digitalphotographyandimaging
plainfield central – mr. lawler art + design
part 1: camera basics
1
digitalphotographyandimaging
plainfield central – mr. lawler art + design
the parts of a digital camera and how the camera...
digitalphotographyandimaging
plainfield central – mr. lawler art + design
connecting the camera to your computer and print...
digitalphotographyandimaging
plainfield central – mr. lawler art + design
THE DO’S AND DON’T’S OF CAMERA CARE
Do...
• Regu...
digitalphotographyandimaging
plainfield central – mr. lawler art + design
THE DO’S AND DON’T’S OF CAMERA CARE
Cleaning You...
digitalphotographyandimaging
plainfield central – mr. lawler art + design
EXPOSURE LATITUDE – LIGHT AND IMAGE QUALITY
low ...
digitalphotographyandimaging
plainfield central – mr. lawler art + design
BIT DEPTH AND THE DIGITAL IMAGE
0 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 ...
digitalphotographyandimaging
plainfield central – mr. lawler art + design
TIPS ON TAKING BETTER PHOTOS
You probably have n...
digitalphotographyandimaging
plainfield central – mr. lawler art + design
part 2: design basics
9
digitalphotographyandimaging
plainfield central – mr. lawler art + design
PHOTOGRAPHY AS A BRANCH OF DESIGN
Simple design ...
digitalphotographyandimaging
plainfield central – mr. lawler art + design
PHOTOGRAPHY AS A BRANCH OF DESIGN
Simple design ...
digitalphotographyandimaging
plainfield central – mr. lawler art + design
THE USE OF VISUAL SPACE
“Space is not just somet...
digitalphotographyandimaging
plainfield central – mr. lawler art + design
RULES OF COMPOSITION – USING LINE, SHAPE + BALAN...
digitalphotographyandimaging
plainfield central – mr. lawler art + design
RULES OF COMPOSITION – USING EMOTION
Tension
Ima...
digitalphotographyandimaging
plainfield central – mr. lawler art + design
SCANNING + IMAGE STORAGE
TIPS ON SCANNING
Color ...
digitalphotographyandimaging
plainfield central – mr. lawler art + design
part 3: photoshop basics
16
digitalphotographyandimaging
plainfield central – mr. lawler art + design
ADOBE PHOTOSHOP WORK SPACE
photoshop tool bar ph...
digitalphotographyandimaging
plainfield central – mr. lawler art + design
EDITING B&W IMAGES
Darkroom Enlarger Traditional...
digitalphotographyandimaging
plainfield central – mr. lawler art + design
USING THE BRUSH TOOL (FOR ERASERS, BURN AND DODG...
digitalphotographyandimaging
plainfield central – mr. lawler art + design
BURN & DODGE
20
digitalphotographyandimaging
plainfield central – mr. lawler art + design
BURN & DODGE
21
digitalphotographyandimaging
plainfield central – mr. lawler art + design
EDITING COLOR IMAGES
The Adjustment Window
Editi...
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Digital photography handbook

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Digital photography handbook

  1. 1. digitalphotographyandimaging plainfield central – mr. lawler art + design part 1: camera basics 1
  2. 2. digitalphotographyandimaging plainfield central – mr. lawler art + design the parts of a digital camera and how the camera works 2
  3. 3. digitalphotographyandimaging plainfield central – mr. lawler art + design connecting the camera to your computer and printing image capture editing software output (printing) printing services online services storage device personal computer USB cord connects camera to computer or laptop 3
  4. 4. digitalphotographyandimaging plainfield central – mr. lawler art + design THE DO’S AND DON’T’S OF CAMERA CARE Do... • Regularly clean the camera with a soft cloth. • Handle all moving parts of the camera with care. • Turn off the camera before removing or disconnecting the power source or a cable, or removing the battery or memory card. • Keep your camera dry and free from condensation. • Store your camera correctly if it isn't going to be used for a long time. • Always remove the camera battery if the camera is going to be stored for long periods of time. Don't... • Subject your camera to knocks, vibration, magnetic fields, smoke, water, steam, sand or chemicals. • Store or use it in humid, dusty or dirty places. • Subject it to extreme hot or cold temperatures. • Place it in direct sunlight for prolonged times or in a car when it is hot. • Scratch the camera with hard or sharp objects. • Drop it in water. It may be damaged beyond repair. • Used canned air. Most consumer digital cameras are not air-tight and canned air may blow dust into the inside of the lens. 4
