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Lesson Planning by Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar

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Lesson Planning by Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar

  1. 1. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Scholar TE Planning
  2. 2. Why is lesson planning so important? Lesson planning means making decisions in advance about what to teach, how to teach and the time assignment of every teaching procedure • Teaching plan is necessary for both novice and experienced teachers. Although preparation does not guarantee successful lessons, walking into a classroom unprepared is often the beginning of a disastrous lesson. • Although the main teaching contents may be the same, the students, the time and the mood are all different.
  3. 3. Benefits that teachers get from their teaching plan 1) To make the teacher aware of the aims and language contents of the lesson. 2) To help the teacher distinguish the various stages of a lesson and to see the relationship between them so that the lesson can move smoothly from one stage to another. 3) Proper lesson planning gives the teacher opportunity to anticipate potential problems that may arise in class so that they can be prepared with some possible solutions or other options for the lesson. 4) Lesson planning gives teachers, especially novice teachers, confidence in class.
  4. 4. Main Principles of Communicative Teaching Suitable material Mistakes / Natural Use of target Language Positive reinforcement Involving Enjoyable Meaningful Interactive Communicative Teaching Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Scholar TE Planning
  5. 5. Variety: different types of activities and a wide selection of materials. Flexibility: different methods and techniques Learnability: the contents and tasks should be within the learning capability of the students. Linkage: the stages should be linked with one another. Principles for Good Lesson Planning Aim: the realistic goals for the lesson
  6. 6. Answer the 4 questions. Discuss your answers with your peer. Report to the group • Why is lesson planning important? • How is lesson planning important for the teacher? For the learners? • What do you take into account when you design a lesson plan? • What constant components are there in your lesson plan? Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Scholar TE Planning
  7. 7. Why is lesson planning important? • Being clear on what you want to teach. • Being ready to cope with whatever happens. • Give your teaching a framework, an overall shape. • A reminder for the teacher when they get distracted. • It suggests a level of professionalism and real commitment. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Scholar TE Planning
  8. 8. How is lesson planning important for the teacher and the learners? For the teacher They don’t have to think on their feet. They don’t lose face in front of their learners. They are clear on the procedure to follow. They build on previous teaching and prepare for coming lessons For the learner They realize that the teacher cares for their learning. They attend a structured lesson: easier to assimilate They appreciate their teacher’s work as a model of well-organized work to imitate. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Scholar TE Planning
  9. 9. What do you take into account when you design a lesson plan? Five guiding principles: • Variety • Cohérences • Balance • Flexibility • Challenge Balance Flexibility Variety Challenge Coherence Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Scholar TE Planning
  10. 10. Variety Why vary? • a- to meet different learning styles: theorist – Activist – Pragmatic – Reflector • b- to consider different intelligence types. • c- to keep them interested and avoid monotony. What to vary? • Contents – Activities – Interaction modes – Materials – Aids … How to vary? • VAK Approach Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Scholar TE Planning
  11. 11. Ways of Varying these different components 1. Tempo/Pace : Activities may be brisk and fast- moving, such as guessing games; or slow and reflective, such as reading or responding in writing. 2. Organization : The learners may work on their own at individualized tasks, or in pairs or groups, or as a full class in interaction with the teacher. 3. Mode and Skill : Activities may be based on the written or the spoken language; and within these, they may vary as to whether the learners are asked to produce (speak/ write) or receive (listen / read ). Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Scholar TE Planning
  12. 12. 4. Difficulty : Activities may be seen as easy and non demanding; or difficult , requiring concentration and effort. 5. Mood : Activities vary also in mood: light and fun -based versus serious and profound; happy versus sad; tense versus relaxed. 6. Stir - Settle : Some activities enliven and excite learners ( such as controversial discussions for advanced levels), or activities which involve physical movement (such as the race dictation) for the lower levels. Others, like dictation, have the effect of calming them down 7. Active - Passive : Learners may be activated in a way that encourages their own initiative ; or they may only be required to do as they are told Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Scholar TE Planning
  13. 13. Coherence • Observe a logical pattern to the lesson: there has to be connection between the different activities in the lesson. • Smooth transition is one of the pillars that ensures success of the lesson plan during implementation in the classroom. • An activity in a lesson builds on a previous one and prepares for the next. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Scholar TE Planning
