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New trends in Libraries with IT, AI & i4.0


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Impact of Information technologies, Artificial Intelligence and Industry 4.0 on creating new trends libraries

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New trends in Libraries with IT, AI & i4.0

  1. 1. New trends in Libraries with IT, AI & i4.0 Mokhtar BEN HENDA Bordeaux Montaigne University, October 2019
  2. 2. General principles “it is the library’s obligation to be at the edge of different uses of culture and uses of technology” [Manager of Library and Citizen Service at Roskilde Libraries in Denmark] Libraries should be right at the heart of key national policies and strategies for economic; social and cultural development. A key focus is around digital upskilling: the connection between libraries and digital skills.
  3. 3. General principles  “The main mission of libraries is: – to offer equality of access to information for every citizen. – to be a trendsetter in digital use and implement more emerging technologies.  Libraries are facing change due to impact of ICT: – Changes in user needs for:  Transition from print to digital,  Full text: digital libraries and added-value services,  New delivery systems: Distant access & Push technologies. – Changes in referencing systems (Google/Web are replacing reference libraries) – Changes in professional skills: data scientists, data analysts, etc.
  4. 4. Challenges for libraries of the future  There were, and still exist, entire schools of cataloguing philosophies and ideologies with true conflict of opinions regarding the best description model.  With the advent of electronic data processing, the classic cataloguing/indexing model was transferred to the computer world (Relational databases/metadata schemas and profiles)  The accuracy ideology of librarians was transferred from the analogue world to the early computer world.  Since the mid-1990s, emergence of digital contents in a vast range of forms (Big data).  Besides highly structured meta and catalogue data, increasingly vast quantities of unstructured data therefore also created.  The library inventory culture and the users’ search behavior have evidently developed in different directions: the online “Google style”.
  5. 5. Current technology trends in libraries  Library work no longer focuses only on books, journals and catalogue data, but also on all manners of unstructured and structured data and data forms: texts, metadata, images, audio files, videos, research data, 3D digital copies and software.  Referencing, indexing and displaying these contents following the logic of the 19th century, will be gradually obsolete in front of new technologies.  Libraries do not just have to restrict themselves to their own data. They can also process and analyze external data sources.  Currently, only 0.5% of all the data worldwide has been analyzed, i.e. there are still plenty of opportunities to get involved in big data projects.  In the Horizon Project 2017 (an initiative by the New Media Consortium (NMC) to chart emerging technologies for teaching and learning) big data is incidentally referred to as one of the six key technological developments for libraries. NMC Horizon Report 2017 Library Edition
  6. 6. Big Data  Impact on libraries – Direct impact as libraries can use big data tools to analyze their large data holdings, such as to understand their own users better and thus be able to offer new or improved services.  better reach of customers,  better connection with the community,  create a personalized user experience  offering content and resources based on each individual wish, – Indirect impact as users (researchers) will increasingly rely on big data more frequently in their research. – Economic impact as big data can also lead to cost reductions, automations and faster and better decisions, for instance.  Fields of Application in libraries – data as information sources, – data analysis (i.e. collecting, cleaning up, integrating and processing), – Data visualization (presentation and communication).  Limiting factors – lack of qualified skilled staff, – frequent lack of infrastructure, – technical challenges (e.g. data formats and tools), – data protection – funding problems.
  7. 7. Artificial intelligence AI is no longer a futuristic technology as it is gaining more and more traction in our everyday activities. With many AI applications focused on delivering information to the user, it can appear that AI is a challenge to libraries. Adding an intelligent side to all applications at the library is a real opportunity to understand the patterns in user behavior and adapt to their needs.
  8. 8. Artificial intelligence What AI gives libraries is the opportunity to shift focus: – The way we navigate the information architecture is changing. – Access to collections remains important, but how that access is achieved is changing. – Libraries can capitalize on the value of AI to expedite some processes, freeing up finite resources to focus on enriching the public library experience for patrons.