  5. 5. digitalphotographyandimaging plainfield central – mr. lawler art + design THE DO’S AND DON’T’S OF CAMERA CARE Cleaning Your Digital Camera Cleaning a digital camera is relatively easy and should be done on a regular basis. One of the most important things to preserve the condition of the lens is not to touch it with your fingers. Before wiping off the lens, hold the camera upside down and gently blow off any grit and lose dust particles. Next lightly wipe the lens and other camera parts with a soft, dry cloth (a swatch from a cotton t-shirt or a soft handkerchief) or lens cleaning paper. Paper towels, napkins and facial tissue should not be used to clean the lens. If needed, wipe the lens with a few drops of lens cleaning fluid. Place the fluid on the lens cleaning paper, not directly onto the lens. The best camera cleaning cloth is made of microfiber. Microfiber cloths are chemical-free and lift dust and oil from a lens. They are anti-static, non-scratching and will not streak or smear the surface. Keep the cloth in a plastic baggie or something similar so it doesn't collect grit or other particles that could scratch the lens surface. Before cleaning, make sure that neither the cloth nor the lens has particles on it. Give the cloth a good shake before wiping it on the lens. And gently blow or brush on the lens to remove loose particles. For normal smears and smudges, it is not necessary to use a lens cleaning fluid on the cloth. If you must use a liquid, place a few drops on the cloth and not directly on the lens. If your camera needs extensive cleaning, have it done professionally. Your Digital Camera and the Weather Hot, cold, rainy weather should not prevent you from taking photos with your digital camera. However, extra precaution and protection of camera equipment must be taken in each weather condition to prevent condensation or freezing. Keeping equipment in a well-padded, waterproof camera bag will help protect it from the elements. If you can attach a filter, such as a skylight or UV filter, use one to help protect the lens. If it suddenly rains, snows or drizzles while carrying your camera, slip it under a jacket or sweater or, if it's compact, put it in your pants or coat pocket. In preparation for rain, some photographers place a plastic bag around the camera and secure it with a rubber band after positioning the hole over where the lens will protrude. In very cold weather, keep the camera warm. In hot weather, keep it out of direct sunlight. If you cover the camera with material such as a beach towel, use a light colored fabric so it won't absorb too much heat. Never leave a digital camera or other sensitive camera equipment in an automobile when the temperature is extremely hot or cold. 5
  6. 6. digitalphotographyandimaging plainfield central – mr. lawler art + design EXPOSURE LATITUDE – LIGHT AND IMAGE QUALITY low exposure low mid range high mid range high exposure (underexposed) (overexposed) ISO aperture the size of the opening of the lens measured in f/stops (ie. f/2.8 > f/22) the exposure triangle To achieve the best exposure, digital cameras offer three options: A (automatic mode), a custom light setting or M (manual mode). Only in manual mode do you need to adjust ISO, shutterspeed or aperture (based on the light meter – the measuring tool seen in the window above). A M outdoors sunny day outdoors panoramic macro (close up) action (sports) portrait low light (nighttime) automatic manual 6
  7. 7. digitalphotographyandimaging plainfield central – mr. lawler art + design BIT DEPTH AND THE DIGITAL IMAGE 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 95 191 31 127 223 63 159 255 one bit per pixel produces a two tone image (black and white) eight bits per pixel produces a 256 range image (white, grays, and blacks) 255 0 0 0 255 255 0 0 0 0 255 0 255 0 255 140 63 184 0 0 255 255 153 51 255 255 255 twenty four bits per pixel produces a true RGB color image (16,777,216 colors) MEGAPIXELS, RESOLUTION & PPI (DPI) All of these numbers indicate the quality of an image and the maximum size the image can be printed before the “pixels” become unfavorable noticeable (what we call pixelation). Megapixels determine how large an image can be sized. An 8 in x 10 in 100 PPI image if resized to a 4 in x 5in will then have 200 PPI. MP (megapixeL) = one million pixels; 3.1 megapixels (2048 × 1536 = 3,145,728) PPI (DPI) pixels per inch (dots per inch) = resolution quality (number of pixels) Height x Width = image size measured in inches 7
  8. 8. digitalphotographyandimaging plainfield central – mr. lawler art + design TIPS ON TAKING BETTER PHOTOS You probably have noticed by now that some of your photographs seem to turn out very well and others do not. Here are eight guidelines which can help! notes/comments: 8
  9. 9. digitalphotographyandimaging plainfield central – mr. lawler art + design part 2: design basics 9
  10. 10. digitalphotographyandimaging plainfield central – mr. lawler art + design PHOTOGRAPHY AS A BRANCH OF DESIGN Simple design principles and techniques which will enhance your phototaking skills. Using line can help lead the viewers eyes through the composition by creating perspective. Line helps establish boundaries, creates pattern, shows rhythm, points directions, implies movement and defines shape. Shape is defined by lines and can be geometric or organic. Empty shapes allow the viewer to imagine; complete shapes create variety and interest through pattern. Texture and pattern are each comprised of the repetition of shapes and lines. Texture and pattern can both be used to create detail which the viewer sees as visual interest. look for basic elements apply them in principle 10
