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The World of Digital Humanities : Digital Humanities in the World

Keynote lecture on the Cross Country/Faculty Workshop on Digital Humanities: Prospects and Proposals, North-West University Potchefstroomkampus, South-Africa, 13 November 2013

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The World of Digital Humanities : Digital Humanities in the World

  1. 1. The World of Digital Humanities: Digital Humanities in the world Edward Vanhoutte Royal Academy of Dutch Language & Literature University College London Centre for Digital Humanities LLC: The Journal of Digital Scholarship in the Humanities (OUP) edward.vanhoutte@kantl.be @evanhoutte Digital Humanities: Prospects & Proposals – 13/11/2013 U Potchefstroom
  2. 2. OUTLINE The World of Digital Humanities What are the/is Digital Humanities? ● History ● Humanities Computing ● Digital Humanities ● Digital Humanities in the World Reality check ● Centres | publications | resources ● Research/Projects ●
  3. 3. The World of Digital Humanities Digital Humanities: Prospects & Proposals – 13/11/2013 U Potchefstroom
  4. 4. DIGITAL HUMANITIES? Willard McCarty [2003] 'This, for the humanities, is a question not to be answered but continually to be explored and refined'
  5. 5. DIGITAL HUMANITIES? Willard McCarty [2003] 'This, for the humanities, is a question not to be answered but continually to be explored and refined' → Day of Digital Humanities [2009-present]
  6. 6. DIGITAL HUMANITIES? Day of DH [2009-present] A social publication project that began with reflection on what we do as we do it 2014: 8 April 2014 @DayofDH
  7. 7. DIGITAL HUMANITIES? Day of DH [2009-present] A social publication project that began with reflection on what we do as we do it ca 300 participants worldwide ● Blogging: Day in the life of a DH ● Q: What is Digital Humanities? ● → Differing & Contradictory views
  8. 8. DIGITAL HUMANITIES?
  9. 9. DIGITAL HUMANITIES? Definitions of DH 1. The application of technology to the humanities 2. Working with digital media or a in a digital environment 3. Digital Humanities = Humanities done digitally 4. Transition moment towards future Humanities 5. Big Tent 6. Method & community 7. Collaboration/Interdisciplinarity 8. Using digital & studying digital Cf. also Gibbs 2012 <http://fredgibbs.net/digital-humanities-definitionsby-type/>
  10. 10. DIGITAL HUMANITIES? The application of technology to the humanities The application of computational methods to research and teaching in the humanities. —John Unsworth The theorizing, developing and application of/on computational techniques to humanities subjects. —Edward Vanhoutte Digital ↔ Analog/Traditional Humanities → How much / How innovative technology?
  11. 11. DIGITAL HUMANITIES? Working with digital media or in a digital environment Anything a Humanities scholar does that is mediated digitally, especially when such mediation opens discussion beyond a small circle of academic specialists. —David Wacks The performance of humanities related activities in, through and with digital media. —Christopher Long Digital ↔ Analog/Print communication → I made a website / I use Twitter
  12. 12. DIGITAL HUMANITIES? Digital Humanities = Humanities done digitally We don’t distinguish digital sociology or digital astronomy, so why digital humanities? Just because computers are involved doesn’t mean the basic nature of the subject area is any different than it has been traditionally. —Philip R. “Pib” Burns Digital Humanities is, increasingly, just Humanities—as far as I’m concerned. New tools lead to new methodologies, new perspectives, and new questions that all humanists should be aware of and concerned with. —Benjamin Albritton → The computer as a tool
  13. 13. DIGITAL HUMANITIES? Transition moment towards future Humanities Digital Humanities are the first step towards Future Humanities. —Davor A name that marks a moment of transition; the current name for humanities inquiry driven by or dependent on computers or digitally born objects of study; a temporary epithet for what will eventually be called merely Humanities. —Mark/Marino → Fleeting nature of difference / Transition
  14. 14. DIGITAL HUMANITIES? Big Tent DH is an umbrella term that, depending on who you are talking to, covers a huge territory: everything from applied text analysis and corpus stylistics to the more esoteric and theoretical realms of video game criticism. —Matthew Jockers → The computer as a tool
  15. 15. DIGITAL HUMANITIES? Methodology & Community The digital humanities is a name claimed by a community of those interested in digital methodologies and/or content in the humanities. —Rebecca Davis A broad church – but a common hymn sheet. —Anno Ici To me, DH is about making connections between people, ideas, and fields; the creative production of new ideas, questions, analyses, and technology; and engagement with a community that extends beyond academia. —Ashley Wiersma