  9. 9. Artificial intelligence  Challenges of Integrating AI into Libraries. – Attracting new and more diverse audiences. – Providing a faster, better user experience – Emerging skill gaps, – Competing with today's alternative sources of information, – Difficulty to show ROI .  How will libraries continue to meet the increasing demands of today’s digital information age? – the near future of library work will be enormously impacted and perhaps forever changed as a result of AI and machine learning systems becoming commonplace – libraries will find that artificial intelligence can play a critical role in updating and expanding their values and way of work
  10. 10. Artificial intelligence Major concerns raised by librarians against AI: – 1. AI (or rather, robots) will replace human librarians. With an alarming figure of 38% of jobs at high risk of being replaced by AI in the next 15 years. – 2. Human creativity and empathy would no longer be necessary due to the efficiency of AI, creating a world in which the library's connection to its community and valuable human characteristics are devalued and rare. – 3. AI would magnify injustices such as inequality, bias, and discrimination, and help propagate misinformation. There is already a lack of basic neutrality in search engine algorithms. It can also be manipulated for promoting bias and fake information, or used for political purposes. – 4. AI might threaten data privacy, a traditionally important value to libraries, even more so in today's digital age. Artificial Intelligence in the Library: Advantages, Challenges and Tradition. An Ex Libris Whitepaper, 2017
  11. 11. Blockchain emerging technology  Uses a distributed database that organizes data into records (blocks) that have cryptographic validation.  Blocks are timestamped, and are linked to previous records so that they can only be changed by those who own the encryption keys to write the files.  A means of improving digital badges, facilitating the transfer, authority, and reputation of awarded badges and other digital credentials.  Could eventually transform access to content and intellectual property, controlling how many times a user can access, share, or copy something,
  12. 12. Blockchains in libraries  Blockchain technology could be used in libraries : – To build an enhanced metadata system for libraries:  operate as a type of informational register that doesn’t require a centralized gatekeeping organization, they could be used to build a truly distributed metadata system for libraries and related organizations. – to keep track of digital-first sale rights as a result of provable ownership and digital scarcity: – to connect networks of libraries and universities as an inter- Planetary File System (IPFS) to validate the credentials of a given copy of any website – to support community-based borrowing that could extend the traditional library collection beyond its walls. The Blockchain would govern who has borrowed items, who originally loaned them, etc. – to facilitate the indexing and sharing of community resources in a sharing network. – to secure intellectual property. Blockchain in the Library? Researchers Explore Potential Applications, Jessica Leigh Brown Feb 1, 2018
  13. 13. Internet of things & libraries  IOT refers to the possibility of connecting everyday devices and transferring data between them using RFID.  The library can offer a better user experience by enriching its services and collections with IOT: – all books become material objects under a strict and permanent control, – automating a book return system, equipped with an automatic sorter, – tracking room usage, – program attendance, – monitoring humidity levels for special collections ….  The main obstacle for implementing this kind of system is a high price for RFID equipment Book-O-Mat, a self-service kiosk which is monitored from the main library to track usage and identify usage trends and make recommendations. A book return system, with an automatic sorter, When a customer returns a book, the system detects it, confirms its acceptance, and then using special conveyers puts the book into the right bin
  14. 14. Augmented reality  Libraries are on of the fields that gets slowly into focus of AR applications.  Useful and relevant for : – Augmented books, – Guided tours, – Searching for Media / Additional Information, – Gamification, – Shelf Maintenance,  Most of applications are prototypes, specially designed for a certain libraries: – myLibrARy: University of Applied Sciences Potsdam [access to all of the library's resources] – ShelvAR: Miami University in Oxford, Ohio : [supports librarians to identify books in the wrong place and for inventory]. – LibrARi: an image-based AR app for mobile devices that supports users on finding books in the bookshelf • librARi is an image based augmented reality application, which allows user to search books with AR interaction. • The location of the books is pointed on the physical space by augmenting pointers. • The app also allows to find out related books, which can be again pointed to locate it. Imagine impact on Dewey or CDU classification ?!!!
  15. 15. Generation 4.0 syndrome First, Web 4.0 features are: – Reading, writing, and executing simultaneously, intelligence-based agents, connected web, ubiquitous web, intelligence connections, and intelligence- based web. Second, the features of Library 4.0 are: – Intelligence, massive data, augmented reality, context aware, cutting-edge displays, and infinite creative space. Third, Industry 4.0 features are: – Intelligence, Makerspace, Context-Aware Technology, Open Source, Big Data, Cloud Service, Augmented Reality, State-of-the-art Display, and Librarian 4.0 (new skills).
  16. 16. Library 4.0 challenged by Industry 4.0 AI
  17. 17. Library 4.0 challenged by Industry 4.0  The Industrial Revolution 4.0: – Digitalization, artificial intelligence, internet of things and big data playing an important role in various aspects of human life.  Library managers are guessing the next breakthrough that must be done: – Not only be a place to gather to read books or search for information, – But a digital era, ranging from mobile libraries, libraries on the wall, hybrid libraries to libraries in games.  An innovative library: – Provides new information and generates added value for the people. – Become the lungs of knowledge in the world of research and education.
