1. New Trends in Libraries
2. Disruptive Technologies
3. AI and Its Applications
4. Smart Library Services
NEW TRENDS IN LIBRARIES
In line with the past, online with the future…
LIBRARIES’ NATIONAL ROLE
o Provision of information for human
development and sustainability.
o Information is collected and
disseminated to society.
o Should be right at the heart of key
national policies and strategies for
economic, social and cultural
o “It is the library’s obligation to be at the
edge of different uses of culture and uses
[Manager of Library and Citizen Service at Roskilde
Libraries in Denmark]
Libraries in the digital era need to cope with:
o Changes in user needs for:
▪ Transition from print to digital
▪ Digital content in various forms
▪ Digital and smart, value-added services
▪ New delivery systems: Distant 24/7/365 access
▪ Search behaviour, experience and expectations
o Changes in referencing/cataloguing/indexing systems from
the logic of the 19th century.
o Increasingly vast quantities of unstructured data, from
external sources, compared to its own structured catalogue
and meta data.
o Changes in professional skills: data scientists, data analysts,
etc. and the need for a new generation of Librarians.
o The need for process automation, space optimization, and
intelligent decision making and services.
Libraries’ main mission:
o To offer equality of access to
information for every citizen.
o To be a trendsetter in digital use and
implementation of more emerging
INDUSTRY 4.0 AND LIBRARY 4.0
Libraries’ next breakthrough in the digital era:
From a place to gather and read books or search for
information, to an innovative smart library:
o Provides new information and generates added value for
o Become the lungs of knowledge in the world of research
o Promotes digital citizenship and skills
o Copes with the speed at which digital technology develops
o Upgrades jobs and research digital skills
o Uses technology to deal with information overload
o Helps to distinguish between trusted and fake information
The Industrial Revolution 4.0:
Digitalization, artificial intelligence, internet
of things, big data, robotics, nanotechnology,
quantum computing, cybersecurity, AR/VR,
biotechnology, 3D printing and autonomous
vehicles are playing an important role in
various aspects of human life.
LIBRARY OF THE FUTURE
and open access
AREAS OF IMPROVEMENT
Traditional Services in Libraries
o Acquisition Services
o Lending Services
o Awareness Services
o Bibliographic Services
o Ambience and space to implement BYOD
o Cyber Library
o Accommodate users with various disabilities
o Space to display thoughts/activities
o Library portals and remote access
o Intelligent and flexible catalogues
o Federated and AI based search
o Cloud, mobile and social media services
o Library security systems: RFID, smartcard, biometrics,
o Digital signage
o Data and statistical services
o Multimedia, AR/VR and 360˚ videos streaming services
o Robots and drones
o Group Learning
o Open source and open educational resources
o Research support services and digital reference services
AREAS OF INTELLIGENT IMPROVEMENT
AI and Smart Libraries:
Internet of things, RFID and other
technologies have been unable to fully
meet the technical requirements of
smart library; artificial intelligence is a
new driving force for further
development of the smart library.
o More efficient, fast and high-quality services
o More attractive information interconnection environment
o More diversified information sharing space
o Modern scientific and technological means to increase
readers' experience and enhance readers' services
o Self-borrowing and returning system
o Mobile phone/network self-renewal system
o Intelligent inventory/positioning system
o 3D Printing and AR/VR navigation system
o Digital assistants
o Intelligent seat reservation and space optimization system
Top Trends and Priorities in 2021
o Open Access
o The Changing Nature of Education
o Digitization and Media Literacy
Direct impact on libraries
o Better reach of customers
o Better connection with the community
o Personalized user experience, content and resources
o Cost reductions, automation, faster and better decisions
Fields of Application in libraries
o Data as information sources
o Data analysis
o Data visualization
o Lack of qualified skilled staff & infrastructure
o Data protection
o Funding problems
Libraries can use big data tools to analyze
their large data holdings and understand
their own users better and thus be able to
offer new or improved services.
Blockchain technology in libraries:
o Build an enhanced metadata system
o Keep track of digital-first sale rights as a result of
provable ownership and digital scarcity
o Connect networks of libraries and universities as an
Inter-Planetary File System (IPFS) to validate credentials
o Support community-based borrowing that could extend
the traditional library collection beyond its walls
o Facilitate the indexing and sharing of community
resources in a sharing network
o Secure intellectual property
Uses a distributed database that organizes
data into records (blocks) that have
Blocks are time stamped and are linked to
previous records so that they can only be
changed by those who own the encryption
keys to write the files.
