Origin and evolution of international relations


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This Presentation is about the introduction of International Relation, the subject matter of IR, It's historical and institutional evolution and nature of IR.

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Origin and evolution of international relations

  1. 1. Introduction, Evolution (Institutional and Historical), Domain of IR Rajat Dixit BALLB ‘B’ Sem III R450212082
  2. 2. IR…? • IR encompasses much more than the relations among nation-states and international organization and groups. It includes a great variety of transitional relationships, at various levels, above and below the level of the nation-state, still the main actor in international community. ~ Palmer and Perkins
  3. 3. • Relations between many entities of uncertain sovereignties. # groups like: nations, states, governments, peoples, regions, alliances, confederations, international organizations, industrial organizations, religious organizations, etc. ~ Wright
  4. 4. • International relations embraces all kind of relations traversing state boundaries, no matter whether they are an economic, legal, political, or any other character, whether they be private or official and all human behavior originating on one side of the state boundary and affecting human behavior on the other side of the boundary. ~ Mathiesen
  5. 5. • In simple and narrowest sense, IR is taken to donate the study of relations between states. IR denotes interactions between state-based actor across state boundaries. ~ Lawson
  6. 6. Introduction • Entire population of the world is divided into separate territorial political communities, or independent state, which profoundly affect the way people live. • Sovereignty i.e. a state’s characterstic of being politically independent of all states, doesn’t mean isolated or insulated state. • Motive: wealth and welfare of state of their citizens.
  7. 7. Cont… • Five basic social values of state: I. Security II. Freedom III. Order IV. Justice V. Welfare
  8. 8. Security • People generally assume that the state should and will underwrite the value of national security, which involves the protection of citizens from internal and external threat. • Being armed at least some degree state can both defend and threaten peoples’ security
  9. 9. Freedom • Personal and National Freedom i.e. Independence. • Govt. place on citizens, as tax burdens or obligations of military services is the condition of national freedom. • Peace and progressive change are most fundamental values of international relations.
  10. 10. Order & Justice • States have a common interest in establishing and maintaining international order so that they can coexist and interact on a basis of stability, certainty, and predictability. • International law, diplomatic relations and international organizations. • Human right framework: civil, political, social, and economical.
  11. 11. Welfare • Population’s socioeconomic wealth and welfare. • People expect their govt. to adopt appropriate politics to encourage high employment, low inflation steady investment, the uninterrupted floe of trade and commerce, etc. • International economic environment.
  12. 12. IR theories & values • Realism: Security (Power Politics, conflict and war) • Liberalism: Freedom (Cooperation, peace and progress) • International Society: Order and justice (Shared interests, rules and institutions) • IPE theories: Welfare (Wealth, poverty and equality)
  13. 13. Introduction • International Relations (IR) – Roles of States – Inter-governmental organizations (IGOs) – Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) – Multinational corporations (MNCs)
  14. 14. Evolution of study of IR • Origin : – Tucydides’ History of the Peloponnesian war – Chanakya’s Arthashastra – Niccolo Machiavelli’s Principe (The Prince) • World War I – Loss of 20 million lives – Limitations of European Diplomacy
  15. 15. Cont… • Utopianism, a liberal approach – What ought to be done • Post WW I advocates – Alfred Zimmern – Norman Angell – James T. Shotwell – Woodrow Wilson
  16. 16. Cont… • Wilson’s “14 Points” Speech – US Congress in 1918 – Making the world safe for Democracy. – Creation of International organization for promotion of peaceful cooperation among nation- states. – Result in League of Nations in 1919.
