How to make classroom effective By Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar TE Planning

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  • You will recall from our discussion last time that these this hierarchical
    listing of strategies finds Similarities and Differences at the top,
    with an effect size of 1.6.
  • You will recall from our discussion last time that these this hierarchical
    listing of strategies finds Similarities and Differences at the top,Show video after this.
    with an effect size of 1.6.
  • Page 127 – chart 11.2 imagery –based techniques
  • There are four strategies listed in the book:
    Comparing
    Classifying
    Metaphors, and
    Analogies.
    Today we will only have time to deal with the first two, you can obtain the book and review the other two on your own.
  • Show video as an example.
    Move
    Movie, guided practice
  • How to make classroom effective By Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar TE Planning

    1. 1. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar TE Planning 1 How To Make Classroom Effective By Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar TE Planning
    2. 2. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar TE Planning 2 Classroom Instruction That Works Identifying similarities and differences Summarizing and note taking Reinforcing effort and providing recognition Homework and practice Nonlinguistic representations Cooperative learning Setting objectives and providing feedback Generating and testing hypotheses Questions, cues and organizers
    3. 3. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar TE Planning 3 Classroom Instruction That Works – Effect Size Category Ave. Effect Size Percentile Gain # of Studies Identifying similarities and differences 1.61 45 31 Summarizing and note taking 1.00 34 179 Reinforcing effort and providing recognition .80 29 21 Homework and practice .77 28 134 Nonlinguistic representations .75 27 246 Cooperative learning .73 27 122 Setting objectives and providing feedback .61 23 408 Generating and testing hypotheses .61 23 63 Questions, cues and organizers .59 22 1251
    4. 4. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar TE Planning 4 Using the 9 Instructional Strategies in Lesson/Unit Planning Clear Learning Goals (#7 Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback) Students identify and record their own goals (#7 Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback) 1. 2. Beginning of the Unit/Lesson
    5. 5. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar TE Planning 5 During the Unit Introducing New Knowledge 1. Guide students to recall what they already know about the topics. (#9 Cues, Questions, Advance Organizers) 2. Provide students with ways of thinking about the topic in advance. (#9 Cues, Questions, Advance Organizers) 3. Compare new knowledge with what is known. (#1 Identifying Similarities and Differences)
    6. 6. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar TE Planning 6 During the Unit Introducing New Knowledge 4. Have students keep notes (#2 Summarizing and Note-taking) 5. Non-linguistic representations, share with others (#5 Non-linguistic Representations) 6. Have students work individually and in groups. (#6 Cooperative Learning)
    7. 7. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar TE Planning 7 During the Unit Practicing, Reviewing and Applying Knowledge 1. Assign homework that requires practice, review and application of learning. Give explicit feedback as to the accuracy of all homework. (#4 Homework and Practice, #7 Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback) 2. Engage students in long-term projects that involve testing and generating hypotheses. (#8 Generating and Testing Hypotheses) 3. Have students revise the linguistic and nonlinguistic representations of knowledge as they refine their understanding. (# 2 Summarizing and Note taking, #5 Nonlinguistic Representations)
    8. 8. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar TE Planning 8 During the Unit Monitoring Learning Goals 1. Feedback and Self-Assessment (#7 Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback) 2. Students keep track of achievement and effort expending toward goals (#3 Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition #7 Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback) 3. Celebrate legitimate progress toward learning goals (#3 Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition)
    9. 9. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar TE Planning 9 End of the unit… Helping students determine how well they have achieved their goals (#3 Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition, #7 Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback)  Provide students with clear assessments of their progress on each goal.  Have student assess themselves and compare with the teacher’s assessment  Ask them to articulate what they have learned.
    10. 10. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar TE Planning 10 9 Strategies = Results in all subjects  Specific Instructional Strategies can be matched to specific types of knowledge.  Different types of learning sometimes necessitate different types of instruction.
    11. 11. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar TE Planning 11 Before you start…  Be clear about the learning that you want your students achieve.  Understand which strategy works best to accomplish your learning target.
    12. 12. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar TE Planning 12 Generalizations that enhance student’s understanding of what is being taught and their ability to use that knowledge.  Teacher directed – presenting students with guidance  Asking students to independently engage in the activity  Use non-linguistic representation  Student generate own explanations and create non-linguistic representation  Periodically review the accuracy of their explanations and representations
    13. 13. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar TE Planning 13 Categories of Subject Matter Knowledge  Declarative Knowledge (Information and Ideas)  Vocabulary  Details  Organizing Ideas  Procedural Knowledge (Skills and Processes)  Skills and Tactics  Processes
    14. 14. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar TE Planning 14 Comparing The process of identifying and articulating similarities and differences among items. Classifying The process of grouping things into definable categories on the basis of their attributes. Creating Metaphors The process of identifying and articulating the underlying theme or general pattern in information. Creating Analogies The process of identifying relationships between pairs of concepts (e.g., relationships between relationships). 4 Strategies for Similarities and Differences
    15. 15. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar TE Planning 15 Identifying Similarities and Differences: Comparing Task, Round 1  Venn Diagram  Apples and Oranges
    16. 16. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar TE Planning 16 Characteristic 1 _____________________ Characteristic 2 _____________________ Easy to see that items are very different for this characteristic… …and very similar for this characteristic.