  18. 18. Library 4.0 challenged by Industry 4.0 What is the 4th IR? – New ways in which technology becomes embedded within societies. – Merging technology breakthroughs in a number of fields, including robotics, artificial intelligence, nanotechnology, quantum computing, biotechnology, the Internet of Things (IoT), 3D printing and autonomous vehicles. Among libraries roles: – Promoting digital Citizenship – Promoting speed at which digital technology develops – Endorse jobs upgrading digital skills – Help for flexible use of technology as a basic information skill in front of information overload – Empowerment of digital skills to conduct sound research – Help to distinguish between trusted and fake information on the web – Training and guiding users to become digital literate
  19. 19. Libraries & Skills The EU collects data about digital skills annually in its Digital Economy and Society Index (DESI) in cooperation with IFLA: producing Fact sheets of lib Skills in EU :
  20. 20. Libraries Lead with Digital:  In the future 9 out of 10 jobs will require digital skills;  In Europe, today 44% (aged 16 to 74) do not have basic digital skills.  Helping people develop their digital skills is both a key goal for public libraries  “Every European needs digital skills to thrive – Libraries play a crucial role in this” [Commissioner, PublicLibraries2030 (@LibrariesEU) October 8, 2019]  A toolkit created by librarians, for librarians, that will include online resources and lesson plans to:  help people stay safe online, grow their digital skills, and explore coding ;  help young people and adults discover new opportunities, learn new digital skills and give everyone the opportunity to create, have fun, find a job, advance their career or grow their business ;  prepare Europeans from students to young adults to older people, to navigate the digital world and succeed in today’s job market.
  21. 21. Data management technologies on the rise
  22. 22. Libraries new trends and challenges  Nearly universal Internet access in public libraries.  But not every library needs the same technologies.  Graying of profession (63% of librarians are > 45 old).  Budget cutbacks.  Less spending on books, but higher circulation .  More and bigger electronic resources to buy.  Audiovisual spending is growing.  24/7/365 access and assistance.  Buildings – need flexible, tech-friendly spaces.  Focus on adaptive devices and web design.  Trainings for end-users
  23. 23. Major issues to solve  Copyright  Confidentiality – privacy, etc.  Access for all – “digital divide”  Library budgets  Archiving of digital resources (patrimonial & long-term access)  One-clic access to resources – easy interfaces  More fee, less free resources?  Marketing the library, finding niches.  Cooperation among libraries.  International library standards (IFLA standards: FRBR, RDA, LRM…)
  24. 24. FRBR, LRM, RDA?  IFLA meeting in Stockholm in 1990: requirements for shared cataloging: – Develop a framework for understanding bibliographic record purposes – Recommend basic level of functionality for national library bibliographic records – Develop core-level standard to reduce cataloging costs – Ensure that records meet user needs  IFLA FR models: – FRBR (Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records) – FRAD (Functional Requirements for Authority Data) – FRSAD (Functional Requirements for Subject Authority Data)  LRM: – was developed was designed to be used in linked data environments in order to resolve inconsistencies between the three separate models.  RDA: – A package of data elements, guidelines, and instructions for creating library and cultural heritage resource metadata that are well-formed according to international models for user-focussed linked data applications.
  25. 25. Library as Infrastructure the library as a network of integrated, mutually reinforcing, evolving infrastructures — in particular, architectural, technological, social, epistemological and ethical infrastructures — can help us better identify what roles we want our libraries to serve, and what we can reasonably expect of them. Rijksmuseum Library, Amsterdam & Google data center in Council Bluffs, Iowa: huge infrastructure potentials
  26. 26. Library as a platform  Libraries are becoming key nodes within evolving systems of media production and distribution for the development of knowledge and community,  We need understand how our libraries function as sites where spatial, technological, intellectual and social infrastructures shape and inform one another.  Libraries should open up their entire collections, all their metadata, and any technologies they’ve created, and allow anyone to build new products and services on top of that foundation. National Library, France acts as an open access platform
  27. 27. Library as a social infrastructure People turn to the library to access the internet, take a training class, get help with a resumé or job search, and seek referrals to other community resources, despite the fact that it’ll never make a profit, New social services are more and more associated with libraries, to benefit even to those who don’t have an immediate need for its space or its services Bobst Library, New York University, after Hurricane Sandy.
