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New trends and skill in library automation: impact of Artificial Intelligence and Industry 4.0


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Exploring new challenges for libraries under impact of Artificial Intelligence and Industry 4.0

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New trends and skill in library automation: impact of Artificial Intelligence and Industry 4.0

  1. 1. NEW TRENDS & SKILLS IN LIBRARY AUTOMATION Impact of Artificial intelligence and Industry 4.0 Mokhtar BEN HENDA Bordeaux Montaigne University February 6th, 2020
  2. 2. Alexandria lib OPAC eBooks Smart Library Stone Clay Tablet Manuscript Book Typewriter Digital
  3. 3. General overview  Libraries have always invented new systems to adapt to their time  Librarians have always succeeded to control the evolution of their profession  With AI, the systems and the needs start escaping human control. AI is taking over decision power (Deep Learning)  The first warning : 1995, 61st IFLA General Conference:  “While we cannot be certain about the future for our library services, we can and should be developing a vision which encompasses and enriches the potential of the Internet. If we do not do that, then others will; and they will do it less well.” (Chris Batt)
  4. 4. Libraries: Key questions  In our modern era, do the following citations express virtual or concrete reality?  “The public library is a catalyst for change, facilitating social, economic and cultural development and supports communities to take advantage of the opportunities afforded them by a modern society” [Michael Ring T.D.Minister for Rural and Community Development, Ireland]  “It is the library’s obligation to be at the edge of different uses of culture and uses of technology” [Manager of Library and Citizen Service at Roskilde Libraries in Denmark]  How ICT and Smart systems are changing the information landscape?  How Libraries & librarians manage their digital upskilling?
  5. 5. Libraries facing challenges  Challenging new user needs oriented towards:  Transition from print to digital,  Full text through added-value services of digital libraries,  New delivery systems based on distant access & Push technologies.
  6. 6. Libraries facing challenges  Challenging emergence of new categories of library management systems (LMS)  From Integrated LMS to cloud-based LMS  From SQL DB to linked data (WoT, IoT…)  From metadata repositories to full text digital collections (eBooks, Digital Libraries, Open Archives)
  7. 7. Libraries facing challenges Challenging new cataloguing/indexing standards:  From ISBD, DC to RDA, FRBR…  From manual to automated cataloging by scanning a book's ISBN  From manual to automated indexing by importing online keywords registries  RDA (Resource Description Access) - has more flexibility for machine- based cataloging designed for the digital world  RDF (Resource Description Framework) - graphe destiné à décrire de façon formelle les ressources Web et leurs métadonnées  FRBR (Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records) - founded for RDA
  8. 8. Libraries facing challenges Challenging new searching services:  From Reference Libraries to Google/Web services  From keyword search to full text search  From index searching to ontology searching
  9. 9. Libraries facing challenges  Librarians are also facing upskilling challenges:  From reference librarians to Chatbots, Intelligent search agents  New professional skills  new “competency profiles”  New job qualifications description: – Data Creator, – Data Curator, – Data analysts, – Data Scientist, – Research Coordinator/Manager, – Digital Preservation Librarian, – Repository Manager, – Subject Librarian, – etc.
  10. 10. Libraries facing challenges  Are libraries progressively renouncing to their position as the top source of information?  An observed dissention between libraries and users:  Perception of libraries as passive and rigid institutions,  Libraries are perceived as only or mostly lending books,  A belief that users could do without libraries and librarians,  Disintermediation and self-service : it is easier and more rewarding to “Google” than to visit a library.  Need for new sophisticated library service models:  Library 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 based on Web 2.0, 3.0, 4.0
  11. 11. Reminder: Library 2.0  User-centered: participate in the creation of the content and services  Communally innovative: libraries as a community service  Socially rich: users' presences with (a)synchronous ways for communication
  12. 12. Reminder: Library 3.0  Borderless library:  Virtual complement to the physical library space,  Library collections widely accessible, searchable and usable regardless of physical location  A semantic relationship between all available web content, including the Invisible Web  Deeply relying on:  Semantic web,  Cloud computing,  Mobile devices,
  13. 13. Tending to Library 4.0 (smart library)  Library 1.0: delivering commodity  Library 2.0: producing collaborative products  Library 3.0: providing semantic services  Library 4.0: will add a new mode : knowledge experience (immersion in ideas and thoughts)  Intelligent library,  Massive data library, Augmented reality library,  Context-aware library,  Infinite creative space  Library 4.0 is one of the generation-4.0 revolutions
  14. 14. Some generation 4.0 revolutions  Web 4.0:  Reading, writing, and executing simultaneously, intelligence-based agents, connected web, ubiquitous web, intelligence connections, and intelligence-based web.  Library 4.0:  Intelligence, massive data, augmented reality, context aware, cutting-edge displays, and infinite creative space.  Industry 4.0:  Intelligence, Makerspace, Context-Aware Technology, Open Source, Big Data, Cloud Service, Augmented Reality, State-of-the-art Display, and Librarian 4.0 (new skills).
