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Foreign Policy
“ Foreign Policy is the key element in the process by
which a state translate its broadly conceived goals
and interest into concrete course of action to attain
these objective and preserve interest…….”
(Padelford and Lincolin)
Prepared By: Qaisar Sharif Gondal, 2015-KIU-0794 M.sc (IR)
Karakoram International University, Gilgit Pakistan
+92-300/0336/0313-9571007
qaisarsharif0794@gmail.com
Major Objectives of FP
Security
Economic
Image
Foreign Policy
of USA
Foreign Policy of USA
“America has no empire to extend or utopia to
establish, we wish for other only what we wish for
ourselves…. Safety from violence , the reward of
liberty and the hope for a better life”
(President George W. Bush,2002)
USA Foreign Policy in 03xPhases
 Before 1945 (before world war II)
 After 1945 (Post world war II Period)
 After 9/11
Before 1945 (before ww-II)
 Isolation for Security objective.
(1776 to 1941)
America because its peculiar geographical
location remained completely cut off from the
political conflicts and pursued a policy of
Isolation.
 No Economic / Territorial benefits.
America did not aspire for any economic
privilege or other territorial benefits.
Naturally there was no clash between the USA
interests and the interests of other world.
This account for complete absence of
hostility toward other states. USA was not
keen at all to gain economic or territorial
benefits at that time.
 Ethical Values and Individual Liberty.
(for the bright Image of State)
The ethical and democratic principles occupied an
important position in USA foreign policy , Not only
its domestic but even international actions were
greatly influenced by values, like/dislike for
exploitation & tyranny ,brief Individual liberty and
equality dedication to the rule of law among the
nations ,peaceful settlement of international
disputes. So, USA was promoting such type of
behavior in FP to create and maintain its positive
Image in outer world.
After 1945 (post ww-II period)
“We have a place ,all of us , in a long story….of the
new world that become a friend and liberator of the
old, a story of a slave-holding society that became a
servant of freedom, the story of a power that went
into the world to protect & posses to defend but not
to conquer…”
(president George W. Bush,2001)
03 main Elements compelled the
USA to change its FP
 Bipolar World.
After 1945 world came to be dominated by two
superpowers i.e. USA & USSR known as capitalist
& communist Blocks respectively ,while other
powers like Britain, Germany ,France & Japan etc
were greatly weak due to the enormous
destruction wrought by the ww-II. At that time
USA had to reshape / change FP to play an
effective role to create & maintain its dominancy.
 Military Developments & Nation Security.
The development in military technology resulted
in remarkable changes in the role of sea power,
Air power etc. In this context territorial security
consideration came to occupy a prominent role in
the FP formulation. So USA had to create
Alliances to strengthen the capitalist block.
 Ideological Differences.
The Ideological difference between two Super
power, holding belief in rival society system and
political ideas also aggravated the tension
between two and created mutual distrust. Each
was trying to popularize its own political values &
to suppress the ideology of other.
Major Objective/aims if US FP at
Present Stage
 To increase its influence & decrease the
expansion of communist block.
 To built up US supremacy over the world.
 Increase its defensive capability.
 To built up a developed & sound Economy.
 To create a liberal & democratic Image of United
State in the world.
Instruments of Global Influence &
Development in FP of US
“ Intervention can be physical , spiritual, bilateral
,multilateral , direct action , skill transfer and
institution building, it can be so many things……a
fabulous menu!
(Board of director, US institute for Peace, 1994)
 Expansion of capitalist block & military
Alliances.
After ww-II USA abandoned the traditional policy of
Isolation & get more deeply involved in Europe,
Africa , Asia & Middle East which concluded number
of multilateral Security arrangement with more than
40 countries, like SEATO , CENTO and NATO. Above
all US also signed collective security Treaties with
Japan, Philippines , Australia & New Zealand in 1951
and than with South Korea in 1953,with Republic of
China in 1954.
 Foreign Aid Policy.
1. Truman Doctrine.
It was propounded by president Truman of USA
to help out the Greece & Turkey those were
fighting against the influence of communist. It
was chiefly through the assistance of extended
by USA to Greece & Turkey that these two
countries escaped falling into the clutch of USSR
block.
