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Changes in Foreign Policies Of
Great Powers
From Point Of US
Perspectives Of The Evoluation a
Multipolar World Order
PREPARED BY: BEDRETTIN GÜRCAN
Meaning Of Great Power and Who
Are They?
We need to understand why states become great power
International relations theorists have posited that great power status
can be characterized into
 Power capabilities,
 Spatial aspects,
 Status dimensions
We can say that five permanent countries of UN Security Council are
great powers. (US, Russia, United Kingdom, France and China)
 Ever since 1815, British Empire(United Kingdom) and France have
great power and can be defined most continuous great power.
 Another continuous great power is Russia which was great power in
1815 between 1915 but after revolution, for 9 years Russia lost its
great power till 1924 when rised of Stalin after Lenin death.
 ‘’United States is probably the most secure great power in history
because of the interlocking effects of geography, nuclear weapons,
and capabilities which, although diminished relatively, are still
formidable in absolute term’’1
1 The Unipolar Illusion: Why New Great Powers Will Rise Author(s): Christopher Layne
Foreign policy analysts suggest that
the six emerging big powers share
common concerns:
1- Free trade,
2- Economic growth,
3- Prevention of terrorism,
4- Efforts to stymie nuclear proliferation.
• Short Review Of USA Foreign Policy
1776–1789
 From the establishment of the United States after the American Revolution until
the Spanish–American War, U.S. foreign policy reflected a regional, not global,
focus, but with the long-term ideal of creating an "Empire of Liberty.
1893–1914
In the late 19th century, the U.S. began investment in new naval technology
including steam-powered battleships with powerful armaments and steel decking.
After Spanish-Usa War, U.S. took control of Spain's worldwide empire,
especially Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philipinnes and Guam. It marked America's
TRANSITION FROM A REGIONAL TO A GLOBAL POWER.
World War I (1914–1919)
 American foreign policy was largely determined by President Woodrow
Wilsonn.
 With the outbreak of war in 1914, the United States declared NEUTRALITY
and worked to broker a peace.
 Following the sinking of American merchant ships By Germany , Wilson
declarated war in April 1917.
 USA contribution became significant in mid-1918.
 After war, Wilson's idealism and call for Self-determination of all nations had
an effect on nationalism across the globe, while at home his idealistic vision,
called "Wilsonianism" of spreading democracy and peace under American
auspices had a profound influence on much of American foreign policy ever
since.
World War II (1941–1945)
 In comparison with The First World War, USA substantially aided to Britain and its
allies (Especially war materials)
 The United States officially entered World War II against Germany, Japan and Italy in
December 1941, following the Japanese surprise attack on Pearl Harbor.
 In the aftermath of the European campaign, the United States enacted
the Marshall Plan, which supplied its European allies with $13 billion USD in
reconstruction aid.
 After war, for rebalanced of great powers, UN established with major force of US.
 5 Great Powers became permanent member of Security Council; US, Soviet Union,
Britain, France and China with veto power.
World Bigger Than Five,
Should Be
Cold War (1947–1991)
 From the late 1940s until 1991, world affairs were dominated by the Cold War, in
which the U.S. and its allies faced the Soviet Union and its allies.
 Main determinant of this process was catastrophic nuclear weapons.
 After 1960 the Soviets broke with China as the Communist movement worldwide
became divided.
 Some countries such as India and Yugoslavia, tried to be neutral.
 In 1949, NATO was established.
 In the 1980s, after US extensive military spending and diplomatic overtures, Soviet
Union accepted integration.
 By the time of the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the U.S. had military and
economic interests in every region of the globe.
«
1953
Post-Cold War (1992–present)
 A concept that defined the world power after the Cold-War was known as the
new world order.
 After collapse of Soviet Union and following re-emergence of the nation of
Russia, and the big changes during these years was a transition from a bipolar
world to a multipolar world.
 While the United States remains a strong power economically and militarily,
rising nations such as China, India, Brazil, and Russia as well as a united
Europe have challenged its dominance.
AFTER COLD WAR, THESE INSTITUONS
HELP TO MAINTAIN WORLD STABILITY
 After attacks of September 11, forced Americans to see clearly that
foreign policy still matters, and that our oceans and our ICBMs
do not make us safe. They brought home the stark reality that if we
do not engage with the world, the world will engage with us, and in
ways we may not like.1
 After collapse of first the Soviet bloc in Eastern Europe and then the
Soviet Union itself, the reunification of Germany, the end of
in South Africa, pro-democracy demonstrations in China’s
Square, the international coalition formed to combat Iraq’s Saddam
Hussein in the Middle East stretched the ability of the U.S. foreign
policy and determined.
Foreign Policy Association The 2002 Arthur Ross Lecture April 22, 2002 New York, NY
After September 11 USA
Bush Doctrine
 Unilaterally withdrawing from the ABM Treaty and rejecting the Kyoto Protocol.
 United States had the right to secure itself against countries that harbor or give aid to terrorist
groups, which was used to justify the 2001 invasion of Afghanistan (longest war in United
States history) and then I raq (with coaliton powers)
 Bush increased unilateralism in foreign policy, specifically regarding the his decision
to withdraw from the ABM treaty
 United States had the right to act unilaterally in its own security interests, without the
approval of international bodies such as the United Nations.
