Ppg module tsl3105 topic 5 planning for teaching l&s


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Ppg module tsl3105 topic 5 planning for teaching l&s

  1. 1. TSL 3105 Teaching of Listening and Speaking Skills in the Primary ESL classroom TOPIC 5 PLANNING FOR TEACHING LISTENING AND SPEAKING 5.0 SYNOPSIS This topic aims to help course participants to understand the Principles of Lesson Planning and provides sample lesson plan format. It also aims to help to develop a better and deeper understanding of the pedagogical principles in the teaching of listening and speaking skills. 5.1 LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of Topic 5, you will be able to: • demonstrate an understanding of the principles for planning Lesson Plan • plan and design suitable listening and speaking activities. 5.2 FRAMEWORK OF TOPICS lgp/wsl/kj 2012 Lesson Planning Principles of Lesson Planning Lesson plan format
  2. 2. TSL 3105 Teaching of Listening and Speaking Skills in the Primary ESL classroom 5.3 CONTENT PRINCIPLES OF LESSON PLANNING Reflection  What is a lesson?  Why is lesson planning important?  What are the factors to bear in mind when planning a lesson? a. Developing a Lesson Plan One of the most important aspect of a good lesson is preceded by a good teaching plan. By thinking ahead and planning teachers systematically set realistic goals, prepare teaching aids, and develop activities which will promote learning. A well-developed lesson plan incorporates the best practices for teaching and learning and effectively promotes learning. Hence it is of utmost importance to plan for teaching and to plan well too. Did you answer correctly what a lesson plan is? A lesson plan is a framework for a lesson. Imagine that a lesson is like a journey in which you are travelling. What would you probably need? Of course you will need a map to guide you! The lesson plan is your map which will guide you to your destination! It is important because it shows you where you start, where you finish and the route to take to get there. Why is lesson planning important? Teachers need to know what it is they want their students to be able to do at the end of the lesson that they couldn't do before. Here are some other reasons planning is important: • gives the teacher the opportunity to predict possible problems and therefore consider solutions • gives teacher confidence to teach well • enable teacher to check that lesson is balanced and appropriate for the target class • planning is generally good practice and a sign of professionalism In developing a good lesson plan, teachers need to consider many factors including the objectives of the lesson, variety in the teaching and learning process and allowing flexibility in the classroom. lgp/wsl/kj 2012
  3. 3. TSL 3105 Teaching of Listening and Speaking Skills in the Primary ESL classroom b. Factors to be considered • Objectives – Educational objectives inform the teacher the desired learner competence in terms of acquisition of knowledge, skills and attitudes • Variety - an important way of getting and keeping the student engaged and interested. • Flexibility - expect the unexpected! It's useful when planning to build in some extra and alternative tasks and exercises. Students may raise an interesting point and discussions could provide unexpected opportunities learn. In these cases it can be appropriate to branch away from the plan. LESSON PLAN FORMAT a. Lesson Stages • Set Induction The word ‘set’ is actually a mental state of readiness and ‘Induction’ means brings it on. Hence ‘Set Induction’ is a stage when the teacher sets learners thinking and prepares them for the lesson. A set induction should provide a reference point between students’ previous knowledge and the new knowledge to be taught in that particular lesson. This creates a link from one lesson or class to the next. • Presentation The presentation stage is TTT (Teacher-Talking-Time) which involves explaining the aims of the lesson so that students know what they are going to learn and why. During this stage the teacher explains the new language, including both its meaning and form, and how to say or write it correctly. A good presentation will be interesting clear and contextualised so that the students can understand and follow suit. • Practice The goal of the practice stage is to enable the students to use the new language you have just explained to them. Students are required to produce sentences or answer questions that demonstrate they lgp/wsl/kj 2012
  4. 4. TSL 3105 Teaching of Listening and Speaking Skills in the Primary ESL classroom understand how to use the language correctly. A good practice activity would be one which encourage students to use language in context and authentically. It is at this stage that error correction is most important. • Production The final stage is the production stage. This stage can help motivate children to communicate meaning with the new language. Students are given opportunity to experiment with the language. Try not to correct too much during this stage, but you can observe the students during the activity and give feedback at the end of the stage. The above three main stages mentioned above is not mandatory. Some lessons do not need all three stages. This is simply one way to help students learn new language in an enjoyable and effective way. • Closure The closure stage of a lesson is when the teacher concludes her lesson. During this stage, the teacher may do a post-activity, whether it is a post listening, post-reading or a post- writing activity, its objective is to summarise the learning for the lesson, or to reinforce the new knowledge. The teacher can be very creative and uses a variety of activities to conclude the lesson and not gives homework as closure after every lesson! b. Writing Objectives When writing objectives for a lesson, the teacher need to make sure the goals and the objectives are appropriate to the developmental level and proficiency level of the students. It is advised that teachers keep in mind the following tips:  Goals are broad; objectives are narrow.  Goals are general intentions; objectives are precise.  Goals are intangible; objectives are tangible.  Goals are abstract; objectives are concrete.  Goals can't be validated as is; objectives can be validated.  An easy way to develop objectives that fit these parameters is to create SMART objectives. lgp/wsl/kj 2012
