Session 2 Restraint Principles Sheep

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Session 2 Restraint Principles Sheep

  1. 1. Session 2: Restraint of Sheep, Goats and Swine
  2. 2. Positional Terminology  Recumbent: Refers to lying down or back  Lateral: Refers to the side  Dorsal: Refers to the back(spine side)  Sternal: Refers to the underside (sternum/abdomen)
  3. 3. Know Normal Behavior  Important in determining which restraint technique to use  Differences between species
  4. 4. Sheep Terminology  “Ovine”  Ruminant Herbivores – Ewe: Female of reproductive age – Ram: Intact male of reproductive age – Lamb: young sheep of either sex – Wether: neutered adult male – Mutton: meat derived from adult sheep
  5. 5. Sheep Production  Economical & efficient production of meat, wool and milk Combination Meat Breeds Wool Breeds Breeds Suffolk Rambouillet Polypay Dorset Merino Texel Hampshire Debouillet Tunis Southdown Columbia Leicester Oxford Targhee Cheviot Shropshire
  6. 6. Sheep Meat Breeds Oxford Dorset Suffolk http://www.ansi.okstate.edu/breeds/
  7. 7. Sheep Wool Breeds Rambouillet Targhee Merino http://www.ansi.okstate.edu/breeds/
  8. 8. Sheep Behavior  VERY herd conscious – usually driven in bunches  “Safety in numbers”  Wide visual field - ~ 270°  Highly sensitive to excessive noise
  9. 9. Sheep Behavior: Fight or Flight  Different responses to handling based on breed  White-faced wool breeds have greater flocking instinct  Fight or Flight zone depends on where sheep is raised: Barn raised – shorter flight zone Rarely saw people – bigger flight zone
  10. 10. Sheep Behavior  Very athletic! – Will climb over each other when driven into enclosures – BEWARE: Lambs can sustain traumatic injuries - use care when driving them!  When angry, will stamp front feet or head butt (especially rams!)
  11. 11. Capture and Restraint of Sheep  “Work” flock into small pen or enclosures  Approach individual slowly  Capture animal by putting one arm around its neck and front quarters then quickly wrapping other hand around rear quarters and grabbing its tail stump (dock)  Guide animal into desired area for treatment
  12. 12. Capture and Restraint of Sheep  Can use Shepherd’s Crook – Use to hook a back leg in the hock area – Work quickly so animal doesn’t fight crook and break its leg
  13. 13. Restraint of Sheep  RUMPING – Very easy method of immobilizing animal for routine husbandry – Hoof trimming – Shearing wool – SQ vaccinations
  14. 14. http://www3.northampton.edu/club/navta/Fall2006.pdf Animal rests on its hind quarters to enable technicians to clean and trim its hooves and conduct a physical exam. Note: the animal’s back is supported against the legs of its restrainer
  15. 15. http://www3.northampton.edu/club/navta/Fall2006.pdf Obtain pulse rate from Femoral Artery Normal pulse rate in sheep is 70-90 BPM
  16. 16. Important! NEVER NEVER grab a sheep or a mohair goat by the wool!  Causes subcutaneous bruising, ruins the wool for market  And it hurts!
  17. 17. Don’t be Baaaaaaashful… Questions?
  18. 18. Goat Terminology  “Caprine”  Ruminant Herbivores  Doe: female  Buck: intact male  Kid: baby goat – either sex  Wether: castrated male
  19. 19. Goats Raised for meat, milk, fiber and hides Dairy Breeds Meat Breeds Fiber Breeds Nubian Boer Alpine Spanish Apine LaMancha Myotonic Pygora Saanen Pygmy Toggenberg Kiko
  20. 20. Saanen Dairy Breeds Nubian Alpine http://fiascofarm.com/goats/breeds.htm
  21. 21. Kiko Meat Breeds Boer Spanish http://fiascofarm.com/goats/breeds.htm
  22. 22. Fiber Breeds Pygora Angora http://fiascofarm.com/goats/breeds.htm
  23. 23. Goat Behavior  Highly social animals!  Flock together in extended family groups  Males and females will establish social dominance via fighting  Use horns for fighting, so group the herd according to whether they’re horned or de- horned