Internet of Things
The library can offer a better user experience by enriching
its services and collections with IOT:
o All books become material objects under a strict and
o Automating a book return system, equipped with an
o Tracking room/space usage
o Program attendance
o Monitoring humidity levels for special collections
The main obstacle for implementing this kind of system is a
high price for RFID equipment.
IOT refers to the possibility of connecting
everyday devices and transferring data
between them using RFID.
A self-service kiosk which is monitored from
the main library to track usage, identify
usage trends and make recommendations.
Robots and Drones
Robots and robotic technologies are now
mature enough to leave the research lab
and come to the consumer market in large
numbers. Robots are becoming more
intelligent with AI advancements.
In this smart era, robots can provide an improvement to
tedious tasks usually performed by librarians, like labouring
down aisles to sift through, sort, arrange and pick up books.
Robots can steer, navigate and conduct searches for missing,
misplaced or out-of-sequence volumes, by means of scanning
RFID tags, during off-peak hours or when the institution is
Drones would be responsible for delivering the books either
to the doorsteps of the users who ordered a book – or to their
hands – irrespective of their location. Drones can deliver
packages and both to users based on their real time location
AR applications in Libraries:
o Augmented books
o Guided tours
o Searching for Media / Additional Information
o Shelf Maintenance
Most of current applications are prototypes:
– myLibrARy: University of Applied Sciences Potsdam
[access to all of the library's resources]
– ShelvAR: Miami University in Oxford, Ohio : [supports
librarians to identify books in the wrong
place and for inventory].
– LibrARi: an image-based AR app for mobile devices
that supports users on finding books in the
Augmented Reality (AR) is a technology that
superimposes a computer-generated image
on a user's view of the real world, thus
providing a composite view.
Artificial intelligence can play a critical role in updating and
expanding library’s values and ways of work.
o The way we navigate the information architecture
o How access to collections is achieved
o Expediting processes, freeing up finite resources from
repetitive labour tasks to focus on enriching the public
o Attracting new and more diverse audiences
o Providing a faster, better user experience
o Bridging emerging skill gaps
o Competing with today's alternative information sources
o Difficulty to show ROI
“Can machines think?"
"Can machines behave intelligently?“
As a very broad concept, with different
levels of intelligence, flexibility and
applications, AI strives to mimic the
functionality of the human brain and
surpasses it in many aspects related to
speed, precision and power.
Involves continual learning
by the machines. Such as
Self-Driving Cars by Uber,
Autopilot by Tesla.
Consists of Intelligent ways
sometimes smarter than
humans. Such as Robotics,
Missiles and Satellites.
Consists of basic/role
LOGIC AND RULE BASED AI
A computer program that provides expert advice, decision, or
recommended solution for a given situation. Used for cataloguing,
indexing, collections and reference services, Information Search
and Retrieval. Ex: Ask Librarian, Coal SORT (Indexing tool),
BIOSIS (an Indexer Aid), CANSEARCH.
Natural Language Processing
Allows a computer to understand the main linguistic concepts
within a question or solution, i.e., to analyze, understand and
generate language that humans use naturally. Ex: text and voice
The process of establishing a close match between some new
stimulus and previously stored stimulus patterns, through:
Data Acquisition, Pre-Processing, Feature Extraction, Model
Selection and Training, and Evaluation. Ex: classification,
regression, parsing, and sequencing.