  5. 5. TSL 3105 Teaching of Listening and Speaking Skills in the Primary ESL classroom What are SMART behavioural Objectives? Objectives of lesson plan need to be :  Specific  Measurable  Achievable  Relevant  Time specific c. Selecting Teaching Aids The use of teaching aids and visuals can make your listening and speaking class interesting and more meaningful. Generally teaching aids help focus the audience’s attention, reinforce the key components of your verbal message, stimulate and maintain interest, illustrate complex concepts that are difficult to visualize and finally increase retention. d. Strategies & Techniques of Teaching Always start on a successful path by explaining and modeling how the students should behave as they participate in the lesson. For example, if materials or teaching aids are used for the lesson, give precise instructions on how to use them correctlly tell the students the consequences for misuse of the materials. Remember to follow through! Use student-based activities to engage student to participate actively and be in-charge of their own learning. Additionally, get them engaged with hands- on activities that enhance your lesson's objective. Use whiteboards, small group discussion, or call randomly on students by pulling cards or sticks. Keep the students alert and thinking all the time. By asking higher order thinking skills (HOTS) questions will help to develop students’ critical thinking skills, and ultimately help you achieve the objectives of your lesson. lgp/wsl/kj 2012
  6. 6. TSL 3105 Teaching of Listening and Speaking Skills in the Primary ESL classroom KBSR Vs KSSR Lesson format While there are many formats for a lesson plan, most lesson plans contain some or all of the elements in the boxes below. SUGGESTION OF FORMAT FOR KBSR LESSON PLAN Time: Context: Topic: Focussed Skill: Integrated Skill: Previous Knowledge: Learning Outcomes: Curriculum Specifications/ Behavioral Objectives: By the end of the lesson, students should be able to: Language focus: Educational Emphasis: Teaching Aids: Anticipated Problems: SUGGESTION OF FORMAT FOR KSSR LESSON PLAN Subject: Class: Time: Theme /Topic: Learning Standard: Learning Objectives: Teaching and Learning Activities: Cross-curricular Elements (EMK) (E.g: Creativity and Innovation, Entrepreneurship and ICT are the cross-curricular elements emphasized in KSSR. Existing cross-curricular elements like Language, Science and Technology, Environmental Studies, Moral Values and Patriotism are still instilled in lessons) Teaching Aids / Resources: Teaching and Learning Evaluation: Reflection: lgp/wsl/kj 2012
  7. 7. TSL 3105 Teaching of Listening and Speaking Skills in the Primary ESL classroom Sample Listening Lesson Plan Subject : English Language Class : 5 Ramah Enrolment : 25 pupils Time : 8.40 – 9.40 a.m. Focused Skill: Listening Integrated Skills: Speaking, Reading, Writing Previous Knowledge: Students are familiar with fables Intended Learning Outcomes: 1.7 Listen to and enjoy stories, fables and other tales of imagination and fantasy and predict outcomes, and draw conclusions at a level suited to the pupil’s ability. Curriculum Specifications: 1.7.1 listen to stories and fables and recall the names of people and animals. 1.7.3 listen to stories and fables and recall the sequence of events Behaviourial Objectives: At the end of the lesson, students should be able to: a) listen to the story and sequence the pictures correctly. b) retell the story using their own words. c) give a different ending to the story. Language Focus: Wh- Questions Educational Emphases: Thinking Skills: Comparing and contrasting Moral Values: Respect, filial piety Teaching Aids: Story book, worksheets (picture series and word maze) lgp/wsl/kj 2012
  8. 8. TSL 3105 Teaching of Listening and Speaking Skills in the Primary ESL classroom Stages/ Time Content Teaching/Learning Activities Rationale Remarks Set Induction (+3 min) How do you come to school? Did you say anything before you get off the car? 1. Teacher asks student on their transportation. 2. Teacher asks students what they say to the person who take them to school. To arouse students’ interest Pre-listening (+ 7 min) While- listening (+20 min) What can you see in the picture? What is the statue made of? Can a person turn into a statue? What is the title of the story? Story book 1. Teacher shows a picture of a statue and asks questions. 2. Teacher gets student to pose like statues. 3. Teacher asks students some questions. 4 Students predict the title of the story they are going to hear. 5. Teacher tells students they are going to listen to a story entitled Si Tanggang. 1. Teacher distributes worksheet with picture series to students. 2. Students look at the picture series and talk about them. 3. Teacher tells students to listen and sequence the pictures while they are listening. 4. Teacher tells the story dramatically. 5. Teacher retells the story and checks the sequence of the picture series. To lead in to the story. To familiarise students with the pictures so that they are able to sequence them. To create interest amongst students. A statue lgp/wsl/kj 2012