  17. 17. Cont… • IR as decipline – Woodrow Wilson Chair of International politics @ University College of Wales – 1919 – Montague Zimmern Chair of International relations in Jerusalem – 1929 – Oxford University – 1930 – London School of Economics – 1936 – University of Edinburgh – 1948 – Ends Liberalism and adopts legalistic- moralistic approach
  18. 18. Historical Evolution • Hellas, first state system in ancient Greece – Lack of institutional diplomacy, and no international law and organization • Roman empire occupy middle east and north Africa. – Quasi international relationships – Invasion of cities
  19. 19. • Catholic empire based Rome (Christendom) and in eastern Europe Byzantine (Orthodox) • Politico-religious empire • No defined territories with borders. • Hierarchical political and ideological structure as Chinese Communist state • Kings rule: semi autonomous
  20. 20. • 1096- 1291 A.D. fought between Christian Crusades and Islamic world – Global disorder, conflicts, and violence • 1337- 1453 A.D. Hundred year war between England and france – Fudal and local level – No distinction between civil war and international war
  21. 21. • Freedom was not freedom for the individual rather for rulers and their followers and clients • Justice was responsibility of both political and religious rulers • Early modern European era – Religious-political authority of Christendom. – Military power of barons and feudal
  22. 22. • Medieval to modern age: evolution of sovereign state with all powers in the hand of king. • Defined boundaries • Ambition to expand their territories results in war • Spain, France, Austria, England, Denmark Sweden, Holland, Poland, Russia, Prussia and other at war.
  23. 23. • War become a key international institute for resolving conflicts between sovereign states. • In the modern international system territory is consolidated, unified and centralized under a sovereign government. • Thirty years war
  24. 24. Thirty years war (1618-48) • Starting initially in Bohemia as an uprising of protestant aristocracy against Spanish authority, the war escalated rapidly, eventually incorporating all sort of issues… questions of religious involved a jumble of conflicting stakes, with all sort of cross-cutting dynastic, religious, and state interest involved… Europe was fighting its first continental war.
  25. 25. The Peace of Westphalia • The Thirty Years War was ended by the Peace of Westphalia which was referred to as the "Peace of Exhaustion" by contemporaries. The Peace of Westphalia was not one specific treaty but rather a collection of treaties commonly linked by the fact that they brought the Thirty Years War to an end.
  26. 26. • France and Sweden had already agreed at the Treaty of Hamburg that there should be a European return to the status quo of 1618. • Ferdinand III wanted to retain the gains made at Prague and he wanted 1627 to be his baseline on territorial negotiations. • The German Electors favored 1618 as their baseline.
  27. 27. • In September 1640, the Electors were summoned by Ferdinand III to Regensburg where the emperor attempted to get the Electors to agree to preserving the Peace of Prague. He failed. Frederick William of Brandenburg specifically rejected Prague as the basis of any settlement.
  28. 28. • In July 1641, Brandenburg and Sweden signed a truce. Many German princes followed this example of Brandenburg's to show their displeasure with Ferdinand III. However, Ferdinand III had already started separate negotiations with the French and Dutch at Munster and with the Swedes at Osnabruck.
  29. 29. • Peace negotiations continued at the same time as the military campaigns. In 1642, a Swedish army defeated an Imperial army at Breitenfeld at the same time as Swedish and Imperial diplomats were examining potential peace terms. Such occurrences happened as a show of strength to the opposition.
  30. 30. • In 1645, the Imperial army faced two defeats at Nordlingen (defeated by the French) and Jankau (defeated by Sweden). The Holy Roman Empire was clearly in no position to carry on but neither could the Swedes or the French deliver a knockout blow from a military point of view.
  31. 31. • In 1645, Sweden and Saxony signed a peace agreement. • In 1646, Ferdinand III could no longer expect support from Saxony, Brandenburg or Spain. • In 1647, Maximilian of Bavaria was forced by the Swedes and French to withdraw his support to Ferdinand. Maximilian reneged on this agreement in 1648, and Swedish and French forces devastated Bavaria leaving Maximilian in a position where he could not do anything else except sign a truce with Sweden and France.
  32. 32. • The French persuaded Ferdinand III to exclude Spain from the peace negotiations but the United Provinces and Spain did sign a peace settlement at Munster in 1648 thus bringing to an end 80 years of hostility between the Spanish government and the Dutch commonly known as the Revolt of the Netherlands.
