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Digital humanities

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Digital humanities impact on Humanities and social sciences

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Digital humanities

  1. 1. The movement of Digital Humanities and its impact on Social Sciences Mokhtar BEN HENDA Bordeaux University 28 October 2019
  2. 2. What are DH?  All the ways that the humanities and digital technologies intersect  Humanities are academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture (H&SS): – Humanities & Social Sciences: • Anthropology, Archaeology, Classics, Communication studies, Economics, Education, History, Linguistics and languages, Law and politics, Musicology, Human geography, Jurisprudence, Literature, Philosophy, Political science, Psychology, Public health, Religion, Sociology, Arts, Visual & Performing, etc.
  3. 3. What are DH?  Digital technologies are electronic tools, systems, devices and resources that generate, store or process data: – Application softwares (tools): • Text editors, text analysis, photo editing, text encoding, video editing, social media, … – Processes (actions): • Document scanning, OCR, encoding, indexing, referencing, Data formatting, Data analysis, Data converting, … – Digital data (contents): • Digital text, digital audio, digital images, digital video, web pages and websites, data and databases, electronic books…
  4. 4. Definitions “Digital Humanities is born of the encounter between traditional humanities and computational methods.” – Anne Burdick “Digital humanities is work at the intersection of digital technology and humanities disciplines.” – Johanna Drucker
  5. 5. Goals of DH The goal of digital humanities is to: – “integrate modern information technology into traditional humanistic research and teaching processes”. XiaojuanXU, 2018 – “gather, refine, maintain and share cultural resources that can subsequently be used and refined by scholars and members of the community” Marinos Ioannides, 2016
  6. 6. World success  The discipline of DH is becoming in the center of academic activity.  Hundreds of scientific research centers of digital humanities worldwide.  DH are taught at universities around the world.  (non-)Conferences are held worldwide.  Scientific journals are dedicated to DH.
  7. 7. Historic milestones  The emergence of Digital Humanities is closely linked to the development of the computer. These are some of the milestones: – 1949: With the help of IBM, Roberto Busa, an Italian Jesuit, embarks on a major computer-assisted edition project. Indexing the Work of Thomas Aquinas (Priest). – 1973: Europe’s digital humanists form the Association for Literary and Linguistic Computing, which later becomes the EADH. – 1986: Literary and Linguistic Computing (LLC), the leading specialist journal in the research field, appears for the first time. – 1994: Technical standards are set with TEI, a format for encoding and exchanging texts that is still used today. – 2004: Google Books is born. Today, this online project is the largest library in the world with an estimated 25 million titles. – 2006: The Digital Humanities Initiative is launched in the USA. This funding programme gives a push to the entire research field = A worldwide movement !
  8. 8. DH organisations
  9. 9. DH ThatCamps (un-conferences)  A user-generated “unconference” on digital humanities.  Open, inexpensive meeting where humanists and technologists of all skill levels learn and build together in sessions proposed on the moment.  The structure and agenda is decided on-site on the first day of the un-conference.  No papers. No panels. But productive results, networking, and knowledge sharing
  10. 10. DH as a World Movement
  11. 11. DH projects  Digital Humanities projects are interdisciplinary  Digital humanities projects are labor-intensive and require the work of project teams, collaborators  They involve a team or a lab, which may be composed of faculty, staff, graduate or undergraduate students, information technology specialists, and partners in galleries, libraries, archives, and museums  Digital humanities projects allow people to step outside the world of print and enter a world of interactive maps, digital timelines and archives containing millions of digital books
  12. 12. DH Working Methods Data Annotation (tagging) Text Analysis & Data Mining Digital Exhibitions Digital Mapping/GIS Data Visualization Linked Data Photogrammetry, Virtual Worlds, 3-D Modeling
  13. 13. Data encoding, annotation Author : George Orwell Title : 1984 Type : Fiction-O-1 Author : Agatha Christie Title : N ou M Type : Policier-C-15
  14. 14. Litterary genres Different content structures according to litterary genres
  15. 15. Different structure types
  16. 16. Different structure types
  17. 17. Different structure types
  18. 18.  Minimal skills: HSS specialist Technician Data specialist (librarian) HSS Corpus A DH project organization