  11. 11. digitalphotographyandimaging plainfield central – mr. lawler art + design PHOTOGRAPHY AS A BRANCH OF DESIGN Simple design principles and techniques which will enhance your phototaking skills. Value is the measure of lightness and darkness established by exposure. When bright highlights are paired with deep shadows, you can achieve quality, contrast image. Color, saturation and temperature are properties of light. Saturation refers to the intensity of a color where temperature refers to mood, feel and coolness/warmness. Harmony is established by the relationships of color in an image. Certain colors go better with other colors – we call these color schemes. Complimentary colors are those that are opposite one another. Analogous colors are grouped in a row on the color wheel. Triadic and Tetradic schemes are based on geometric pairings. look for basic elements apply them in principle 11
  12. 12. digitalphotographyandimaging plainfield central – mr. lawler art + design THE USE OF VISUAL SPACE “Space is not just something to be filled in; it is itself a valuable tool for achieving engaging, clear visual messages. White space can help direct the viewer’s eye to positive elements. White space is necessary for creating designs with balance, harmony and clear hierarchy” – Garr Reynolds, Zen Design: Simple Design Principles and Techniques negative space: referred to as the empty area or sometimes called white space positive space: objects and forms which occupy space; sometimes called black space 1 43 2 alignment: refers to where objects are placed on the page. good compositions try to balance white and black space, but also use position to create focus and. emphasis. 1. center alignment – viewer look directly in the middle of the page 2. cropped – the image is cropped and draws the viewer into the corner 3. left alignment – draws the viewer to the left side of the page 4. right alignment – draws the viewer to the right side of the page balance: balance is created through the use of symmetry. there are three types of symmetry: bilateral, radial and asymmetrical. the illustration to the left demonstrates bilateral symmetry as the object can be divided in the middle with mirror images on both sides of the axis (in nature this is more loose than in mathematics). 12
  13. 13. digitalphotographyandimaging plainfield central – mr. lawler art + design RULES OF COMPOSITION – USING LINE, SHAPE + BALANCE Framing There are two ways in which you can use framing to create a strong image. The first is frame-within-a-frame: that is, having the viewer look through a frame such as a doorway or window. This draws the viewer inside the image. The second is filling-the-frame: this is similar to cropping and refers to a full bleed image which has a lot if impact. These images are achieved by using macro photography. Leading Lines + Proportion Like framing, you can draw the viewer into your picture through the use of depth. When you use lines to create direction, movement, or perspective, the viewer follows those lines into the image. You can also create depth by establishing a clear foreground, midground and background. The objects in the foreground should overlap the other objects and proportion should be established by scaling sizes of objects. Rule of Thirds An image should be imagined as being divided into a 3x3 grid. Important compositional elements should be placed along the lines or at the intersections. Aligning a subject with these points creates more tension, energy and interest in the composition by placing the focus off center (avoiding bull’s-eyeing the subject). 13
  14. 14. digitalphotographyandimaging plainfield central – mr. lawler art + design RULES OF COMPOSITION – USING EMOTION Tension Images with tension are engaging. There are many ways of creating tension in an image, but some of the best ways include: 1. visual tension: lonely, off center objects 2. psychological tension: image depicting tense moments or allow the viewer to anticipate action 3. chaos vs. order: images which show order through pattern and then a disturbance of that order 4. out of place: objects or forms that are out of place in comparison to the context of the image S-Curves The elusive s-curve - an art term for a sinuous body position. S-curves were identified by the Ancient Greek sculptors as being the best way to position a figure. Why? Because the curve appears sensual, sensuous, and seductive. S-curves can also be found in nature, evoking the same titillating or romantic feelings. Using the s-curve plays on a person’s emotional drives. 14