  33. 33. • The whole package of settlements is known as the Peace of Westphalia. One of its provisos was that the practice of electing a King of the Romans in the emperor's lifetime was abolished. The title of the "Peace of Exhaustion" is probably a more apt title for this series of peace settlements that brought to an end the Thirty Years War.
  34. 34. Major attempts to impose power • The Habsburg empire(Austria) made the attempt during Thirty year war(1618-48), and was blocked by a coalition led by France and Sweden. • France made the attempt under king Louis XIV (1661-1714) and was blocked by an English-Duch alliance. • Nepoleon (1795-1815) made the attempt and was blocked by Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria.
  35. 35. • Germany made the attempt under Hitler (1939-45) and was blocked by United States, the Soviet Union and Britain
  36. 36. Nature of IR • Before WW-Ist part of history, law and political theory. • Subdivision of political science emphasized on political phenomena at global level. • Interdisciplinary (political science, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, medicine, cybernetics, communication and other)
  37. 37. Cont… • The study of international relation extends from the natural science at one end to moral philosophy … at other. This discipline is a bundle of subjects… viewed from a common angle. ~ Zimmern (Ist IR Professor)
  38. 38. IR debates 1. Utopian Liberalism/ Idealism and Realism 2. Traditional and Behaviouralism 3. Neo-Liberalism/ Neo-Realism 4. Positivism and post-Positivist Alternatives
  39. 39. Abdul A.’s categories 1. Theory of theory: scientific 2. System analysis: hypotheses 3. Action theories: foreign policy 4. Interaction theory: balance of power 5. Newer research techniques: content analysis
  40. 40. Alternative approaches • Post-modernist theories – Richard Ashley, R.B.J. Walker, James Derian • Critical theories – Andrew Linklater, Robert Cox • Historical sociology – Michael Mann, Charles Tilly, Theda Skocpol • Feminist theories – J. Ann Tickner, Cynthis Enloe and Christine Sylvester
  41. 41. Scope & Subject Matter of IR • Dynamic discipline • Initially diplomatic history, foreign policies of states, international law, international organization. • Subject matter of international relations consists of whatever knowledge, from any source, may be assistance in meaning new international problems or understanding old ones. ~ Frederick S. Dunn
  42. 42. Goldstein project IR 1. Issue areas: diplomacy, war, trade relations, alliances, cultural exchanges, participation in international organizations, etc. 2. Conflict and cooperation in relationship among states concerning issue areas. 3. International security: questions of war and peace.
  43. 43. Cont… 4. International political economy: increasing concern with economic issues made international political economy (IPE) inextricably woven into IR, especially with regard to security issues.
  44. 44. Subject Areas • Palmer and Perkins: State system, National power, Diplomacy, War, Imperialism, Balance of power, Collective security, International organizations, International law, Regional conflicts, National interests, Nuclear weapon and changing International system.
  45. 45. • Frankel: Foreign policies, the mutual intractions among states, conflicts, competitions and cooperations among them, national power, diplomacy, propaganda, international system and international organization
  46. 46. • Jackson and Sorenson: Economic interdependence, human rights, international corporations, international organization, the environment, gender inequalities, development, terrorism etc.
  47. 47. • Baylis and Smith: Historical context of international society, world history before and after cold war, globalization, international regimes, diplomacy, the UN and international organizations, transnational actors, environmental issues, nuclear proliferation, nationalism, cultural conflicts in IR, humanitarian international in world politics, regionalism and integration, global trade and finance, poverty, development and hunger, human rights, ad gender issues
  48. 48. • Lawson: Global environment concern, the epidemiology of AIDS, legal and illegal migration, including refugee movements, the North- South gap, human rights, reform of UN and its agencies, extension of international law, prosecution of crime against humanity, terrorism, drug production and trafficking to money laundering, smuggling goods like weapons, diamonds, ethnic or cultural factors and nation of human security.
  49. 49. References • Peu Ghosh, International Relations ed. II • Gulam Mohammad Dar, An Introduction to International Relations • John baylis, Steve Smith, Patricia Owens, The Globalization of World Politics: An introducation to international relations ed. IV • www.historylearningsite.com