2. Marshall Plan.
USA provided extensive economic aid to the
countries of Europe under the Marshall plan. It
was prepared & planed by Secretary of State
George C. Marshall to assist in the reconstruction
of war torn Europe. Billion of Dollars were
distributed among the nations of Europe to
revitalize their Economy. It was due to US aid that
Italy & France succeeded in meeting Communist
threats. Through this plan 18 countries were
funded at that time.
 Sanction & Economic Growth.
Through sanctions USA have also tried to show its
importance over the world. As in July 1954 USA
launched the Sanctions proceeding against Japan
for allegedly obstruction import of USA
telecommunication & Medical Equipments. It
served Japan with 60 days notice to end these
restrictions or face high tariff on selected
Japanese export to USA.
USA was expanding its export & since that time
USA is trying to capture the world market for its
Economic growth.
 Free Trade and Open Market policy.
There are two key pillars of US FP maintenance of
Security & maintenance of prosperity.
US president Bill Clinton focus on to expand US
markets and reduced the barriers to trade &
integrated the Economic, through such efforts as the
NORTH AMERICA FREE TRADE AGREEMENT
(NAFTA) linking USA , Canada & Mexico in a free
Trade zone to promote its export & trade.
Bill Clinton administration also focus on bilateral
approach toward specific trade partners including
Japan , Europe , China & Aggressively pursued a Big
Emerging Market (BEM) Strategy around the world.
 Covert Actions.
These are clandestine activities typically under
taken against Foreign govt to influence political ,
economic or military conditions abroad ,where it
is intended the role of US govt. In the Cold war
period (1945 t0 1991) these type of spy & covert
actions were taken for US supremacy and
benefits.
 Oil politics & Access to the Raw materials.
During Arab-Israel war on 20 oct,1973 KSA stopped the
Supply of oil to America as war reaction. After it
Kuwait , Bahrain & Libya also cut off the supply
because of this American & Europe industry was
effected badly. At this US changed its strategy in FP
for the oil gain and started to capture the oil resources
which are available in Muslims/Arab countries. i.e.
a. Iraq & Kuwait war.
b. Libya war
(Best oil of the world is being produced in Libya)
c. USA Army in Arab Countries for their Protection.
After 9/11 Attack US Foreign Policy
“ We choose leadership over Isolationism and the
pursuit of free & fair trade and open markets over
protectionism….we seek to…Influence events for
the better instead to being at their mercy….The
path we have chosen is consistent with the great
tradition of American foreign policy, like the
policies of Harry Truman and Ronald Reagan, our
approach is idealistic about over national goals
and realistic about the means to achieve them…”
(President George W. Bush, 2006)
Terrorism & US FP
 Since the terrorist attacked the World Trade
Centre and Pentagon in September, 2001. US FP
widely reshaped & changed. The officially
expressed tents of current US counter terrorism
policy which have remained largely through
several administrations.
Objectives/aims of US FP Against
Terrorism
1. Make no concession to terrorist and strike no deals.
2. Bring terrorist to Justice for their crime.
3. Isolate and apply pressure on states that sponsor
terrorism , force them to changed their behavior.
4. Enhance the counter terrorism capabilities through
economical aids of those states those work with USA
and required assistance.
5. Promoting the spread of liberty and democracy
throughout the world.
1st National Security Strategy(NSS)
Those Objectives/ ideas were codified in the 2002 national
security strategy (NSS) statement. That statement also
identified Afghanistan & Iraq as a major threats to
international order and stability.
2nd National Security Strategy(NSS)
In March 2006, the administration released its 2nd National
Security Strategy ( NSS).it repeated many of the principles of
the 1st NSS , but the second NSS placed greater emphasis on
wide rang multilateral co-operation among the states to cope
with terrorism and stable the economy. Promoting democracy
was also a central focus of this 2nd NSS.
US Foreign Policy as Super Power
 At the present stage USA has great influence on the
globalised world and leading it as super power. At the
current age major & core objectives of USA foreign
policy are under as…
1. Remain a dominant power of the world.
2.Leading the war on terror with alliance states.
3.To Promote& achieve its hidden economic interests &
other benefits through UNO cover.(as influencing in
African states & collecting the raw materials/sources)
4. To maintain its image as liberal & developed state.
5.To promote the Justice & democracy among the
Nations.