  16. 16. DIGITAL HUMANITIES? Collaboration/Interdisciplinarity I think Digital Humanities is a kind of ‘fast-acting glue’ that allows scholars with different academic backgrounds to collaborate instantly. —Mitsuyuki Inaba, Ritsumeikan University, Japan What sets Digital Humanities apart, for me, is its genuine interdisciplinarity, its permanent emergence, and its open communication. —Christof Schöch The great opportunity to burn down academic walls. —Enrica Salvatori
  17. 17. DIGITAL HUMANITIES? Using digital & studying digital I see ‘Digital Humanities’ as an umbrella term for two different but related developments: 1) Humanities Computing (the specialist use of computing technology to undertake Humanities research) and 2) the implications for the Humanities of the social revolution created by ubiquitous computing and online access. Since the late noughties the latter seems to have become the driving force in DH with responsibility for much of the ‘boom’ in public interest and funding. —Leif Isaksen → Humanities Computing ↔ DH
  18. 18. DIGITAL HUMANITIES? Humanities Computing The practice of using computing for and in the humanities from the early 1950s tot 2004 → Lexical Text Analysis → Literary & Linguistic Computing Digital Humanities Became prominent name of the field in 2004
  19. 19. History Ada Lovelace (1815-1852) Again, it [the operating mechanism, EV] might act upon other things besides number, were objects found whose mutual fundamental relations could be expressed by those of the abstract science of operations, and which should be also susceptible of adaptations to the action of the operating notation and mechanism of the engine. Supposing, for instance, that the fundamental relations of pitched sounds in the science of harmony and of musical composition were susceptible of such expression and adaptations, the engine might compose elaborate and scientific pieces of music of any degree of complexity or extent. (Lovelace, 1961 [1843], p. 248-249)
  20. 20. History ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer) Construction started 1943 ● Ballistic research during WWII ● Operational in 1946 ● EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer) First binary stored program computer ● Ballistic research during WWII ● Operational in 1951 ●
  21. 21. History Warren Weaver (1894-1978) Science: Mathematics Humanities: Machine Translation
  22. 22. History Machine Translation The application of computers to the translation of texts from one natural language into another
  23. 23. History Machine Translation The application of computers to the translation of texts from one natural language into another Arguments Pragmatic & social: communication ● Academic & political: collaboration / peace ● Military: knowing what the enemy knows ● Economical: selling a good product ●
  24. 24. History Andrew D. Booth (1918-2009) A concluding example, of possible application of electronic computer, is that of translating from one language into another. We have considered this problem in some detail, and it aspires that a machine of the type envisaged could perform this function without any modification in its design. [12 February 1948]
  25. 25. History W. Weaver: 'Translation' (15 July 1949)
  26. 26. History Machine Translation 1946: Discussions Weaver – Booth 1948: Memorandum by Booth 1949: 'Translation' by Weaver 1952: International Conference on MT 1953: 'Automatic Digital Calculators' by Booth & Booth 1954: Demonstration at IBM headquarters 1954: PhD on MT by Anthony Oettinger 1954: Journal 'Mechanical Translation' 1955-1966: Organisation of the field 1962: Association for MT and Computational Linguistics 1966: ALPAC report
  27. 27. History ALPAC report [1966] Funding should be provided for: ● The improvement of translation by developing machine aids for human translators ● For Computational Linguistics
  28. 28. History Machine Translation Concordances ● Frequency lists ● Lemmatizations ● Lexical Text Analysis Concordances / Glossaries ● Authorship attribution ● Stylistic studies ● Relative chronology ● Fragment problems – papyri ● Tape library [Michael Levison, 1967] ●
  29. 29. History Roberto Busa (1913-2011) Index Thomisticus Lemmatized concordance of all the words in the complete works of Thomas Aquinas. → Commercial accounting machines (IBM)
  30. 30. History Michael Levison (? - ?) Computerized Concordance to the Revised Standard Version of the Bible → Magnetic tape technology UNIVAC (RAND)
  31. 31. History Up to the publication of the infamous ALPAC report in 1966, Computational Linguistics and Lexical Text Analysis were not separated fields, and used statistical analysis for the creation of indexes, concordances, corpora, and dictionaries. But from then onwards, Computational Linguistics embraced the symbolic approach and abandoned statistical analysis which has been at the heart of Humanities Computing.
  32. 32. History Literary & Linguistic Computing Computing in/for the Humanities ● ● 1965: Computers for the humanities? [IBM] 1967: Computers in Humanistic Research. Readings and Perspectives. → anthropology, archaeology, history, political sciences, language, literature, and musicology.