MACHINE LEARNING - ML
Machine Learning (ML)
The scientific study of algorithms and statistical models that
computer systems use to effectively perform a specific task
without using explicit instructions, relying on models and
➢ Using historical data to make future predictions
➢ Building models on historical data
➢ Taking training data, building models on the training data using
the models to make the future predictions
➢ Making the machine learn the patterns in the data
ML Sample Applications:
➢ Text (Sentiment analysis, extraction of key topics in the data,
➢ Image and Video recognition (Face recognition, intelligent/AR
navigation, self driving cars)
Algorithms, mathematical models,
training data, unsupervised learning,
computational statistics, optimization,
data mining, data analysis, predictive
ANN - DEEP LEARNING
ANN- Artificial Neural Network
❖ A mesh of neurons: input layer, one or more hidden layers and
❖ For a really complex and non-linear datasets, several hidden
layers are needed. ANN with multiple hidden layers is known as
deep neural network
Deep Learning - DL
❖ The concept of solving problems with multiple hidden layers ANN
❖ With sufficient number of hidden layers and nodes, a model can
be generated for any type of data
❖ DL has the power to capture any amount of non-linearity
❖ Unsupervised and supervised learning
DL Sample Applications
Virtual assistants, chatbots, receptionists, healthcare diagnostics,
entertainment, news aggregation, composing music, image
captioning and colouring, autonomous robots, reviews and
Input Layer - Hidden Layers - Output Layer
HUMAN – TECHNOLOGY COEXISTANCE
“Humans must merge with machines
or become irrelevant in the AI age.” –
Is the uploaded version of your brain
actually a self-conscious “soul”, or
just a simulation?
Can AI developments lead to
AI tools, hardware, open source (OpenAI)
DATA VOLUMES DRIVING AI
Only AI has the power to analyze this data
to solve grand challenges and problems guiding our future.
5% of existing data is
1 ZB = 1 billion TB
AI REALITY AND TRENDS
Computing power, digital information, cheap IoT,
communication, Big Data, unlimited speed, data
Driverless cars, cell-reported traffic patterns, robots
scanning and understanding environments,
HoloLens, language translation, computers writing
reviews, resumes, and grading essays, etc.
Healthcare, Medicine, FinTech, EdTech,
Cybersecurity, Biometrics, Telecom, Space, Military,
Logistics, Transportation, Power, Music, Gaming, etc.
Three clusters merging in cyber-physical
systems driven by AI and robots:
✓ Physical (human world)
✓ Digital (techno-sphere)
✓ Biological (natural world)
• Unlimited computational resources and connections
• Pervasive computational thinking
• Everything is recorded, nothing is forgotten
• Organizational, geographical boundaries disappearing
• Moving towards a master algorithm
• Cloud based AI, AI as a service, API integration, etc.
Can be used to teach student’s reference
skills. A computerized aid for practicing
reference librarians and information
Directs the users to the reference sources.
A referral tool used in Public Libraries.
ONLINE REFERENCE ASSISTANCE (ORA)
A Knowledge based system to help users
with reference questions on Agriculture
To simulate the services of an Academic
Some current automation systems used in libraries across the world
include: Mandarin, Resource Mate, Alexandria, L4U, OPALS, Koha,
Destiny Library Manager, Librarian, Insignia Library System,
Concourse, Ex Libris, among others.
AI IN LIBRARY SERVICES
OPAC/ Web OPAC
Information Retrieval System
Federated Search Engines
Optical Character Recognition
covers almost all
business activities of a
Cataloguing and DCMI
AI IN LIBRARY SERVICES
A. INTELLIGENT RESOURCE SYSTEM
➢ Automatically collects and integrates all users'
personalized demand information and various types of
document resource information through deep learning
Intelligent Resource Procurement Decision System:
1. Influencing factors (user group characteristics, user
personalized information, recommendation and
purchase of books, expert advice and annual budget)
2. Intelligent collection and analysis of open resources
(provide reference for procurement librarians to make
B. INTELLIGENT MANAGEMENT
1) Intelligent Warehouse Management
a) Self-service management: automatic book circulation and paper document management.
b) Books can be stored randomly on the bookshelf: reducing the multifarious bookshelf
c) A robot system to realize the management of automatic and unmanned counting, checking
and sorting of book storage.
• RFID technology intelligent book inventory robot (Nanjing University Library in China) - RFID
automatic identification and automatic library book counting.
• BookBot, (Hunter Library of North Carolina State University) - a robotic book delivery system. Up
to 2 million items, deliver any item within five minutes of clicking on the online catalogue. Full data
tracking of all transactions at any time.
• Work Robotics Project -CAPM- (Johns Hopkins University Library) automatically retrieves books
on the shelves and carries them to a scanning station. Performs automatic text analysis.
B. INTELLIGENT MANAGEMENT
2) Intelligent Security Management
❖ Seat management, lending management and identity management.
❖ Face recognition and fingerprint recognition are linked with students' information.
❖ Students no longer need to carry student identification information, but can directly enter and exit
the library through face brushing.
