. Homogeneity 34. Rejecting and regenerating parts 35. Transformation of physical and chemical states of an objects 36. Phase transition 37. Thermal expansion 38. Use strong oxidizers 39. Inert environment 40. Composite material
12. 12. 1. SEGMENTATION: A. Divide an object into independent parts and easy to assemble or disassemble. B. Increase the degree of segmentation. Modular Furniture Venetian blinds Frozen- food Cabinet
13. 13. 2. EXTRACTION/TAKING OUT: ▪ Separate an interfering part or property from an object, or single out the only necessary part. AC’s Outdoor unit Guttering
14. 14. 3. LOCAL QUALITY: ▪ Make each part of an object function in conditions most suitable for its operations. ▪ Make each part of an object fulfill a different and/or complementary useful function. Lunch box with special compartments Fire-retardant paint Pencil with eraser
15. 15. 4. ASYMMETRY: ▪ Change the shape or properties of an object symmetrical to asymmetrical. ▪ Change the shape of an object to suit external asymmetries (ergonomic features). ▪ If the object is asymmetrical, increase its degree of symmetry.
16. 16. Single drainer sink unit Pull handle and Push plates Multi sloped roof
17. 17. 5. MERGING/COMBINING: ▪ Bring closer together identical or similar objects, assemble identical or similar parts to perform parallel operations. ▪ Make object or operations contiguous or parallel; bring them together in time. Double glazed windows Double panel radiator Mixer taps
18. 18. 6. UNIVERSALITY: ▪ Make a part or object perform multiple functions; eliminate the need for other parts. ▪ Uses standardized features. Velux Windows Doormat senses visitors Combined doorbell and smoke alarm
19. 19. 7. NESTING: ▪ Place one object inside; Place multiple objects inside other. ▪ Make one part pass (dynamically) through the cavity in the other. Extending radio antenna Stacking chairs Retractable loft stairs
20. 20. 8. COUNTERWEIGHT: ▪ To compensate for the weight of an object, merge it with other objects that provide lift. ▪ To compensate for the weight of an object, make it interact with the environment. Crane’s Counterweight Elevator's counterweight Houseboat
21. 21. 9. PRIOR COUNTERACTION: ▪ It will be necessary to perform an action with both harmful and useful effects, this action should be replaced with counteraction to control harmful effects. ▪ Examples: – Plant trees to replace woods – Galvanizing – Vapor-permeable paint helps prevent rot in wood
22. 22. 10. PRIOR ACTION: ▪ Perform before its needed, the required change of an object (either fully of partially). ▪ Pre-arrange objects such that they can come into action from the most convenient place and without losing time for their delivery. Pre-fabricated buildings Supply chain management Sprinkler system for fire
23. 23. 11. CUSHION IN ADVANCE: ▪ Prepare emergency means beforehand to compensate for the relatively low reliability of an object. Lightening rod Emergency staircase Factor of Safety
24. 24. 12. EQUI POTENTIALITY: ▪ In a potential field, limit position changes. Ramps for wheelchair Inspection pit in garage
25. 25. 13. INVERSION: ▪ Invert the action(s) to solve the problem. ▪ Make movable parts fixed, and fixes parts mocable. ▪ Turn the object “upside down”. Self servicing stores Moving sidewalks Lloyds building (Inside out building)
26. 26. 14. SPHEROIDALITY: ▪ Instead of using rectilinear parts, surfaces or forms, use curvilinear ones. ▪ Use rollers, balls, spiral, domes. ▪ Go from linear to rotary motion (or vice versa). Port hole windows Domed roof Revolving door
27. 27. 15. DYNAMICITY: ▪ Allow the characteristics of an object to change to be optimal or to find an optimal operating condition. ▪ Divide the object into parts capable of movement relative to each other. ▪ If the object is rigid or inflexible, make it movable or adaptive. Shape memory alloy Escalator
28. 28. 16. PARTIAL OR OVERDONE ACTION: ▪ If 100% solution is hard to achieve, then by using ‘slightly less’ or ‘slightly more’ of the same method to solve the problem easier. ▪ Examples: – Over spray when painting, then remove excess. – Hot dip galvanizing
29. 29. 17. MOVING TO A NEW DIMENSION: ▪ If the object moves in a straight line, consider use of dimensions or movement outside the line. ▪ If the object moves in a plane, consider use of dimensions or movement outside the current plane. ▪ Use a multi storey arrangement of objects instead of a single storey arrangement. ▪ Use ‘another side’ of a given area.
30. 30. Bay windows Spiral staircase Multi storey car parking Hidden door hinges
31. 31. 18. MECHANICAL VIBRATION: ▪ Using the vibration to oscillate. ▪ Increasing the frequency for some applications. ▪ Use an object’s resonant frequency. ▪ Use piezoelectric vibrators instead of mechanical one. ▪ Use combined ultrasonic and electromagnetic field oscillations.
32. 32. Examples:  Vibration exciter removes voids from poured concrete.  Ultrasonic cleaning.  Use Helmholtz resonators to absorb sound.  Piezoelectric vibrators improve fluid atomization from a spray nozzle.  Crack detection using ultrasound.
33. 33. 19. PERIODIC ACTION: ▪ Instead of continuous action, use periodic or pulsating actions. ▪ If an action is already periodic, change the periodic magnitude of frequency. ▪ Use pause between actions to perform different action. Spot welding Tartan grid Refill WC cistern while not in use
34. 34. 20. CONTONUITY OF USEFULACTION: ▪ Carry on work continuously; make all parts of an object work at full load or optimum efficiency, all the time. ▪ Eliminate all idle or intermittent actions or work. Flywheel in bikes rotates continuously Rapid drying paint
35. 35. 21. RUSHING THROUGH: ▪ Conduct a process, or certain stages at high speed. ▪ Examples: – Continuous pouring of concrete. – Cut plastic faster than heat can propagate in the material, to avoid deforming shape.