    17. 17. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar TE Planning 17 What are the steps in the comparison process? COMPARING 1. Select the items you want to compare. 2. Select the characteristics of the items on which you want to base your comparison. 3. Explain how the items are similar and different with respect to the characteristics you selected. To
    18. 18. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar TE Planning 18 Our Goals for Student Learning…  Help prepare for further learning  Identify critical relationships  Gain understanding, clear-up confusion, make new connections  Change in knowledge structure as a result of instruction
    19. 19. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar TE Planning 19 One key to a rigorous comparison is to identify items and characteristics that are meaningful and interesting. To do this, students need extensive modeling and feedback. If the items and characteristics are not meaningful, students will not make new distinctions or come to new conclusions about the targeted knowledge. TIP Make sure that students understand that the purpose of doing the comparison is to extend and refine their understanding of the knowledge they are learning. Asking students to select different characteristics will help them move beyond the obvious. TIP Tips Related to the Comparison Process
    20. 20. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar TE Planning 20 Identifying Similarities and Differences: Comparing Task, Round 2  In Jigsaw Groups:  Venn Diagram/Comparison Matrix  Apples and Oranges  Learning Goal: How does temperature and length of growing season effect the nutritional value of fruit?  How was Round 1 different than Round 2?
    21. 21. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar TE Planning 21 ELA and Math GLCE …comparing or contrasting?  Comparing is the process of identifying similarities and differences between or among things or ideas.  Comparing refers to identifying similarities  Contrasting refers to identifying differences.
    22. 22. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar TE Planning 22 ELA and Math GLCE Task  Find a GLCE at your grade level and content area that would be suitable to compare, contrast or both.  Would you use Venn Diagram/Comparison Matrix/other?  What steps would you have to take in order for students to use comparison with the GLCE independently? o Think-Pair-Share
    23. 23. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar TE Planning 23 CLASSIFYING 1. Identify the items you want to classify. 2. Select what seems to be an important item, describe its key attributes, and identify other items that have the same attributes. 3. Create a category by specifying the attribute(s) that the items must have for membership in this category. 4. Select another item, describe its key attributes, and identify other items that have the same attributes. Birds Fish Dogs What are the steps in the classifying process?
    24. 24. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar TE Planning 24 5. Create the second category by specifying the attribute(s) that the items must have for membership in the category. 6. Repeat the previous two steps until all items are classified and the specific attributes have been identified for membership in each category. 7. If necessary, combine categories or split them into smaller categories and specify attribute(s) that determine membership in the category. CLASSIFYING (cont’d) Birds Fish Dogs
    25. 25. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar TE Planning 25 We have been learning that different animals live in different environments. Classify the following animals in terms of whether they live in lakes or oceans, forests, in the soil, or in the desert. raccoons moles clams scorpions squirrels frogs bears lizards deer fish ants turtles worms ducks snakes Now, reclassify these animals using another set of attributes. For example, you might identify attributes that relate to the animal’s skin or outer covering (e.g., has fur, scales, has a shell). You may use a blank classifying graphic or your own chart to do this task. Content Area: Science Knowledge: Understands that different animals live in different environments.
    26. 26. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar TE Planning 26 Classification – a strategy for GLCE  ELA- Genre characteristics, poetry, types of fiction  Math – whole numbers, fractions, negative numbers, geometrical figures  Science – habitat, endangered, geographical location, adaptation  Social Studies – human, economic and capital resources.
    27. 27. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar TE Planning 27 Creating Metaphors  Identify a general or basic pattern in a specific topic and then find another topic that seems quite different at the literal level but has the same general pattern. Examples…  Counting is a recipe.  Vocabulary is a map legend.  Instructional Strategies are onions. Video Clip: Math Metaphors
    28. 28. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar TE Planning 28 Steps for Creating Metaphors 1. Identify the important or basic elements of the information of situation with which you are working. 2. Write that basic information as a general pattern by: • Replacing words for specific things with words for more general things, and • Summarizing information whenever possible 3. Find new information or a situation to which the general pattern applies.
    29. 29. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar TE Planning 29 Metaphor Organizer Element Literal Pattern Abstract Relationship Literal Pattern Element Internet Coffee shop
    30. 30. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar TE Planning 30 Examples of Metaphors in Content Areas  Social Studies-America is freedom and promise  Math-The graph of the sine function is a roller coaster  ELA-Writing is a process  Science-The cell is a factory
    31. 31. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar TE Planning 31 Recommendations for Classroom Practice  Giving students a model for the process.  Using familiar content to teach students the steps in creating metaphors  Giving students graphic organizers, and  Giving students guidance as needed
    32. 32. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar TE Planning 32 Analogies … A question What is the purpose of asking students to create analogies?
