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MixturesandPureSubstances.ppt

MixturesandPureSubstances.ppt

MixturesandPureSubstances.ppt

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MixturesandPureSubstances.ppt
MixturesandPureSubstances.ppt
ELEMENTS COMPOUNDS
Elements are the
simplest pure
substances.
Examples:
• O-Oxygen
• H- Hydrogen
• Na- Sodium
• C- Carbon
• Fe- Iron
• Pb- Lead
The smallest
particle of an
element that has
the properties of
that element is an
atom.
Compounds are
pure substances
that are made of
more than one
element bound
together.
Examples:
• H2O and CO2
A molecule is
formed when two
or more atoms
chemically
combine.
HETEROGENEOU
S MIXTURES
HOMOGENEOUS
MIXTURES
All components of
the mixture are
visible because they
do not mix together
Particles not
distributed evenly
EX: sand and water
vegetable soup
oil and water
Homogeneous
mixtures
Components cannot
be distinguished
from each other,
appear as one
substance
Particles distributed
evenly throughout
EX: air, salt water,
10 karat gold
*SOLUTIONS
Pure Substance
Heterogeneous mixtures
 All components of
the mixture are
visible because they
do not mix together
 Particles not
distributed evenly
EX: trail mix,
vegetable soup,
oil and water
Homogeneous mixtures
 Components cannot be
distinguished from
each other, appear as
one substance
 Particles distributed
evenly throughout
EX: air, salt water, 10
karat gold
MixturesandPureSubstances.ppt
 Homogeneous mixtures are also called
solutions.
 Separate particles are not visible because
one dissolves in the other = dissolution
 In salt water,
◦ salt is the solute, gets dissolved
◦ water is the solvent, dissolves
other substance
Ad

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MixturesandPureSubstances.ppt

  • 3. ELEMENTS COMPOUNDS Elements are the simplest pure substances. Examples: • O-Oxygen • H- Hydrogen • Na- Sodium • C- Carbon • Fe- Iron • Pb- Lead The smallest particle of an element that has the properties of that element is an atom. Compounds are pure substances that are made of more than one element bound together. Examples: • H2O and CO2 A molecule is formed when two or more atoms chemically combine. HETEROGENEOU S MIXTURES HOMOGENEOUS MIXTURES All components of the mixture are visible because they do not mix together Particles not distributed evenly EX: sand and water vegetable soup oil and water Homogeneous mixtures Components cannot be distinguished from each other, appear as one substance Particles distributed evenly throughout EX: air, salt water, 10 karat gold *SOLUTIONS Pure Substance
  • 4. Heterogeneous mixtures  All components of the mixture are visible because they do not mix together  Particles not distributed evenly EX: trail mix, vegetable soup, oil and water Homogeneous mixtures  Components cannot be distinguished from each other, appear as one substance  Particles distributed evenly throughout EX: air, salt water, 10 karat gold
  • 6.  Homogeneous mixtures are also called solutions.  Separate particles are not visible because one dissolves in the other = dissolution  In salt water, ◦ salt is the solute, gets dissolved ◦ water is the solvent, dissolves other substance
  • 7.  Because different amounts of solute can be dissolved in a solvent, we look at a solution’s SOLUBILITY.  Definition: The maximum amount of solute that can be dissolved in a given amount of solvent at a specific temperature.  Usually expressed as the number of grams of solute per 100mL of solvent.
  • 8.  Every chemical substance which dissolves in water has a fixed solubility. ◦ If it does not dissolve, solubility = zero.  Many of these solublities have been measured and special charts are produced displaying solubility of many substances at once.
  • 9. oSaturated: Maximum amount of solute dissolved in solvent oUnsaturated: Less than maximum amount of solute dissolved in solvent oSupersaturated: More than maximum amount of solute dissolved in solvent oDilute: to make less concentrated