  28. 28. Library as intellectual infrastructure The way a library’s collection is stored and made accessible (open/intermediated) shapes the intellectual infrastructure of the institution. Many contemporary libraries still privilege the book and the book stacks (closed collections). A common model: – a large reading room, – a conservation department, – a digitization department, – a subterranean warehouse of books (retrieved by robot). MVRDV, Book Mountain, Spijkenisse, The Netherlands
  29. 29. Recommendations  Key areas for libraries to develop into action plans: – Work with stakeholders such as user communities and colleagues in other professional groups to undertake more analysis of key trends that affect them and their institutions. – Consultation with users, to develop more clarity around the print-to-electronic shift and how it is likely to develop over time, in order to inform strategy and policy formulation. – Investigate the possibilities of developing collaborations to create meaningful online scholarly venues to complement library physical spaces. – Review local responses to the shift from collections to services in order to position the library effectively in the institution. – Carry out more work examining the significance of key developments such as artificial intelligence, machine learning, internet of things, digital humanities and other areas and begin to develop services in these areas. – Develop ways of making the preservation of born-digital materials one of the major priorities of the library community, and how these can be coordinated. – Consider the balance between collaboration and competition with other institutional professional services departments as well as external providers in relation to new and existing services. – Review the library’s current staff skills base in the light of these recommendations
  30. 30. Library staff skills upgrading  A leadership program designed to provide library staff with a contemporary and relevant skill-set to initiate and lead change to develop and deliver new initiatives.  Creation of a program to prepare staff for new challenges and opportunities, including higher-level positions,  A project to develop a workforce plan to identify current and near-future skills required for library staff.  Production of a dynamic skills matrix for use as a tool for mapping current staff capabilities and to assist with professional developmental planning for individual staff and teams.  The plan is assisting the Library to future proof its workforce and enable staff to engage proactively in career development.  Major challenges: – Addressing skill shortages in the face of rapidly changing library services – Developing new staff profiles – Supporting new organizational structures delivering new services – Reinventing staffing profiles in the face of budget constraints – To be more strategic in staff development and IT integration
  31. 31. Skills librarians need for the future  1. Change management – need to keep reviewing and renegotiating the position of the library within the institution.  2. Proving value – demonstrating a contribution to student success build on the trusted library brand.  3. Influencing and negotiation – being able to influence and negotiate within the institution.  4. Creativity and innovation – radical thinking is needed.  5. Supporting digital-based research – Open access, data sharing, digital humanities, text/data mining and using social media.  6. Digital literacy – preparing students for a digital world.  7. Marketing – maximize access to digital and print content and services.  8. Digital Information management – rights management, curation, preservation, communication and dissemination of digital information.  9. Developing and managing space – developing physical and virtual spaces to support pedagogical developments  10. Collaboration – supporting international research collaborations. Source: Roisin Gwyer is University Librarian at the University of Portsmouth
  32. 32. Skills updating framework Three core questions around an updating strategy: 1. What are the trends over the next “n” years that are likely to impact library work? 2. What areas of service development do we anticipate over the next “n” years? 3. What are the future capabilities required to achieve these strategic and service development objectives? Many framework models exist!
  33. 33. Skills updating framework Four main stages: 1. An analysis of the current workforce including quantitative data, capabilities and skills, and more contextual information for opportunities for redeployment and human resource policies. 2. A process of identifying future needs through a consultation process with stakeholders or just an environmental scans. 3. Identification of gaps between future needs and current capabilities. 4. Formulation of plans for workforce development to address gaps, ranging from training programs to creation of new positions and services Source:
  34. 34. Library tasks migration Information literacy – “"The ability to understand and use written information in everyday life, at home, at work and in the community to achieve personal goals and to expand knowledge and skills“ (OECD) Resources based learning: – Learning that “actively involves students in the meaningful use of a wide range of appropriate print, non-print, digital, and human resources” – RBL focuses on the resources available to the learners and how the learners interact with these resources leading to an interest in the uses of technology to support and develop a learning environment
  35. 35. Conclusion  In general, library staff and management demonstrate a positive approach to adopting advanced technologies, in order to flourish in the new information landscape.  However, there is a gap between their willingness and motivation to embrace technologies in theory and their ability and openness to adapt to the necessary changes in their workflows, services, and skills.  The gap is particularly evident when it comes to embracing AI technology, which raises additional concerns regarding the potential compromise of library core principles.