    33. 33. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar TE Planning 33 The purpose of analogies in the classroom  Help make connections between things that are very different  Pattern is A:B::C:D  A is to B as C is to D  happy:sad::big:small  happy and big are opposites of sad and small Analogy problems are common in testing situations – PSAT, SAT, ACT.
    34. 34. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar TE Planning 34 Using Analogies in the Classroom  Help explain an unfamiliar concept by making a comparison to something that we understand. Question… What is this analogy?  One:trillion::one square inch: the area of the city of Chicago  Pushes students to think about how items and concepts are related: how do two things interact, and how is the relationship similar to the relationship between the second pair.
    35. 35. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar TE Planning 35 Analogies Organizer – Great Depression Stock Market Crash of 1929 U.S. Economy A Is to B Something attacks a system and weakens its ability to prevent serious affliction.AS C D
    36. 36. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar TE Planning 36 Task: Strategic questioning  What is the goal or purpose of engaging students in summarizing activities?  To what extent do you think the act of summarizing varies from grade level to grade level? From content area to content area? Why do you think this?  Think-Share-Pair
    37. 37. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar TE Planning 37 Critical questions for Watching Video Clip  For the student:  How do I decide what is important?  What should I keep?  What should I substitute?  What should I delete?  For the teacher:  What strategies do you teach students to help them become proficient in summarizing?  To what extent do you think these strategies support them in identifying what they should keep, substitute, and delete?  How do you know if engaging in these strategies is really helping students to deepen their understanding of the content?
    38. 38. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar TE Planning 38 A Model for Summarizing Steps for Rule-Based Summarizing 1. Delete trivial material that is unnecessary to understanding. 2. Delete redundant material. 3. Substitute super-ordinate terms for more specific terms (e.g., use fish for rainbow trout, salmon, and halibut). 4. Select a topic sentence or invent one if it is missing. Steps in Rule-Based Summarizing for Younger Students 1. Take out material that is not important to your understanding. 2. Take out words that repeat information 3. Replace a list of things with a word that describes the things in the list (e.g., use trees for elm, oak, and maple). 4. Find a topic sentence. If you cannot find a topic sentence, make one up.
    39. 39. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar TE Planning 39 Research generalizations on summarizing • Students must delete some information, substitute some information, and keep some information. • To effectively delete, substitute, and keep information, students must analyze the information at a fairly deep level. • Being aware of the explicit structure of information is an aid to summarizing information. Summary Frames
    40. 40. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar TE Planning 40 The Six Summary Frames Narrative Frame Topic-Restriction-Illustration Frame Definition Frame Argumentation Frame Problem/Solution Frame Conversation Frame
    41. 41. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar TE Planning 41 A summary is … 1) A summary:  Is an essential condensation in your own words.  Answers the question “what is the author really saying?”  Is the result of careful “listening” to the author.  Remains faithful to the author’s emphasis and interpretation.  Does not disagree with or critique the author’s opinion. 2) A summary is a comprehensive but brief statement of what has been stated previously in a longer form. 3) A summary is a wrap-up----a general picture of the information--- much like TV networks produce at the end of a year. 4) Summaries provide a quick overview of a subject without having the reader wade through a lot of facts and details. Summaries help readers and writers boil information down to its most basic elements. 5) Encyclopedias, almanacs, and digests provide good examples of summaries.
    42. 42. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar TE Planning 42 Procedural Knowledge Summarizing is “procedural knowledge.” If students are expected to become proficient in procedural knowledge, they need to be able to “practice.” Mastering a skill or process requires a fair amount of focused practice. Practice sessions initially should be spaced very closely together. Over time, the intervals between sessions can be increased. Students also need feedback on their efforts. While practicing, students should adapt and shape what they have learned.
    43. 43. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar TE Planning 43 A Rubric for Summarizing 4 The student identifies the main pattern running through the information along with minor patterns. 3 The student identifies the main pattern running through the information. 2 The student addresses some of the features of the main pattern running through the information but excludes some critical aspects. 1 The student does not address the main pattern running through the information. 0 Not enough information to make a judgment.
    44. 44. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar TE Planning 44 Planning for Summarizing What specific information will students need to summarize?  film or video  chapter  lecture  story  article  event  other_______________ What strategy will I ask students to use?  Rule-based Summarizing Strategy  Summary Frames  Narrative or Story  TRI  Definition  Argumentation  Problem/Solution  Conversation  Group Enhanced Summary Strategy  Other ___________ What knowledge will students be learning? Do I need to set aside time to teach them the strategy? When and how? How much guidance will I provide them? How will I monitor how well students are doing?
    45. 45. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar TE Planning 45 Summary and the GLCE  Find a GLCE at your grade level and content area that would be suitable to summarize.  What steps would you have to take in order for students to use summary with the GLCE you chose independently? o Think-Pair-Share
    46. 46. Sajjad Ahmad Awan PhD Research Scholar TE Planning 46 A Call to Arms… Leading Change – What can you do? Teachers need to have… • Adequate modeling and practice • Feedback • Allowances for differences in implementation • Celebration

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