  33. 33. History Literary & Linguistic Computing Computing in/for the Humanities 1964: Literary and Linguistic Computing Centre (LLCC) - Cambridge ● 1966: CHum ● 1970: ICLLC ● 1973: ALLC ● 1973: ALLC Bulletin ● 1973: ALLC/ICCH ● 1978: ACH ● 1980: ALLC Journal ● 1986: Literary & Linguistic Computing
  34. 34. History Literary & Linguistic Computing Computing in/for the Humanities Europe: focus on literary and linguistic studies of language in literary form America: broader interest in computer-based studies of language in literary and non-literary form
  35. 35. History Literary & Linguistic Computing Computing in/for the Humanities 1980 Susan Hockey: A Guide to Computer Applications in the Humanities Robert Oakman: Computer Methods for Literary Research
  36. 36. History 'Humanities Computing' 1966: Heller & Logemann: activity ● 1968: 'Humanities Computing Activities in Italy' ● 1974: 'the future of humanities computing' ● 1980's: term was widespread ● 1988 & 1991: Humanities Computing Yearbook ● 1991-1996: Research in Humanities Computing ●
  37. 37. Humanities Computing Humanities Computing – McCarty Computing for the Humanities → lack of modelling → Instrumental ● Computing in the Humanities → importance of modelling → Methodological ●
  38. 38. Humanities Computing Modelling The heuristic process of constructing and manipulationg models Model Denotative: a representation of something ● Exemplary: a design for realising something new ●
  39. 39. Humanities Computing Modelling – Purpose is never to establish the truth directly but it ‘is to achieve failure so as to raise and point the question of how we know what we know’ (McCarty, 1999b), ‘what we do not know,’ and ‘to give us what we do not yet have’ (McCarty 2004, p. 255).
  40. 40. Humanities Computing Modelling // Computer Science HC: starts from the modelling of ‘imperfectly articulated knowledge’ (McCarty, 2005, p. 194), and works its way up through further steps of computational modelling till it reaches the stage of a deeper understanding of the world. CS (and programming in particular): starts from a real world problem and travels down to its implementation in hardware.
  41. 41. Humanities Computing Method of HC ≠ Formalisation Heuristics: the study of interpretation that confers value on cultural objects Text Encoding: use of markup for the articulation and documentation of different semiotic systems in text → Empirical Modelling
  42. 42. Humanities Computing Text Encoding Initiative [TEI] Principles: ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Platform-independent Software-independent Endurability Re-usability Accessibility Language-independent For all of the Humanities disciplines → SGML ISO 8879:1996 → XML
  43. 43. Humanities Computing Text Encoding Initiative [TEI]
  44. 44. Digital Humanities Has definitely but not definitively replaced Humanities Computing as a name for the field.
  45. 45. Digital Humanities Popularization ● Socialization → Trivialization? ● The popular qualification ‘digital’ only relates to the technological (instrumental?) element of computation without using jargon language such as ‘computer’, ‘computing’ or ‘computational’.
  46. 46. Digital Humanities Humanities Computing: ● more hermetic term ● clearer purview: ● relates to the crossroads where informatics and information science meet with the humanities ● had a history built on LTA & MT Digital Humanities: ● does not refer to such a specialized activity, ● provides a big tent for all digital scholarship in the humanities.
  47. 47. Digital Humanities Patrik Svensson [DHQ] Humanities Computing ≠ Digital Humanities There are many scholars involved in what may be called digital humanities who have no or little knowledge of humanities computing, and vice versa, many humanities computing representatives who do not engage much with current 'new media' studies of matters such as platform studies, transmedia perspectives or database aesthetics.
  48. 48. Digital Humanities Rafael Alvarado Instead of a definition, we have a genealogy, a network of family resemblances among provisional schools of thought, methodological interests, and preferred tools, a history of people who have chosen to call themselves digital humanists and who in the process of trying to define the term are creating that definition. → Social Category
  49. 49. Digital Humanities Matthew Kirschenbaum At a moment when the academy in general and the humanities in particular are the object of massive and wrenching changes, digital humanities emerges as a rare vector for jujitsu, simultaneously serving to position the humanities at the very forefront of certain valueladen agendas—entrepreneurship, openness and public engagement, future-oriented thinking, collaboration, interdisciplinarity, big data, industry tie-ins, and distance or distributed education—while at the same time allowing for various forms of intra-institutional mobility as new courses are mooted, new colleagues are hired, new resources are allotted, and old resources are reallocated.
  50. 50. Digital Humanities Matthew Kirschenbaum A tactical convenience
  51. 51. 2004 Digital Humanities
  52. 52. 2004 Digital Humanities
  53. 53. 2004 Digital Humanities
  54. 54. Digital Humanities Tries to model the surrounding world in order to reach at a better understading of humans, their activities and what they produce.