  24. 24. Goat Behavior  Unlike sheep, they will not stay together when herded, instead will scatter  Best to ID the lead goat (usually a doe) and guide her into pen and the others will follow
  25. 25. Goat Behavior  Generally docile and handled easily use the  Goats DON’T tolerate rough minimum treatment amount of restraint necessary!  If you’re rough, they get agitated and will try to butt
  26. 26. Goat Behavior Hair raised along spine Warning Stamping foot Signs! Sneezing/Snorting Rearing up on hind legs
  27. 27. Goat Capture and Restraint To capture: grab one of its front legs and lift animal; Can use shepherd’s crook Push animal against a wall/fence with your legs and hips to restrain it Place knee firmly in animal’s flank
  28. 28. Goat Restraint  Do not rump a goat to do any procedure!  Back animal’s hindquarters into a corner, and straddle animal at the shoulders while holding its head (good for TPR, and venipuncture) Normal pulse rate in goats is 70-90 BPM
  29. 29. Goat Restraint Methods  Flanking – Leaves the animal laterally recumbent
  30. 30. Goats: Restraining the Head  Necessary for eye exams, oral meds and jugular blood collection  Two methods: – Place hands on cheeks, wrap fingers around jawbone and hold firmly – Grasp beard with one hand and encircle neck with the other to stabilize head* * Beware mating season!!
  31. 31. Restraining for Venipuncture  Cephalic Venipuncture – Straddle goat’s shoulders, place one hand around neck to stabilize head. Use other hand to hold out leg, “roll” vein and stabilize elbow.  Jugular Venipuncture – Back goat into corner and push it sideways into wall. Use one hand to hold head to the side and one hand to hold off the vein
  32. 32. Questions?
  33. 33. QUESTION OF THE DAY… If a pig loses its voice, is it disgruntled ?
  34. 34. Swine Terminology  “Porcine”  Monogastric omnivores – Sow = Adult female – Boar = Adult male – Piglet/Farrow = Young – Gilt = Sexually mature female, no litter yet – Barrow = Castrated male
  35. 35. Swine Breeds: Top Breeds American Yorkshire Duroc http://www.ansi.okstate.edu/breeds/ Hampshire
  36. 36. Swine Behavior  Intelligent, stubborn, vocal and at times vicious  Easily frightened due to poor eyesight  Can be incredibly dangerous to restrain  When stressed or treated roughly, can become hyperthermic easily!
  37. 37. Swine Behavior  When aggressive, pigs will use sharp teeth  Unlike sheep and goats, pigs can’t be herded;  Will come to the rescue of a distressed herd mate! Beware! ALWAYS have an escape route when working with pigs!
  38. 38. Tools for Capture and Restraint  Pig Boards – Flat, solid piece of wood, plastic, metal large enough to cover handler’s legs – Use as barrier to move pig in direction you want – Make sure board is touching ground, otherwise pig will try to go under it
  39. 39. Tools for Capture and Restraint  Paddles – Flat board on a long stick – Gently tap pig on shoulder, rump or side of face to direct it in direction you want – Do NOT slap the pig with the paddle. It will become enraged and you will NOT win!
  40. 40. Capture and Restraint of Pigs  Lifting pigs – Use on pigs > 50lbs – Good for castration, vaccination and administering meds
  41. 41. Tools for Restraint  Hog Snare – Long metal pole with cable loop on end – Use for large pigs – Dangle loop in front of pig’s snout; when pig opens mouth, push loop into mouth behind tusks and tighten – Move quickly, as pig will whip around to get free.
  42. 42. Tools for Restraint  V-Trough – Used for placing smaller pigs on their back – Stretch pig’s legs to secure ropes – Stretch pig’s neck for venipuncture
  43. 43. Questions?
  44. 44. Have a Great Week!

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