Dogs I Behavior And Restraint Of Dogs


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Dogs I Behavior And Restraint Of Dogs

  1. 1. Principles of Canine Behavior, Restraint and Handling
  2. 2. Patience & Wisdom
  3. 3. Canine Terminology <ul><li>Sp. Canis Lupus Familiaris </li></ul><ul><li>Dog: Male </li></ul><ul><li>Bitch: Female </li></ul><ul><li>Sire: Father of a litter </li></ul><ul><li>Dam: Mother of a litter </li></ul><ul><li>Whelping: Giving birth </li></ul>
  4. 4. Evolution to Domestication <ul><li>Direct descendent of the gray wolf </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior changed; smaller and with shorter muzzles and smaller teeth </li></ul><ul><li>Started their interactions with humans as scavengers </li></ul><ul><li>One of the most notable changes is the ability of dogs to understand, or read, human signs and behaviors, such as changes in tone or voice or pointing (wolves don’t have this feature) </li></ul>“ Evolution of the Dog”
  5. 5. Evolution to Domestication <ul><li>Modern dogs spend most of their time with humans </li></ul><ul><li>View human family as their pack </li></ul><ul><li>Need to establish pecking order within group </li></ul>
  6. 6. Canine Behavior <ul><li>Submissive Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tail low, wagging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Face licking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuzzling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rolling over </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Displaying belly/groin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Averted gaze, crouching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dog is acknowledging its lower status by showing puppy-like body language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>* Submissive urination </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Canine Behavior <ul><li>Playful Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Front legs extended </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chest lowered to ground </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rump in the air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ears back </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yapping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tail up and wagging </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Making himself smaller and using puppy sounds – less threatening </li></ul>
  8. 8. Canine Behavior <ul><li>Dominant Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Erect tail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stiff-legged walk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Head high, ears up or back </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct eye contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinks highly of him/herself; may not acknowledge another animal’s (or human’s) dominance </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9.
  10. 10. Prelude to a Bite PRELUDE TO A DOG BITE Ears Back Lips Drawn Head & Neck Extended Up Direct Eye Contact Hackles Raised
  11. 11. Breed Considerations <ul><li>Sometimes dog can be hard to “read” because of breed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Floppy eared dogs don’t provide same “ear cues” as others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy facial fur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-vocalizing dogs </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>“ It is the dog’s perception of a situation, not the intent of the human, which determines whether a situation is potentially harmful.” </li></ul>American Humane Society
  13. 13. Dominance Aggression <ul><li>Dog perceives a “challenge” to its social status </li></ul><ul><li>Physical restraint is seen as threat (even hugging) </li></ul><ul><li>Do not reach for the collar or reach over the head of a dominant dog </li></ul><ul><li>Problematic in clinic setting! </li></ul>
  14. 14. Fear Aggression <ul><li>Dog attacks out of fear it will be harmed </li></ul>
  15. 15. Territorial/Possession Aggression <ul><li>Dog will defend its territory and possessions (toys, bedding, crate, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Possessions can include humans </li></ul>
  16. 16. Approaching the animal <ul><li>Call dog by its name, then approach from the front – never sneak up on it! </li></ul><ul><li>Hand extended, palm down, fingers curled </li></ul><ul><li>Let dog sniff back of your hand </li></ul><ul><li>When shown acceptance (tail wagging, relaxed body language), scratch under the dog’s ears, then its chest, neck, shoulders and hips. </li></ul>
  17. 17.
