Seneca psych 100 - class one - introduction to psychology and research methods


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Seneca psych 100 - class one - introduction to psychology and research methods

  1. 1. Instructor: Charlotte Goldfried
  2. 2. What is Psychology <ul><li>Psychology is the scientific study of behaviour and of the mind. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Early Psychologies <ul><li>Structuralism - Wilhelm Wundt (1832 to 1920) was a medical doctor who established the first psychology laboratory. </li></ul><ul><li>Wundt developed a way of studying the mind called introspection </li></ul><ul><li>This involved asking individuals to objectively describe what was going on in their minds after being exposed to a particular object, such as a light or a sound </li></ul><ul><li>The researcher would then try to determine the different parts of the mind that were being used. </li></ul><ul><li>The problem with this approach was that it did not produce consistent results. Today, most psychologists reject this method of investigation as being too subjective. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Early Psychologies <ul><li>Behaviourism – developed by Watson (1878 to 1958) - originated in the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>Watson believed that the only information that could be scientifically examined was observable behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>Watson believed all behaviour was worthy of being studied – he legitimized the the study of both human and animal behaviour. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Early Psychologies <ul><li>Psychoanalytic Theory – was developed by Sigmund Freud between 1885 and 1939. </li></ul><ul><li>He was the first person to talk about the unconscious, a part of the mind that was unseen, but frequently controlled human behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>He also developed a stage model of personality </li></ul><ul><li>Humanistic Psychology focuses on the uniqueness of individuals and the potential for choice and growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Psychology focuses on mental processes such as memory, learning, and perceiving. Unlike the behaviourists they believe there is more to behaviour than simply what is observed. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Descriptive Research Methods <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>These methods describe. They do not explain. </li></ul><ul><li>1. Naturalistic observation - observing and recording behaviour in a natural setting, </li></ul><ul><li>No interference </li></ul><ul><li>Advantage – normal setting and natural </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantage - you must wait for an event or situation to occur </li></ul><ul><li>  Observer bias – the researcher's expectations cause them to see what they expect to see. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Laboratory observation. </li></ul><ul><li>Advantage – more control and more accurate measurement </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantage - behaviour may not be genuine or natural </li></ul>
  7. 7. Descriptive Research Methods <ul><li>3 . Case Study </li></ul><ul><li>in-depth study of one or a few subjects. </li></ul><ul><li>Information is gathered through observation, interviews and sometimes through psychological testing. </li></ul><ul><li>The purpose of this type of research is to provide a detailed description of a behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>Advantage - Provides very detailed descriptive accounts. </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantage – cannot provide information about causation </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>4. Survey . </li></ul><ul><li>interviews, and/or questionnaires to answer a set of questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Advantage – able to gather information about large numbers of people. </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantage - information may not be accurate. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Experimentation <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental Method This method is different from naturalistic observation because researchers create conditions that will occur and can be observed. Most experiments take place in a laboratory. </li></ul><ul><li>Variable A variable is a characteristic or condition that changes or has different values for different individuals. </li></ul><ul><li>Independent variable The variable that is manipulated or controlled by the researcher. </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent variable The variable that is observed for changes. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  9. 9. Experimentation <ul><li>Hypothesis A prediction about the result that will be obtained from an experiment. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental Group The group that is exposed to the independent variable or treatment. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Control Group The group that is similar in characteristics to the experimental group, but is not exposed to the independent variable or treatment. </li></ul><ul><li>Selection bias occurs when groups within an experiment have been set up to have systematic differences. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  10. 10. Experimentation <ul><li>Population The collection of all individuals of interest in a study. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Placebo effect This occurs when a person's response to a treatment is due to expectations about the treatment rather than to the actual treatment. </li></ul><ul><li>Placebo a harmless substance such as a sugar pill or saline solution. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Experimenter bias occurs when researcher's preconceived notions or expectations cause them to find what they expect to find. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  11. 11. Experimentation <ul><li>Double-blind technique is a procedure where neither the subject nor the experimenter knows whether the subject is in the treatment or control group until the end of the experiment Sample A set of individuals selected from a population, usually intended to represent the population in a study. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Representative sample A sample of participants selected from the population so that important subgroups within the population are included in the sample in the same proportions as they are found in the population. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  12. 12. Experimentation <ul><li>Random sampling is a process for obtaining a sample from a population that requires that every individual in the population has the same chance of being selected for the sample. A sample obtained by random selection is called a random sample. </li></ul><ul><li>Random assignment is a process that assures that each individual has an equal chance of being assigned to each of the treatment conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  13. 13. Correlation <ul><li>Looks at changes between two variables as they naturally occur. </li></ul><ul><li>No attempt to control or manipulate the variables. </li></ul><ul><li>A correlation measures the direction and the degree of the relationship between the two variables. </li></ul><ul><li>Advantage – we are able to make predictions </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantage – cannot determine cause and effect </li></ul>