  55. 55. Digital Humanities
  56. 56. Digital Humanities in the world Digital Humanities: Prospects & Proposals – 13/11/2013 U Potchefstroom
  57. 57. Geographically 195 DH centres registered on CenterNet
  58. 58. Geographically DH2014: 589 papers from 35 countries
  59. 59. Geographically DH2014: 589 papers from 35 countries
  60. 60. Organizations ADHO: Alliance of Digital Humanities Organizations <http://www.digitalhumanities.org> EADH: European Association for Digital Humanities <http://www.eadh.org – http://www.allc.org> ● ACH: Association for Computers and the Humanities <http://www.ach.org> ● CSDH/SCHN: Canadian Society for Digital Humanities <http://csdh-schn.org/> ● AaDH: Australasian Association for Digital Humanities <http://aa-dh.org/> ● JADH: Japanese Association for Digital Humanities <http://www.jadh.org/> ● CenterNet <http://digitalhumanities.org/centernet/> ●
  61. 61. Geographically LLC 2012: 107 papers from 30 countries
  62. 62. Thematically
  63. 63. Thematically
  64. 64. Financially
  65. 65. Financially
  66. 66. Publications – Journals + 3,500 Institutional subscribers + 560 Individual subscribers 59 published papers 753 pp. Impact Factor: 0.717 @LLCJournal Official Journal of ADHO: ● EADH ● ACH ● CSDH/SCHN ● AaDH ● JADH ● CenterNet
  67. 67. Publications – Journals DHQ: Digital Humanities Quarterly Open Access <http://digitalhumanities.org/dhq/>
  68. 68. Publications – Journals Digital Studies / Le champ numérique Open Access <http://www.digitalstudies.org/>
  69. 69. Publications – Journals JDH: Journal of Digital Humanities Open Access <http://journalofdigitalhumanities.org/>
  70. 70. Publications – Journals Online refereed journal <http://www.digitalmedievalist.org/journal/>
  71. 71. Publications – Journals Official journal of the Text Encoding Initiative Consortium <http://journal.tei-c.org/journal/index>
  72. 72. Publications – Books
  73. 73. Online Resources highlights and distributes informally published digital humanities scholarship and resources <http://digitalhumanitiesnow.org/>
  74. 74. Online Resources a community-based Q&A board for digital humanities <http://digitalhumanities.org/answers/>
  75. 75. Online Resources Free interactive tutorials on TEI <http://teibyexample.org/>
  76. 76. Online communities International electronic seminar on humanities computing and the digital humanities. <http://dhhumanist.org/>
  77. 77. Online communities International web-based community for medievalists working with digital media. <http://www.digitalmedievalist.org/>
  78. 78. Online communities Decentralised and international community interested in the application of innovative digital methods and technologies to research on the ancient world. <http://www.digitalclassicist.org/>
  79. 79. Twitter communities Comprehensive list of scholars in digital humanities & editors of Digital Humanities Now @dhnow. @digitalhumanities
  80. 80. Twitter communities @LLCJournal
  81. 81. Twitter communities @eadh_org
  82. 82. Twitter communities @DefiningDH
  83. 83. Training DH undergraduate, masters, and PhD programs <https://www.zotero.org/groups/digital_humanities_ education/items/collection/2950956>
  84. 84. Training Week of intensive coursework, seminars, & lectures <http://www.dhsi.org/>
  85. 85. Training Summer Schools Oxford [UK] <http://digital.humanities.ox.ac.uk/dhoxss/> ● Leipzig [Germany] <http://www.culingtec.uni-leipzig.de/ESU_C_T/> ● Bern [Switzerland] <http://www.dhsummerschool.ch/> ●
  86. 86. Research & Projects
  87. 87. Research & Projects Male: 70% Female writers adopting male style Female: 80% Elliot Kipling / James / Trollope / Hardy
  88. 88. Research & Projects Iris Murdoch: died with Alzheimers Agatha Christie: suspected of having died with Alzheimers P.D. James: aged healthily Signs of dementia can be found in diachronic analyses of patients' writings and lead to new understanding of the work of the individual authors whom we studied
  89. 89. Research & Projects
  90. 90. Research & Projects Not more than two-dozen ancient individuals living from around 2200 BC to 421 AD authored the Book of Mormon [1830] But Five 19th century authors: Solomon Spalding ● Sidney Rigdon ● Oliver Cowdery ●
  91. 91. Research & Projects <http://www.oorlogsdagboek.be/>
  92. 92. Research & Projects <http://edities.ctb.kantl.be/daisne/>
  93. 93. Research & Projects
  94. 94. The World of Digital Humanities: Digital Humanities in the world Edward Vanhoutte Royal Academy of Dutch Language & Literature University College London Centre for Digital Humanities LLC: The Journal of Digital Scholarship in the Humanities (OUP) edward.vanhoutte@kantl.be @evanhoutte Digital Humanities: Prospects & Proposals – 13/11/2013 U Potchefstroom

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