6.Seeking for global peace & prosperity for itself and for
rest of world as well.

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USA Foreign policy Analysis

  • 1. Foreign Policy “ Foreign Policy is the key element in the process by which a state translate its broadly conceived goals and interest into concrete course of action to attain these objective and preserve interest…….” (Padelford and Lincolin) Prepared By: Qaisar Sharif Gondal, 2015-KIU-0794 M.sc (IR) Karakoram International University, Gilgit Pakistan +92-300/0336/0313-9571007 qaisarsharif0794@gmail.com
  • 2. Major Objectives of FP Security Economic Image
  • 4. Foreign Policy of USA “America has no empire to extend or utopia to establish, we wish for other only what we wish for ourselves…. Safety from violence , the reward of liberty and the hope for a better life” (President George W. Bush,2002)
  • 5. USA Foreign Policy in 03xPhases  Before 1945 (before world war II)  After 1945 (Post world war II Period)  After 9/11
  • 6. Before 1945 (before ww-II)  Isolation for Security objective. (1776 to 1941) America because its peculiar geographical location remained completely cut off from the political conflicts and pursued a policy of Isolation.
  • 7.  No Economic / Territorial benefits. America did not aspire for any economic privilege or other territorial benefits. Naturally there was no clash between the USA interests and the interests of other world. This account for complete absence of hostility toward other states. USA was not keen at all to gain economic or territorial benefits at that time.
  • 8.  Ethical Values and Individual Liberty. (for the bright Image of State) The ethical and democratic principles occupied an important position in USA foreign policy , Not only its domestic but even international actions were greatly influenced by values, like/dislike for exploitation & tyranny ,brief Individual liberty and equality dedication to the rule of law among the nations ,peaceful settlement of international disputes. So, USA was promoting such type of behavior in FP to create and maintain its positive Image in outer world.
  • 9. After 1945 (post ww-II period) “We have a place ,all of us , in a long story….of the new world that become a friend and liberator of the old, a story of a slave-holding society that became a servant of freedom, the story of a power that went into the world to protect & posses to defend but not to conquer…” (president George W. Bush,2001)
  • 10. 03 main Elements compelled the USA to change its FP  Bipolar World. After 1945 world came to be dominated by two superpowers i.e. USA & USSR known as capitalist & communist Blocks respectively ,while other powers like Britain, Germany ,France & Japan etc were greatly weak due to the enormous destruction wrought by the ww-II. At that time USA had to reshape / change FP to play an effective role to create & maintain its dominancy.
  • 11.  Military Developments & Nation Security. The development in military technology resulted in remarkable changes in the role of sea power, Air power etc. In this context territorial security consideration came to occupy a prominent role in the FP formulation. So USA had to create Alliances to strengthen the capitalist block.
  • 12.  Ideological Differences. The Ideological difference between two Super power, holding belief in rival society system and political ideas also aggravated the tension between two and created mutual distrust. Each was trying to popularize its own political values & to suppress the ideology of other.
  • 13. Major Objective/aims if US FP at Present Stage  To increase its influence & decrease the expansion of communist block.  To built up US supremacy over the world.  Increase its defensive capability.  To built up a developed & sound Economy.  To create a liberal & democratic Image of United State in the world.
  • 14. Instruments of Global Influence & Development in FP of US “ Intervention can be physical , spiritual, bilateral ,multilateral , direct action , skill transfer and institution building, it can be so many things……a fabulous menu! (Board of director, US institute for Peace, 1994)
  • 15.  Expansion of capitalist block & military Alliances. After ww-II USA abandoned the traditional policy of Isolation & get more deeply involved in Europe, Africa , Asia & Middle East which concluded number of multilateral Security arrangement with more than 40 countries, like SEATO , CENTO and NATO. Above all US also signed collective security Treaties with Japan, Philippines , Australia & New Zealand in 1951 and than with South Korea in 1953,with Republic of China in 1954.
  • 16.  Foreign Aid Policy. 1. Truman Doctrine. It was propounded by president Truman of USA to help out the Greece & Turkey those were fighting against the influence of communist. It was chiefly through the assistance of extended by USA to Greece & Turkey that these two countries escaped falling into the clutch of USSR block.