❖ Improved recognition accuracy and speed.
1. Face image acquisition and detection
2. Face image pre-processing
3. Face image feature extraction
4. Matching and recognition
C. INTELLIGENT SERVICES
1) Intelligent Application Service
❖ Mature technology of library self-service application service
❖ Rich and diverse forms and contents of services:
✓ Self-service seat management system
✓ Self-service library ATM
✓ Self-service print copy management
✓ Lecture training appointment management system, etc.
1. Break through the space-time boundary with artificial intelligence to realize instant service in no-show.
2. Extend library services and expand the scope of service targets ➔ reducing the logistics and labour costs.
3. Enhance user's willingness to participate and protect the service application privacy.
4. Optimize allocation of resources.
5. Reduce the probability of service errors caused by manual services.
C. INTELLIGENT SERVICES
2) Intelligent Consulting Service
❖ An important part of library services.
❖ Traditional consulting services are inevitably insufficient:
✓ Limited number of consulting librarians
✓ Low efficiency of manual consultation
✓ Time limit for consulting work, etc.
❖ Intelligent consulting services can effectively meet the users’ needs, make up for the above
shortcomings, and realize the library's independent, instant, convenient and always available
Examples of existing intelligent "consulting librarian" services:
▪ "Xiao Tu" of Tsinghua University library
▪ "Xiao Jiao" of Shanghai Jiaotong University library
▪ WeChat automatic answering robot of Harbin Institute of Technology
C. INTELLIGENT SERVICES
The development of knowledge analysis tools, knowledge presentation
methods, research conceptual models and analytical research methods
▪ Intelligent analysis of user behaviour
▪ Intelligent management of information
▪ Intelligent operation of service business
3) Intelligent Knowledge Service
❖ The core of library services
❖ Intelligent knowledge service is the new positioning of library service innovation.
❖ Rapid development of AI technologies:
✓ Cross-media awareness
✓ Big data management
✓ Deep autonomous learning
✓ Virtual bionic functions
✓ Simulation language interaction.
❖ AI now has the ability to both enhance
and replace existing library functions.
❖ Libraries need to develop innovative
❖ AI Influence on libraries in the future:
1.The next generation of browsers beyond
keyword search and semantic analysis of
2.Integrated speech recognition, machine
translation, speech synthesis to support
real-time multi-language translation.
3.Cloud services for the translation and
identification of diverse and complex web
❖ Insufficient funding for AI equipment &
applications, and research activities.
❖ Difficulties in big data collection and
❖ Short supply of library AI talent.
❖ Lack of AI thinking in library business.
Intelligent guidance service for
Users can use mobile phones,
touch screens, wearable devices
and other mobile terminals to
enjoy intelligent voice service,
intelligent seat reservation,
accurate positioning of books,
intelligent navigation, intelligent
machine consultation and other
intelligent guidance services.
Carry out accurate information
Through information collection and
behaviour analysis based on big data,
IoT, and AI, users can obtain effective
information such as: reading habits,
research interests, teaching content,
professional fields, research
directions, research teams,
educational backgrounds, etc.
Accurate, personalized information:
recommended books, literature
information in a certain field, cutting-
edge research hotspots, teaching
reference courseware and materials.
Deep learning models are used
in new information retrieval
Traditional learning ranking
models: use machine learning
techniques on manually annotated
information retrieval features.
Deep learning model can learn
language representations from
original text materials that can
bridge the gap between query and
NEW LIBRARIAN DESIGNATIONS
o Librarian with extended out of box responsibilities
o Information Manager and Analyst
o Information adviser/instructor
o System & Networking Manager
o Information Broker for both print & electronic media
o Change Agent, i.e. Technology Application leader
o Innovator/ Website designer/ Manager
o Database Manager
o Policy Maker
o Business Manager
o Knowledge Manager
o Marketing Manager
o Subject Specialist In Academic Libraries
❖ AI do not intend to replace librarians, but to enrich and enhance knowledge
exchange and interpersonal interactions.
❖ Libraries should embrace artificial intelligence in a more positive attitude and
contribute to the activation of smart library functions and service efficiency.
❖ Library staff upskilling and recruitment of new skilled staff.
❖ AI solutions: Turnkey? Develop locally? Third party? Hybrid?
❖ Funding and ROI?
❖ Managing change.