  15. 15. digitalphotographyandimaging plainfield central – mr. lawler art + design SCANNING + IMAGE STORAGE TIPS ON SCANNING Color Depth: when scanning try to use true color whenever possible. The best color depth will be measured in the millions (typically 16 million). Scanner programs also offer a 256 Color mode. The advantage of 256 Color images is that the files are significantly smaller than true color image files. Resolution: A computer monitor might have a resolution of 72 dpi, while a laser printer might be 600 dpi and an ink jet printer can be anywhere from 300 – 720 dpi and even higher. For printing I recommend 200 or 300 dpi as a minimum. However these files can become very large. STORAGE DEVICES When you connect your hard drive to your computer and turn it on, you do not need to install any software or drivers to make the drive available for use. 1. The drive will appear as a drive letter in (My) Computer (ie: Drive E:, F:, or some other letter) within approximately 30 seconds of connecting and turning on the drive. 2. Often the AutoPlay window will appear within 30 seconds. 3. Then you can simply drag- and-drop data, or copy-and- paste data, into the drive to use it manually. external hard drive connects via a USB cable 15
  16. 16. digitalphotographyandimaging plainfield central – mr. lawler art + design part 3: photoshop basics 16
  17. 17. digitalphotographyandimaging plainfield central – mr. lawler art + design ADOBE PHOTOSHOP WORK SPACE photoshop tool bar photoshop layer menu photoshop menu and status bar 17
  18. 18. digitalphotographyandimaging plainfield central – mr. lawler art + design EDITING B&W IMAGES Darkroom Enlarger Traditional Printing & Editing To develop film prints, an enlarger and darkroom are needed. To the left, is a diagram of a machine called an enlarger. This machine creates prints from negatives. A negative is a piece of film which is light-sensitive and allows an image taken by a camera to be imprinted on its surface. A print is also light sensitive, allowing a negative to be projected onto its surface. The print is created by letting light from the lamp through the negative carrier where the film strip is placed. The light and image are then projected through the lens onto the easel where a photo- sensitive piece of paper is placed. The result is a photographic print. Dodge Tool Burn Mask To increase highlights and shadows on areas of a print, two tools are used: the burn mask and the dodge tool. Originally, the dodge tool was a circular piece of cardboard on a stick which was waved over areas of the easel blocking light from the print and creating “whiter areas.” Likewise, the burn mask was a piece of cardboard with a hole cut in it which was placed over the easel allowing light to hit the print for longer periods of time and creating darker areas. Today in Photoshop, the tools have similar functions. Dodge Tool Burn Mask Grayscale Cropping Bright. & Contrast Levels & Curves converts an image to black and white without loss of quality crops an image to a specified size and resolution adjusts contrast and brightness, similar to a tv or monitor adjusts value of an image using grays, blacks and whites as a base 18
  19. 19. digitalphotographyandimaging plainfield central – mr. lawler art + design USING THE BRUSH TOOL (FOR ERASERS, BURN AND DODGE) select the BRUSH TOOL and the BRUSH MENU appears at the top in the STATUS BAR selecting the brush tool brings up a menu of its own – you can select how big the brush is and how soft the brush is, as well the brush type and shape the play button brings up different brush families tools like BURN, DODGE, ERASER and others use the same BRUSH settings when using these tools I recommend starting with: 1. SIZE: use a large brush 100 px – 400 px 2. TYPE: try a soft brush – if you hover over the brush types it will tell you the name of the brush 3. HARDNESS: use a soft opacity 10% or so 19
  20. 20. digitalphotographyandimaging plainfield central – mr. lawler art + design BURN & DODGE 20
  21. 21. digitalphotographyandimaging plainfield central – mr. lawler art + design BURN & DODGE 21
  22. 22. digitalphotographyandimaging plainfield central – mr. lawler art + design EDITING COLOR IMAGES The Adjustment Window Editing B&W Image 1. B & W: turn the image grayscale 2. Levels: edit for value 3. Curves: edit for value 4. Bright/Cont: edit for contrast 5. Channel Mixer: edit for value/B&W 6. Shadow/High: edit for contrast Editing Color 1. Color Balance: edit color hue 2. Hue/Sat: edit for intensity 3. Channel Mixer: edit temperature 4. Photo Filter: edit temperature STEP 1: Prepare for Color 1. SELECT  ALL  EDIT COPY 2. SELECT  DESELECT 3. View LAYERS MENU (F7) STEP 2: Black and White Image 1. MODE  GRAYSCALE (then return to RGB), using B&W tool or using the Channel Mixer (monochrome checked) 2. Edit this image using the B&W editing tools from the Adjustment Menu (see above) 3. Edit this image using Burn & Dodge STEP 3: Paste Color Image 1. EDIT  PASTE 2. a duplicate layer should appear that is now on top of the B&W 3. edit for color (see above) STEP 4: Overlaying Color Layer 1. change Layer 1 using BLENDING LAYER MODE  COLOR 22

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