  19. 19. A DH corpora HSS CorpusPoetry Theatre Tales Music Manuscrips Speeches Fabula All other types Videos Paintings Database of HSS resources Softwares
  20. 20. Text analysis projects: Text Analysis is a way for researchers to gather/extract information about authors and their way of creating sense in their writings • https://www.theguardian.com/books/2009/apr/03/agatha- christie-alzheimers-research
  21. 21. Mapping and GIS projects  GIS (Geographic Information System) is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present all types of geographical data.  Example : The Bomb Sight project: – mapping the London WW2 bomb census between 7/10/1940 and 06/06/1941 – by scanning original 1940s bomb census maps (geographical locations of all the falling bombs recorded on the original maps) http://bombsight.org/#15/51.5050/-0.0900
  22. 22. Mapping and GIS projects  Example : memory of migration: – hosting 365,951 stories pinned across 27,844 projects and tours – across 2,600 cities. Built by a community of 80,000+ storytellers, archivists and citizen historians. – collecting, curating and structuring stories http://bombsight.org/#15/51.5050/-0.0900
  23. 23. Mapping and GIS projects Example : An Interactive Tour through Hillerman's Novels: The Blessing Way: – mapping the US cities mentioned in every novel of Hillerman https://univofnm.maps.arcgis.com/apps/MapJournal/index.html?appid=d67 9af73baec47fb945e81510a820195
  24. 24. Some DH tools
  25. 25. Selected Free Text Analysis Tools  Wordle (http://wordle.net) Free  Voyant Tools (https://voyant- tools.org/) Free  Mallet (http://mallet.cs.umass.edu/) Free  WordStat (http://www.predictiveanalyticstoday .com) – Add on for QDA Miner $$$
  26. 26. Selected mappings and GIS tools Google maps: https://www.google.com/maps History pins: https://www.historypin.org/en/ QGIS: https://www.qgis.org/fr/site/ ArcGIS: https://www.arcgis.com/index.html
  27. 27. Let’s do some TEXT practice  Text Analyzer: https://www.online-utility.org/text/analyzer.jsp – Use any URL of your choice and let the online tools find the most frequent phrases and frequencies of words  Text Statistics Analyser : https://www.usingenglish.com/resources/text-statistics/ – More sophisticated statitics  A lot of Data mining tools at: https://guides.nyu.edu/tdm/tools – Data mining is a research technique to uncover patterns in large data sets. Data mining techniques range from machine learning applications, to GIS and mapping, to business intelligence.
  28. 28. Let’s do some Graphic/text practice Voyant tool: https://voyant-tools.org/?lang=en
  29. 29. Let’s do some TEXT practice  Voyant tool: https://voyant-tools.org/?lang=en – Use the URL of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights at URL: https://www.un.org/en/universal-declaration- human-rights/  The 3 main parts of the result screen are: – On the left, the area that shows the clouds Tags (Cirrus), the occurrences of words in the text (Terms) and semantic links between terms (Links) – The middle area displays the text that is the subject of analysis. Select a word and it will be highlighted throughout the text years – The right area shows the curve of the most frequent words, the number of occurrences of words and their proportions relative to the entire text   The lower half of the screen displays: – Left the summary of the document analyzed, the documents in the case of a body being analyzed, and phrases (group of words as a unit) – On the right, the context of each of the words extracted, and a line of bubbles of different sizes depending on the occurrence of each term. – Play with the elements of the different areas of the screen to see the interaction between the various modules. A definite choice implies a dynamic change in the other modules.
  30. 30. Let’s practice some Web analysis  Datawrapper: https://www.datawr apper.de/ – Select Map option – Clic on « Create A Map » – Create a map of the 10 largest cities in Vietnam (locator map) – Add Marker (Hanoï, Ho Chi Minh, Danang…)
  31. 31. Let’s do some GRAPHIC practice  Google Books Ngram Viewer : – https://books.google.com/ngrams – Type in a word or phrase in one of seven languages (English, French, German, Spanish, Hebrew, Russian, Chinese) and see how its usage frequency has been changing throughout the past few centuries. – Note: the dataset's quality is highest for English between 1800 and 2000
  32. 32. Let’s practice some Web analysis  Semrush for digital marketing professionals: https://www.semrush.com/  Register for free to SEMrush then choose Websites to monitor their audience  Analyze VASS website
  33. 33. Let’s practice some Web analysis  Google Trends for Websites: – Measures and compares the keywords and search phrases on the web. – Analysis by country and region. – Compare « Industry 4.0 » and « Artificial intelligence » in Vietnam
  34. 34. Further ressources for practice More many tools by category https://library.nyu.edu/

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