Chap 2 Experiments for Psych


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Quick and dirty look at Chap 2 for our Psych class.

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Chap 2 Experiments for Psych

  1. 1. How to conduct research experiments
  2. 2. Difficulties Encountered <ul><li>MANY variables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychology deals with behavior of living things. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subjects behavior may change if subjects know they are being studied </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Researchers behavior may change based on what they EXPECT or WANT to see </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subjects behavior may change based on how the RESEARCHER acts (consciously or unconsciously) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Even eliminating all variables creates a variable </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Why did I pick this picture?
  4. 4. Types of Variables <ul><li>Independent – the variable that the researcher will change as part of the study </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent – variables that occur as a result of changes in the independent variable </li></ul>
  5. 5. Example <ul><li>“ Students score higher on SATs in the morning than in the afternoon.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The independent variable is the time of day the SAT is taken </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The dependent variable is the score they get as a result of the independent variable </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Creating a Good Hypothesis <ul><li>A hypothesis must be specific and definable </li></ul><ul><li>How about this? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Religious people tend to be more helpful than non-religious people.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In your book - define “religious” </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Try your own <ul><li>Get into groups of three. As a team, brainstorm to create hypothesis that incorporates an independent variable and a dependent variable. </li></ul><ul><li>Come up with as many as you can in ten minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>It should be something we can test in school </li></ul><ul><li>After brainstorming, you will chose one that you will actually use in a later experiment </li></ul>
  8. 8. Example Hypothesis <ul><li>“ Student who take part in extra curricular activities get better grades” </li></ul>
  9. 9. Experimentation <ul><li>To test hypothesis, we generally use two groups – a control group and an experimental group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control group is unaffected by the independent variable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experimental group is subjected to the independent variable </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Problems we may encounter <ul><li>Remember: Subject behavior may change BECAUSE they are being studied </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May try to please the researcher (consciously or unconsciously) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May change because they THINK they should be changing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subjects behavior may change based on how the RESEARCHER acts (consciously or unconsciously) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stereotypes – researcher may have a predetermined outcome in mind that may skew the experiment </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Placebo Effects <ul><li>Placebo is a fake drug used to test effects of real drugs </li></ul><ul><li>How its used </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Give one group the REAL medication </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Give the other group a sugar pill that they THINK is the real medication. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People taking the placebo may get better because they THINK they are getting the real medication </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compare groups </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are they getting better because of the drug, or because their mind is making them better on its own, because it EXPECTS the drug to work? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 13. How to fix the problem <ul><li>Double Blind Experiment </li></ul><ul><li>Neither the subject nor the researcher knows which is the control group and which one is the experimental group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Neither knows who is getting the placebo) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Your Turn <ul><li>Explain how you could test your earlier hypothesis. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How will you eliminate other variables so your subject is only affected by the independent variable you picked? </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Methods of Research (p40)
  15. 16. Methods of Research <ul><li>Lab experiment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Objective, but not very “real world” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good when using animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good if you need a very controlled environment </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Field Experiment <ul><li>Conducted in the “Real world” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>may have many (unexpected, uncontrollable) variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. The effects of heavy traffic on heart rate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Put someone in a car, hook them up to monitors, put them in traffic, record the responses. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Survey <ul><li>Can gather large amounts of data, but may not be accurate due to questions or answers given </li></ul><ul><li>Please Answer the Following Survey </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ WHS should adopt which of the following policies for next year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A. No Dress Code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. A dress code that is rigidly enforced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. A uniform designed by the students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. A uniform consisting of Jacket and Tie for boys and dresses for girls. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Naturalistic Observation <ul><li>Observe in natural environment, with the researcher isolated from subjects </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can you name the good points and the troublesome points to this method? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 20. Methods of Research continued <ul><li>Interview- Can get personal feelings but may not be honest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject may not be honest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviewer may be biased </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Questions may be biased </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subconscious cues may bias the interview </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 21. Case study <ul><li>Use records and previous data to study </li></ul><ul><li>Past may point to future but may not be applicable or open to interpretation </li></ul><ul><li>Good for background info, but data gained may not be applicable in all situations </li></ul>
  21. 22. Psychological test <ul><li>Objective and accurate if well written but limited in what they can test </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IQ test is an example </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Helps eliminate bias found in other types of experiments </li></ul><ul><li>Work well IF used to test very specific areas. </li></ul>
  22. 23. Longitudinal method <ul><li>In depth knowledge over long time, but EXTREMELY time consuming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Study kids 3 yrs old, then at 10 yrs old, then in HS, then in college, then at 35. Note development </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. Cross Sectional Method <ul><li>Quick, but may have more variables than expected </li></ul><ul><li>Get a representative sample from across many types of people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Old, young, women, men, different ethnic groups, different social backgrounds, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>See problems on p44. </li></ul>
  24. 25. Your Turn <ul><li>Conduct research on your hypothesis that uses three of the methods above. </li></ul><ul><li>If doing a survey – write out the questions you will use </li></ul><ul><li>If doing an interview – write out the questions </li></ul>
  25. 26. Ethics in Experimentation <ul><li>AMA has established guidelines for experiments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subjects may always decline to participate at any time. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Openness and honesty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If this will throw off the results, the experimenter at least must clear things up as soon as possible. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Confidentiality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ID of subjects kept secret </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Experimenter must assess the risks carefully and explain the risks to the subject </li></ul>
  26. 28. Example of Ethics Issue