  9. 9. TSL 3105 Teaching of Listening and Speaking Skills in the Primary ESL classroom Post-listening (+25 min) 1.Teacher divides students into groups of 3. 2. Students retell the story based on the picture series. 3. Students present their story to the class. 4. Students work in groups again to think of a different ending to the story. 5. Students present the ending. To reinforce the language and to practise speaking To be creative thinkers Closure (+5 min) Word maze list poor lonely 1. Teacher discusses the moral values in the story. 2. Students complete a simple word maze which contains words found in the story. To instil moral values. Reflection: _______________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ lgp/wsl/kj 2012
  10. 10. TSL 3105 Teaching of Listening and Speaking Skills in the Primary ESL classroom PEDAGOGICAL PRINCIPLES OF EACH STAGE Stages of a Lesson Purpose Activity Important Features Set Induction To change the mindset of ss To prepare ss to focus on the subject To attract the interest of the ss To introduce the theme/ topic of the lesson To lead in Students • sing a song • Do some physical activities • Guessing game • Hangman etc • Short and interesting activities • Stimulating thinking • Use Multiple Intelligences • Related to topic based on ss experiences Stages of a Lesson Pedagogical Purposes Pre Listening • To give students the opportunity to realize the usefulness and relevance of a new language item • To present the meaning and form • To give input, etc. While Listening • To provide maximum practice within controlled, but realistic and contextualised frameworks • To build confidence in using the new language etc. Post Listening • To provide opportunity for ss to use new language in freer and more creative ways • etc. TASK 2 lgp/wsl/kj 2012
  11. 11. TSL 3105 Teaching of Listening and Speaking Skills in the Primary ESL classroom  Design a lesson plan to teach listening and speaking skills in a 60 minute lesson.  Present the lesson plan to the class.  Conduct a peer evaluation session of the lesson plan.  Using the following matrix on “What to look for in Lesson”, discuss and present your findings to your friends in class. WHAT TO LOOK FOR IN LESSONS a. Classroom management o What rules govern classroom behaviour? o How are expectations for positive and negative classroom behaviour communicated and reinforced? o How are problem students dealt with? o How is attention to instructional tasks maintained? b. Teacher – student interaction o How much teacher-to-student communication occurs in a lesson? o How much student-to-teacher interaction is there? o To what extent does the lesson engage the learners? o How is student attention and interest maintained? c. Grouping o What grouping arrangements are employed? o Is there a clear relationship between grouping patterns and instructional goals? o Are grouping arrangements effective? o How are groups established? Do students always work with the same partners or in the same groups? d. Structuring o How clearly are the goals of activities communicated to students? o Is there a clear relationship between different activities within a lesson? lgp/wsl/kj 2012
  12. 12. TSL 3105 Teaching of Listening and Speaking Skills in the Primary ESL classroom o Is there any sense of development within a lesson, or is it merely a succession of unrelated activities, the logic for which is not apparent? o What kind of opening and closing does the lesson have? e. Tasks o What kinds of tasks or activities are employed during a lesson? o What kinds of demands do these tasks create? o Is the pacing of tasks adequate? Is too little time spent on some tasks and too much on others? o For how much of the lesson are students actively engaged in learning tasks? How much of the lesson is spent on procedural and other non instructional matters? o Are the tasks interesting and challenging to students? o How does the teacher give feedback on task performance? o How effective is the teacher’s feedback? f. Teaching resources o What teaching aids are used? o How effective is the teacher’s use of aids, such as overhead projector, blackboard, or audiocassette or videocassette player? g. Classroom interactions o What kinds of interactions occur between teacher and class, and among students themselves? What “functions” are employed during the lesson? h. Opportunities for speaking o How much opportunities is provided for students to speak? What is the ration of teacher talk to student talk? i. Quality of input o What kind of input is the teacher’s speech providing? Is the teacher using a natural speaking style or a classroom “foreigner talk”? o To what extent does the teacher use translation or the native tongue in teaching? j. Communicativeness lgp/wsl/kj 2012
  13. 13. TSL 3105 Teaching of Listening and Speaking Skills in the Primary ESL classroom o Are opportunities provided for real communication in the classroom? To what extent? o Is there “negotiation of meaning” in the classroom? o To what extent is accuracy or fluency the focus of activities? k. Questions o What kind of questioning patterns are used? o Are questions distributed between teachers and students and among different students in the class? l. Feedback o How does the teacher correct errors and answer requests for clarification? o How are communication breakdowns dealt with? From Richards JC (1990) The Language Teaching Matrix, Cambridge, CUP --Good teaching happens when competent teachers with non-discouraging personalities use non-defensive approaches to language teaching and learning, and cherish their students.-- - James E. Alatis- lgp/wsl/kj 2012
  14. 14. TSL 3105 Teaching of Listening and Speaking Skills in the Primary ESL classroom Reference Chitravelu, N. et. al. (2005) ELT Methodology: Principles and Practice Selangor: Fajar Bakti. National Capital Language Resource Center (NCLRC). (n.d.). The essentials of language teaching. Retrieved August 20, 2012 from http://nclrc.org/essentials Richards, J.C. (1990) The Language Teaching Matrix, Cambridge, CUP. Websites Click on the links below for more information:  http://www.onestopenglish.com/search.asp  http://www.inklesstales.com/poems/  http://www.similima.com/ppt/education/principles-lesson.pdf lgp/wsl/kj 2012