  18. 18. Considerations with Owners <ul><li>If owner is holding the dog, ask him/her to place dog on the table. Do not take the dog from the owner </li></ul><ul><li>Owner should NEVER restrain animal – practice is liable if animal bites owner </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes its best if owner is not in the room </li></ul>
  19. 19. Special Handling Considerations <ul><li>Puppies </li></ul><ul><li>Pregnant Bitches </li></ul><ul><li>Old dogs </li></ul><ul><li>Nervous Dogs </li></ul><ul><li>Injured Dogs </li></ul>
  20. 20. Handling – Lifting/Carrying <ul><li>Medium sized dogs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sweep one hand and arm under the dog’s head and neck </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slip the other arm under dog’s abdomen near its hind legs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using your legs (not your back), lift dog up </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Handling – Lifting/Carrying <ul><li>Small Dogs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reach one hand under head/neck and grasp collar on side opposite from you </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With other hand, reach over dog’s back and support thorax with hand and arm </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Handling – Lifting/Carrying <ul><li>Large Dog </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reach one hand and arm under dog’s head and neck and rest hand just below shoulder on side opposite from you </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrap other hand and arm behind dog’s rump and lift. Dog will assume a “sitting position.” </li></ul></ul>* Use this method for lifting pregnant bitches
  23. 23. Restraint Techniques <ul><li>Standing Restraint </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrap one arm around dog’s neck to control head. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrap other arm under abdomen. Pull dog close to your body </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use this restraint for: </li></ul><ul><li>Physical exam </li></ul><ul><li>IM, SQ Injections </li></ul><ul><li>TPR </li></ul><ul><li>Expressing Anal Glands </li></ul>
  24. 24. Restraint Techniques <ul><li>Sternal Restraint </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From standing restraint, move your hand from under the abdomen to behind the stifles, and gently press the stifles forward, making the dog sit. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use your body to gently push down on dog’s back while pulling its front legs forward </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use this restraint for: </li></ul><ul><li>Cleaning ears </li></ul><ul><li>Applying eye meds </li></ul><ul><li>Giving oral meds </li></ul>
  25. 25. Restraint Techniques <ul><li>Lateral Restraint </li></ul><ul><li>With dog in standing position, reach across its back and grab both forelimbs in one hand & both hindlegs in the other </li></ul><ul><li>Place the index finger of each hand between the 2 legs being held </li></ul><ul><li>Slowly lift dog’s legs up and let its body slide against yours until it is lying laterally. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Restraint Techniques <ul><li>Lateral Restraint (cont.) </li></ul><ul><li>Use forearm closest to dog’s head to put pressure on head to keep dog from reaching around and biting </li></ul><ul><li>Use this restraint for: </li></ul><ul><li>Urine catheterization </li></ul><ul><li>SQ, IM injections </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral saphenous venipuncture </li></ul>Important! Lift dog’s forelegs slightly off the table – it prevents them from trying to get up
  27. 27. Low Stress Handling <ul><li>These short videos were created by a veterinarian who created a series of “low stress” methods of handling dogs and cats </li></ul><ul><li>Check it out: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  28. 28. Restraint Techniques <ul><li>Jugular Venipuncture </li></ul><ul><li>In sternal recumbency, move the hand from under the dogs neck up to under the mandible. Curl fingers around mandible </li></ul><ul><li>Tilt dog’s head back and up to expose jugular vein </li></ul><ul><li>Place other hand around shoulder of dog and lean on the animal to keep him still. Legs can also be extended over the table edge (for small breeds) </li></ul>
  29. 29. Restraint Techniques <ul><li>Cephalic Venipuncture </li></ul><ul><li>Dog in sternal recumbency, keep its body close to yours </li></ul><ul><li>Encircle one arm under the dog’s neck and head. </li></ul><ul><li>With the other hand, brace the dog’s elbow and using the thumb on the same hand, “roll” the vein and occlude it for the person taking the blood </li></ul>
  30. 30. Restraint Techniques <ul><li>Lateral Saphenous Venipuncture </li></ul><ul><li>With dog in lateral recumbency, the restrainer releases hind legs and uses that hand to grab and squeeze the leg just above the knee, occluding the saphenous vein </li></ul>Saphenous vein
  31. 31. Restraint Equipment - Muzzles
  32. 32. Using Muzzles <ul><li>Commercial Muzzles vs. Gauze Muzzles </li></ul> Do NOT use “CLING”
  33. 33. Commercial Muzzles <ul><li>Purpose: to keep dog from biting </li></ul><ul><li>Different types (leather, nylon or basket) for different types of dogs </li></ul><ul><li>Proper fit is key! </li></ul><ul><li>Estimate size based on dog’s muzzle </li></ul>
  34. 34. Applying Commercial Muzzle <ul><li>Dog in sitting or sternal recumbency </li></ul><ul><li>Two methods of applying a muzzle: </li></ul><ul><li>If the animal is aggressive it may be easier to get the muzzle on by approaching from the rear and quickly applying the muzzle over the nose and mouth. </li></ul><ul><li>If the animal is fearful, apply the muzzle from the front so they can see you approaching. The basket style muzzles are easier to apply if the animal’s mouth is open (trying to bite) because this style is wider. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Applying a Gauze Muzzle <ul><li>The length must be adequate to wrap around the muzzle at least twice, then tie behind the ears. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Applying a Gauze Muzzle <ul><li>A large loop is made in the center of the length of gauze. The loop should be about 3 times the diameter of the dog's muzzle </li></ul>
  37. 37. Applying a Gauze Muzzle <ul><li>The loop is placed around the muzzle and pulled tight at dorsum of the nose. A single knot is placed. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Applying a Gauze Muzzle <ul><li>The ends of the gauze are then tied under the jaw with a single knot. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Applying a Gauze Muzzle <ul><li>The long ends of the gauze are brought behind the ears and tied in either a square knot or a easy release bow. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s a good idea to tie a square knot and have scissors handy in case the muzzle needs to be quickly removed. </li></ul>