  14. 14. Challenge  Learners are intelligent human beings and come to class with knowledge previously acquired.  The new lesson should add to that knowledge without excess.  The lesson that does not challenge is a lesson that does not motivate.  No learning happens if the lesson doesn’t present new items beyond students’ prior knowledge. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Scholar TE Planning
  15. 15. Flexibility • Two dimensions: a- ability to use a number of different techniques and not be a slave to one methodology – Principled eclecticism. b- ability to change the plan if it shows inappropriacy to the classroom real situation for one reason or the other. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Scholar TE Planning
  16. 16. Balance The lesson is a mixture of a number of ingredients: techniques, activities, contents …. The successful teacher is the one who is able to observe the right dosage and makes the learners enjoy a savoury lesson. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Scholar TE Planning
  17. 17. What do you take into account when you design a lesson plan? • Objectives set out to be achieved. • Prior knowledge of learners. • Materials and didactic auxiliaries to be used. • Tasks and activities to select and stts’grouping patterns. • Interaction modes. • Timing and time managementSajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Scholar TE Planning
  18. 18. COMPONENTS OF A LESSON PLAN • 1- Information about the learners: How many? Cooperative? Quiet/ Agitated? How old? Who? Students Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Scholar TE Planning
  19. 19. COMPONENTS OF A LESSON PLAN • 2- OBJECTIVES: « Enable learners to… » Students’ needs Textbook Module map Official Program Objectives Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Scholar TE Planning
  20. 20. COMPONENTS OF A LESSON PLAN • 3- Procedure Logical sequencing Who does what? How much time? How to do? What to do? Procedure Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Scholar TE Planning
  21. 21. COMPONENTS OF A LESSON PLAN • 4- Aids Realia OHP Lap top Data show Audio-visual aids Board Wall paper Maps Textbook + Worksheets Aids Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Scholar TE Planning
  22. 22. Anticipated difficulties and reserve tasks What might go wrong? How to deal with it? Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Scholar TE Planning
  23. 23. HINTS FOR LESSON MANAGEMENT I. Prepare more than you need : It is advisable to have an easily presented, light “reserve” activity ready in case of extra time . II. Similarly , note in advance which component(s) of the lesson you will sacrifice if you find yourself with too little time to do everything you have planned. III. Keep an eye on your time, make sure you are aware during the lesson how time is going relative to your plan. Include timing in the plan itself. It is difficult to judge intuitively how time is going when you are busy, and the smooth running of your lesson depends to some extent on proper timing . Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Scholar TE Planning
  24. 24. IV. Do not leave the giving of homework to the last minute! At the end of the lesson learners' attention is at a low ebb, and you may run out of time before you finish explaining . V. If you are doing group work, give instructions and make sure these are understood before dividing the class into groups and even, if practicable, before handing out materials. If you do it the other way around , people will be looking at each other and at the materials you have given them, and they are less likely to attend to what you have to say Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Scholar TE Planning
  25. 25. Suggested format of a lesson plan A. Goals: A unifying theme, an overall general purpose to accomplish by the end of the lesson period.  e.g. Students will increase their familiarity with the conventions of telephone conversations B. Objectives : Explicitly state what you want students to gain from the lesson. What students will do: a. Be sure you know what it is you want to accomplish b. Preserve the unity of your lesson c. Predetermine whether or not you are trying to accomplish too much d. Evaluate students' success at the end of, or after, Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Scholar TE Planning
  26. 26. OBJECTIVES: Final learning outcomes that you will need to measure and evaluate • e.g. [ 1 ] Students will develop inner expectancy rules that enable them to predict and anticipate what someone else will say on the telephone. • [ 2 ] Students will solicit and receive information by requesting it over the phone Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Scholar TE Planning
  27. 27. C.Materials & Equipment : Tape / tape recorder / poster / map / handouts / OHP D.Procedures : There is so much variation here that it is hard to give any "set recipes", but make sure your plan includes : a. An Oral Test b. An opening statement or activity as warm-up for the lesson itself c. A set of activities and techniques in which you have considered appropriate proportions of time for : -- Whole class work -- Group and / or pair work -- Teacher Talk -- Student Talk -- Teacher / student Talk  d. Closure  e. Homework  f. Evaluation Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Scholar TE Planning
  28. 28. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Scholar TE Planning

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