  • 17. 2. Marshall Plan. USA provided extensive economic aid to the countries of Europe under the Marshall plan. It was prepared & planed by Secretary of State George C. Marshall to assist in the reconstruction of war torn Europe. Billion of Dollars were distributed among the nations of Europe to revitalize their Economy. It was due to US aid that Italy & France succeeded in meeting Communist threats. Through this plan 18 countries were funded at that time.
  • 18.  Sanction & Economic Growth. Through sanctions USA have also tried to show its importance over the world. As in July 1954 USA launched the Sanctions proceeding against Japan for allegedly obstruction import of USA telecommunication & Medical Equipments. It served Japan with 60 days notice to end these restrictions or face high tariff on selected Japanese export to USA. USA was expanding its export & since that time USA is trying to capture the world market for its Economic growth.
  • 19.  Free Trade and Open Market policy. There are two key pillars of US FP maintenance of Security & maintenance of prosperity. US president Bill Clinton focus on to expand US markets and reduced the barriers to trade & integrated the Economic, through such efforts as the NORTH AMERICA FREE TRADE AGREEMENT (NAFTA) linking USA , Canada & Mexico in a free Trade zone to promote its export & trade. Bill Clinton administration also focus on bilateral approach toward specific trade partners including Japan , Europe , China & Aggressively pursued a Big Emerging Market (BEM) Strategy around the world.
  • 20.  Covert Actions. These are clandestine activities typically under taken against Foreign govt to influence political , economic or military conditions abroad ,where it is intended the role of US govt. In the Cold war period (1945 t0 1991) these type of spy & covert actions were taken for US supremacy and benefits.
  • 21.  Oil politics & Access to the Raw materials. During Arab-Israel war on 20 oct,1973 KSA stopped the Supply of oil to America as war reaction. After it Kuwait , Bahrain & Libya also cut off the supply because of this American & Europe industry was effected badly. At this US changed its strategy in FP for the oil gain and started to capture the oil resources which are available in Muslims/Arab countries. i.e. a. Iraq & Kuwait war. b. Libya war (Best oil of the world is being produced in Libya) c. USA Army in Arab Countries for their Protection.
  • 22. After 9/11 Attack US Foreign Policy “ We choose leadership over Isolationism and the pursuit of free & fair trade and open markets over protectionism….we seek to…Influence events for the better instead to being at their mercy….The path we have chosen is consistent with the great tradition of American foreign policy, like the policies of Harry Truman and Ronald Reagan, our approach is idealistic about over national goals and realistic about the means to achieve them…” (President George W. Bush, 2006)
  • 23. Terrorism & US FP  Since the terrorist attacked the World Trade Centre and Pentagon in September, 2001. US FP widely reshaped & changed. The officially expressed tents of current US counter terrorism policy which have remained largely through several administrations.
  • 24. Objectives/aims of US FP Against Terrorism 1. Make no concession to terrorist and strike no deals. 2. Bring terrorist to Justice for their crime. 3. Isolate and apply pressure on states that sponsor terrorism , force them to changed their behavior. 4. Enhance the counter terrorism capabilities through economical aids of those states those work with USA and required assistance. 5. Promoting the spread of liberty and democracy throughout the world.
  • 25. 1st National Security Strategy(NSS) Those Objectives/ ideas were codified in the 2002 national security strategy (NSS) statement. That statement also identified Afghanistan & Iraq as a major threats to international order and stability. 2nd National Security Strategy(NSS) In March 2006, the administration released its 2nd National Security Strategy ( NSS).it repeated many of the principles of the 1st NSS , but the second NSS placed greater emphasis on wide rang multilateral co-operation among the states to cope with terrorism and stable the economy. Promoting democracy was also a central focus of this 2nd NSS.
  • 26. US Foreign Policy as Super Power  At the present stage USA has great influence on the globalised world and leading it as super power. At the current age major & core objectives of USA foreign policy are under as… 1. Remain a dominant power of the world. 2.Leading the war on terror with alliance states. 3.To Promote& achieve its hidden economic interests & other benefits through UNO cover.(as influencing in African states & collecting the raw materials/sources) 4. To maintain its image as liberal & developed state. 5.To promote the Justice & democracy among the Nations. 6.Seeking for global peace & prosperity for itself and for rest of world as well.