36. 36. 22. CONVERT HARM INTO BENEFIT: ▪ Use harmful factors to achieve a positive effect. ▪ Eliminate the primary harmful action by adding it to another harmful action to resolve the problem. ▪ Examples: – Use waste heat to generate electric power. – Composting toilets. – Use toxic chemicals to protect timber from infestation and rot.
37. 37. 23. FEEDBACK: ▪ Introduce feedback (referring back, cross-checking) to improve a process or action. ▪ Examples: – Thermostatic temperature control. – Heat/smoke sensors used to detect fire.
38. 38. 24. MEDIATOR: ▪ Use an intermediary carrier article or intermediary process. Fly-screen door Pipe-lagging
39. 39. 25. SELF-SERVICE: ▪ Make an object serve or organize itself by performing auxiliary helpful functions. Self-latching door Door with glass panel
40. 40. 26. COPYING: ▪ Instead of an unavailable, expensive, fragile object, use simpler and inexpensive copies. ▪ Replace an object, or process with optical copies. Astroturf Examples:  Astroturf  Spoken announcement in railways  Color printing of paintings
41. 41. 27. AN INEXPENSIVE SHORT: ▪ Replace an expensive object with a multiple of inexpensive objects, compromising certain qualities. ▪ Examples: – Disposable doormats – Paper towel – Plastic chair – Port-a-loo Paper towel Port-a-loo
42. 42. 28. REPLACEMENT OF MECHANICAL SYSTEM: ▪ Replace the mechanical means with sensory means. ▪ Use electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields to interact with the object. Wireless data transfer Electric lock with swipe key
43. 43. 29. USE A PNEUMATIC OR HYDRAULIC CONSTRUCTION: ▪ Use gas or liquid parts of an object instead of solid parts. Inflatable furniture Hydraulic lift
44. 44. 30. FLEXIBLE FILM OR THIN MEMBRANES: ▪ Use flexible shells and thin films instead of three-dimensional structures. ▪ Isolate the object from the external environment using flexible shells and thin films, Honeycomb door gives strength and lightness Bubble warp
45. 45. 31. USE OF POROUS MATERIAL: ▪ Make an object porous or add porous elements and make use of it. Air bricks Foam metals
46. 46. 32. CHANGING THE COLOR: ▪ Change the color of an object or its external environment. ▪ Change the transparency of an object or its external environment. ▪ In order to improve observability of thing that are difficult, use colored addictive's or luminescent elements. ▪ Examples: – Electro or photo-chromic glass – Reflective sign board – Using different uniform’s color code to identify various department in an industry or office.
47. 47. 33. HOMOGENEITY: ▪ Make objects interacting with a given object of the same material (or material with identical properties). ▪ Examples: – Make the container out of the same material as the contents to avoid chemical reactions. – Make a diamond cutting tool out of diamond. Diamond cutting tools
48. 48. 34. REJECTING AND REGENERATING PARTS: ▪ Make portions of an object that have fulfilled their functions go away (discard by dissolving, evaporation, etc.). ▪ Examples: – Reusable form-work for concrete.
49. 49. 35. TRANSFORMATION OF PHYSICALAND CHEMICAL STATES OF AN OBJECT. ▪ Change an object’s physical states (e.g. to a gas, liquid or solid). ▪ Change the concentration or consistency. ▪ Change the degree of flexibility. ▪ Change the temperature, pressure and other parameters. ▪ Examples: – Pouring concrete – Change aggregate mix in concrete to alter properties. – Rubber mounted windows in vehicles to improve vibration damping. – Thermal curtains to block sunlight.
50. 50. 36. PHASE TRANSITION: ▪ Use phenomena occurring during phase transition (e.g. volume changes, loss of absorption of heat, etc.). ▪ Examples: – Heat pipes – Sodium sulphate stores heat upon melting and releases heat upon solidification. Heat pipes
51. 51. 37. THERMAL EXPANSION: ▪ Use thermal expansion (or contraction) of materials. ▪ If thermal expansion is being used, use multiple materials with different coefficients of thermal expansion. Expansion joint Bimetallic strips used for thermostats
52. 52. 38. USE STRONG OXIDIZER: ▪ Replace common air with oxygen enriched air. ▪ Replaced enriched air with pure oxygen. ▪ Examples: – Introduced oxygen into hospital Intensive Care Unit (ICU). – Cut at high temperature using an oxy-acetylene torch.
53. 53. 39. INERT ENVERIONMENT: ▪ Replace a normal environment with inert one. ▪ Examples: – Electron microscope. – MIG welding
54. 54. 40. COMPOSITE MATERIALS: ▪ Change from uniform to composite (multiple) materials where each material is tuned to a particular functional requirement. ▪ Examples: – Fiber re-enforced spray/paint on roofing treatments. – Glass re-enforced plastic.
55. 55. SOME COMPANIES USING TRIZ: ▪ Allied Signal Aerospace Sector ▪ Chrysler Corp. ▪ Emerson Electric ▪ Ford Motor Co. ▪ General Motors Corp. ▪ Johnson & Johnson ▪ Rockwell International ▪ UNISYS ▪ Xerox Corporation