Mourakohman w2w 2013


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Mourakohman w2w 2013

  1. 1. Greenhouse Gas Emissions of BeefCattle Under Grazing Conditions inFloridaMarta Moura Kohmann- ABE/UFDr. Clyde W. Fraisse- ABE/UFDr. Hilary Swain, Archbold Biological StationDr. Martin Ruiz-Moreno, ANS/UFDr. Lynn E. Sollenberger, PhD., AGR/UFDr. Nicolas DiLorenzo, ANS/UFFrancine Messias Ciríaco, ANS/UFDarren D. Henry, ANS/UFApril 2013
  2. 2. Background2US 2010 Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Economic Sector(percents based on Tg CO2 Eq., left) and in Agriculture (right).Source: EPA, 2012.33.826.920. PowerIndustryTransportationIndustryAgricultureCommercialResidentialU.S. TerritoriesTotal (2010): 6.821.8 Tg CO2 Eq.Agriculture (2010): 494.8 Tg CO2 Eq.42.028.614. from AgriculturalSoil ManagementEnteric FermentationManure ManagementCO2 from Fossil FuelCombustionCH4 and N2O from Forest FiresRice CultivationLiming of Agricultural SoilsUrea FertilizationCO2 and N2O from ManagedPeatlandsMobile CombustionN2O from Forest SoilsField Burning of AgriculturalResidues
  3. 3. Importance• Cattle industry in Florida– 1.71 million head of cattle– 940,000 are beef cattle– 890,000 calves born in 2011• Typical production systems:– Cow-calf operations– low inputs– pasture based3Source: Florida Department of Agriculture and Costumer Services (2012)
  4. 4. ObjectiveThe objective is to calculate the carbon footprint ofa typical cow-calf operation in Florida..Specific objectives are– Identify main Greenhouse Gas (GHG) sources– Understand the model used– Further investigation of ruminal fermentation withfield trials4
  5. 5. Methodology• Buck Island Ranch: on lease from the MacArthurFoundation to the Archbold Biological Station• Full-scale working ranch– 4,500 acresbahiagrass– 5,640 acres nativevegetation– 160 acres citrus5
  6. 6. Methodology• Cow-calf operation– 3,000 Brahman-cross cows– 150 Angus and Charolais bulls– 2,300 calves annually• Data: 1998 to 2008• Identify sources ofGreenhouse GasEmissions (GHG)6
  7. 7. MethodologyAnimal GHG sources• Manure- CH4, N2O• Enteric fermentation(ruminal)- CH4Management GHG sources• Nitrogen fertilization- N2O• Lime application- CO2• Burning- CO, CH4, N2O, NOx• Fossil fuels (molassestransportation, managementpractices)- CO27Anatomy of the cow’s digestive tract.Source: University of Minnesota Extension.• Reticulum, rumen and omasum:anaerobic fermentation• Hydrolysis and anaerobic oxidationcreate H+CO2 + 8H methane + 2H2O
  8. 8. Methodology• Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change(2008)• EPA (2005)• Results transformed into CO2eq– CH4 = 21 CO2– N2O = 310 CO28
  9. 9. Results9GHG source (ton CO2eq) %Enteric Fermentation 6,895.79 58.8Manure Management 2,719.39 23.2Tractor Operation 188.05 1.6Fertilization 447.63 3.8Liming 660.80 5.6Pasture Burning 160.70 1.4Molasses Transport 16.91 0.1Urea for Feeding 393.36 3.4Feed Concentrate 250.77 2.1Total 11,733.39 100.00Table 1. Average (t CO2eq) GHG emissions from Buck Island Ranch, data from 1998 to 2008.82 %18 %
  10. 10. 05001000150020002500300035004000450050000200040006000800010000120001998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008numberofanimalsTotalemissions(tonCO2eq/year)Agrochemicals Total emissions Adult animalsResults1010,227 t CO2eq12,954 t CO2eqFigure 1. Total GHG emissions, emissions from agrochemicals (t CO2eq) and total number ofanimals in Buck Island Ranch, 1998 to 2008.
  11. 11. Results11714229580102030405060708090100%Lime Fertilizer (N)Production, transportation, storage and transferAfter applicationFigure 2. GHG emissions from agrochemicals separated by source (t CO2eq)
  12. 12. Results12• 24.5 kg CO2/ kg live weight that leaves the farm• 77% of total emissions in cattle production comefrom the cow-calf operation part• If animals double weight after they leave thefarm~ 16 kg CO2/ kg final live weightTakashi & Young, 2002
  13. 13. Ongoing Research• Field trials in the North Florida Research andEducational Center in Marianna, Florida– Methane measurements using the SF6 technique– Three stocking rates– Animal performance (weight gain)– Pasture measurements (production, nutritivevalue)13
  14. 14. Methane emissions measurementSulfur hexafluoride (SF6)14Permeation tube. Source: EPA, 2006.
  15. 15. Methane emissions measurementSulfur hexafluoride (SF6)15
  16. 16. Methane emissions measurementSulfur hexafluoride (SF6)16
  17. 17. Final considerations• Methane emissions from ruminal fermentationaccounts for 59% of total emissions• 24.5 kg CO2/ kg live weight that leaves the ranch• Average 11,733 tons CO2eq/ year• Model still needs further investigation• Field experimentsFuture research• In vitro methane measurements• Parametrization17
  18. 18. Acknowledgements• This study has been funded by the Agricultureand Food Research Initiative CompetitiveGrant no. 2011-67003-30347 from the USDA-National Institute of Food and Agriculture18Thank
  19. 19. Greenhouse Gas Emissions of BeefCattle Under Grazing Conditions inFloridaMarta Moura KohmannDepartment Agricultural andBiological EngineeringApril 2013