  15. 15. Intelligence in the libraries of the future  The users’ search behavior has developed in different directions than the library “inventory culture”:  The online smart “Google style”  Libraries are constrained to integrate innovative technologies:  Big Data & Analytics  AI  Block-chains  Augmented Reality  …
  16. 16. Big Data in Library 4.0  Big Data applications in libraries:  Data analysis (i.e. collecting, cleaning up, integrating and processing),  Data visualization (presentation and communication).  Consequences:  Analyzing large data holdings to offer new or improved services,  Providing better research material and results  Limiting factors:  Lack of qualified skilled staff & infrastructure,  Data protection and copyright  Funding problems.
  17. 17. Artificial intelligence in Library 4.0  Libraries need add an intelligence layer to their current applications and systems:  AI can predict users behaviors and take decisions to cope with their needs,  AI applications perform smart delivery of information to the user,  AI can perform relevant books acquisitions …
  18. 18. Artificial intelligence in Library 4.0  AI and deep learning are key research and publication topics:  AI is a high rate publication focus,  AI attracts new and more diverse audiences to Libraries,  AI provides faster, better user experiences.
  19. 19. Artificial intelligence in Library 4.0  Major criticism raised by librarians against AI:  1. AI (robots) will replace human librarians. (38% of jobs in the next 15 years).  2. Human creativity and empathy would no longer be necessary due to the efficiency of AI,  3. AI would magnify injustices (can be manipulated),  4. AI might threaten data privacy Artificial Intelligence in the Library: Advantages, Challenges and Tradition. An Ex Libris Whitepaper, 2017
  20. 20. Blockchain emerging technology  A means of improving digital badges, facilitating the transfer, authority, and reputation of awarded badges and other digital credentials.  Could eventually transform access to content and intellectual property, controlling how many times a user can access, share, or copy something,
  21. 21. Blockchains in library 4.0  Blockchain technology could be used in libraries :  to build an enhanced metadata system for libraries:  to connect networks of libraries and universities as an inter-Planetary File System (IPFS) to validate the credentials of a given copy of any website  to support document borrowing service & inter- library loan service  to facilitate the indexing and sharing of community resources in a sharing network.  to secure intellectual property. Blockchain in the Library? Researchers Explore Potential Applications, Jessica Leigh Brown Feb 1, 2018
  22. 22. Internet of things (IoT) in library 4.0  Connecting everyday devices and transferring data between them using RFID (Radio Frequency Identification)  Providing books strict and permanent control,  automating a book return system,  tracking room usage,  monitoring humidity levels  The main obstacle for IoT is a high price for RFID equipment Book-O-Mat, a self-service kiosk which is monitored from the main library to track usage and identify usage trends and make recommendations. A book return system, with an automatic sorter, When a customer returns a book, the system detects it, confirms its acceptance, and then using special conveyers puts the book into the right bin
  23. 23. Augmented reality in Library 4.0  Useful and relevant for :  Augmented books,  Guided tours,  Searching for Media / Additional Information,  Gamification,  Shelf Maintenance,  Most of applications are still prototypes:  myLibrARy: University of Applied Sciences Potsdam [access to all of the library's resources]  ShelvAR: Miami University in Oxford, Ohio : [supports librarians to identify books in the wrong place and for inventory].  LibrARi: an image-based AR app for mobile devices that supports users on finding books in the bookshelf • librARi is an image based augmented reality application, which allows user to search books with AR interaction. • The location of the books is pointed on the physical space by augmenting pointers. • The app also allows to find out related books, which can be again pointed to locate it. Imagine impact on Dewey or CDU classification ?!!!
  24. 24. Library 4.0 challenged by Industry 4.0
  25. 25. Library 4.0 challenged by Industry 4.0  What is I4.0 revolution?  Merging technologies in a number of fields : – Robotics, artificial intelligence, nanotechnology, quantum computing, biotechnology, the Internet of Things (IoT), 3D printing, autonomous vehicles....  Impact on Library 4.0:  For libraries: a shift from “knowing your collection” to “knowing your connection”.  For Librarians: a shift from “knowledge of collection” to the “knowledge of the users”,
  26. 26. Library 4.0 challenged by Industry 4.0  4 strategic actions to be taken by the library leaders to cope with I4.0: 1. Reshaping the organizational behavior, 2. Redesigning new business model, 3. Restructuring business process flow, 4. Remaking the job descriptions and roles: study and remake the new context of job descriptions and roles at every rank of staff
  27. 27. Data management technologies on the rise
  28. 28. Libraries new trends and challenges  Nearly universal Internet access in public libraries,  But not every library needs the same technologies.  Graying of profession (63% of librarians are > 45 old),  Budget cutbacks,  Less spending on books, but higher circulation,  More and bigger electronic resources to buy,  Audiovisual spending is growing,  24/7/365 access and assistance,  Buildings – need flexible, tech-friendly spaces,  Focus on adaptive devices and web design,  Trainings for end-users.
  29. 29. Major issues to solve  Copyright,  Confidentiality – privacy, etc.  Access for all – “digital divide”,  Library budgets,  Archiving of digital resources (patrimonial & long-term access),  Easy access interfaces,  Cooperation among libraries,  International library standards (IFLA standards: FRBR, RDA, LRM…).
  30. 30. Strategic action plan  Key areas for libraries to develop into action plans:  Work with stakeholders such as user communities and colleagues in other professional groups to undertake more analysis of key trends that affect them and their institutions.  Consultation with users, to develop more clarity around the print-to- electronic shift and how it is likely to develop over time, in order to inform strategy and policy formulation.  Investigate the possibilities of developing collaborations to create meaningful online scholarly venues to complement library physical spaces.  Review local responses to the shift from collections to services in order to position the library effectively in the institution.  Carry out more work examining the significance of key developments such as artificial intelligence, machine learning, internet of things, digital humanities and other areas and begin to develop services in these areas.  Develop ways of making the preservation of born-digital materials one of the major priorities of the library community, and how these can be coordinated.  Consider the balance between collaboration and competition with other institutional professional services departments as well as external providers in relation to new and existing services.  Review the library’s current staff skills base in the light of these recommendations
  31. 31. Staff skills updating framework  Three core questions around an updating strategy: 1. What are the trends over the next “n” years that are likely to impact library work? 2. What areas of service development do we anticipate over the next “n” years? 3. What are the future capabilities required to achieve these strategic and service development objectives? Many framework models exist!
  32. 32. Staff skills updating framework  Four main stages: 1. An analysis of the current workforce including quantitative data, capabilities and skills, and more contextual information for opportunities for redeployment and human resource policies. 2. A process of identifying future needs through a consultation process with stakeholders or just an environmental scans. 3. Identification of gaps between future needs and current capabilities. 4. Formulation of plans for workforce development to address gaps, ranging from training programs to creation of new positions and services Source:
  33. 33. Types of librarian work ICT requirements  Archives and preservation:  Knowledge of scanning techniques and digital file formats;  Knowledge of automated archival collections management systems;  Knowledge of XML schemas and the use of XML editors;  Knowledge of UNIMARC format and Encoded Archival Description (EAD).  Web and social media:  Experience creating, editing, and management collaborative SharePoint sites to coordinate operations, documentation, and training;  Experience creating and maintaining web-based content management tools ;  Proficiency with some CMS;  Experience with basic HTML coding and ability to manipulate code.  Collection, cataloging, circulation: – Knowledge of institutional repository platforms; Classification systems, MARC formats, RDA tools; electronic resource licensing and management; data visualization tools.  Reference and research: – Ability to incorporate emerging technologies into research support; – Knowledge of integrated library systems and library applications; – Familiarity with LIS softwares; – Knowledge of open information resources.  Training and motivation: – Ability to develop online learning materials; – Current/emerging trends in information literacy instruction and technologies.
  34. 34. Library skills for job opportunities  Special profiles are + & + searched for hiring:  Data librarianship : being familiar with basic data analytics programming concepts and technologies.  Programming activities, implementing the data management system or the appropriate search algorithms.  Process & tools of data analysis,  Tools commonly used to manage large-scale databases: – Data mining. – Data visualizations. – Data conversion, import/export. – Date encoding (Unicode, UTF, ASCII,…).
  35. 35. Library skills for job opportunities  Digital collections management: understanding collection objectives and user needs and the systems to satisfy them;  Ability to create a digital asset management system.  Database management expertise (among various database options: SQL export).  Digital preservation best practices.  Subject-specific taxonomies and controlled vocabulary using Open source software (eg. SKOS, VocBench, ThManager, Protégé…)  Unique characteristics and cataloging requirements of various media types.  Basic project management skills and software (Trello, LiquidPlanner,…)  Monitor online resources: E-newsletters, blogs and podcasts, discussion lists for relevant Special Interest Groups (SIGs), Push technologies (ISD: information selective dissemination)… The stronger your IT skills, the easier it will be to grow your data librarian career.
  36. 36. Conclusion  In general, library staff and management demonstrate a positive approach to adopting advanced technologies,  However, there is a gap between their willingness and ability to embrace technologies changes in their workflows, services, and skills,  The gap is particularly due to local reasons (budget cutting, skills upgrading opportunities),  Libraries have succeeded the shift to digital libraries (from reference to full text). Now they need face the challenge of physical user presence and services diversity.