 This represented a departure from the Cold War policies
of deterrence and containment under the TRUMAN DOCTRINE and post–Cold War
philosophies such as the POWELL DOCTRINE and the CLINTON DOCTRINE. US foreign policy
polarized with Bush like a Richard Nixon (During Vietnam War)
 "The Roots of the Bush Doctrine:
1- Power,
2-Nationalism, and
3-Democracy Promotion in U.S. Strategy 1
In 2002- President Bush identified Iraq, Iran, and North Korea
as an "axis of evil."
1) Princeton University research fellow Dr. Jonathan Monten, in his 2005 International Security journal article
Bush’s Policies Are a Radical Departure
from Clinton’s
At the End Obama’s Administration
 Cooperation with allies
 Multilateralism,
 Ending of the Iraq War,
 Continuation of the process of ending U.S. combat operations in
Afghanistan,
 Destroying Al-Qaeda's core leadership (Osame bin Laden etc.)
 Promoting Paris Agreement about global climate change
 Brokoring Nuclear Deal with Iran
 Normalizing U.S. relations with Cuba
US retreat from the world scene and
to an abandon of U.S. allies, or not?
 OBAMA’S FOREIGN POLICY FIVE KEY POINTS;
 ‘’bringing a responsible end to this war in Iraq and refocusing on the critical
challenges in the broader region,"
 "by building the first truly 21st century military and showing wisdom in how we
deploy it,"
 "by marshalling a global effort to meet a threat that rises above all others in
urgency – securing, destroying, and stopping the spread of weapons of mass
destruction,"
 "rebuild and construct the alliances and partnerships necessary to meet common
challenges and confront common threats", and
 "while America can help others build more secure societies, we must never forget
that only the citizens of these nations can sustain them."
So What is The Next?
Thank U So Much
Gracias Děkuji!
감사합니다 Terima kasih
Təşəkkür edirə
Köszönöm
Teşekkür ederim
Grazie
Dakujem
ً‫شكرا‬!

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Changing of USA Foreign Policy

  • 1. Changes in Foreign Policies Of Great Powers From Point Of US Perspectives Of The Evoluation a Multipolar World Order PREPARED BY: BEDRETTIN GÜRCAN
  • 2. Meaning Of Great Power and Who Are They? We need to understand why states become great power International relations theorists have posited that great power status can be characterized into  Power capabilities,  Spatial aspects,  Status dimensions We can say that five permanent countries of UN Security Council are great powers. (US, Russia, United Kingdom, France and China)
  • 3.  Ever since 1815, British Empire(United Kingdom) and France have great power and can be defined most continuous great power.  Another continuous great power is Russia which was great power in 1815 between 1915 but after revolution, for 9 years Russia lost its great power till 1924 when rised of Stalin after Lenin death.  ‘’United States is probably the most secure great power in history because of the interlocking effects of geography, nuclear weapons, and capabilities which, although diminished relatively, are still formidable in absolute term’’1 1 The Unipolar Illusion: Why New Great Powers Will Rise Author(s): Christopher Layne
  • 4. Foreign policy analysts suggest that the six emerging big powers share common concerns: 1- Free trade, 2- Economic growth, 3- Prevention of terrorism, 4- Efforts to stymie nuclear proliferation.
  • 5. • Short Review Of USA Foreign Policy 1776–1789  From the establishment of the United States after the American Revolution until the Spanish–American War, U.S. foreign policy reflected a regional, not global, focus, but with the long-term ideal of creating an "Empire of Liberty. 1893–1914 In the late 19th century, the U.S. began investment in new naval technology including steam-powered battleships with powerful armaments and steel decking. After Spanish-Usa War, U.S. took control of Spain's worldwide empire, especially Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philipinnes and Guam. It marked America's TRANSITION FROM A REGIONAL TO A GLOBAL POWER.
  • 6. World War I (1914–1919)  American foreign policy was largely determined by President Woodrow Wilsonn.  With the outbreak of war in 1914, the United States declared NEUTRALITY and worked to broker a peace.  Following the sinking of American merchant ships By Germany , Wilson declarated war in April 1917.  USA contribution became significant in mid-1918.  After war, Wilson's idealism and call for Self-determination of all nations had an effect on nationalism across the globe, while at home his idealistic vision, called "Wilsonianism" of spreading democracy and peace under American auspices had a profound influence on much of American foreign policy ever since.
  • 7. World War II (1941–1945)  In comparison with The First World War, USA substantially aided to Britain and its allies (Especially war materials)  The United States officially entered World War II against Germany, Japan and Italy in December 1941, following the Japanese surprise attack on Pearl Harbor.  In the aftermath of the European campaign, the United States enacted the Marshall Plan, which supplied its European allies with $13 billion USD in reconstruction aid.  After war, for rebalanced of great powers, UN established with major force of US.  5 Great Powers became permanent member of Security Council; US, Soviet Union, Britain, France and China with veto power.
  • 8. World Bigger Than Five, Should Be
  • 9. Cold War (1947–1991)  From the late 1940s until 1991, world affairs were dominated by the Cold War, in which the U.S. and its allies faced the Soviet Union and its allies.  Main determinant of this process was catastrophic nuclear weapons.  After 1960 the Soviets broke with China as the Communist movement worldwide became divided.  Some countries such as India and Yugoslavia, tried to be neutral.  In 1949, NATO was established.  In the 1980s, after US extensive military spending and diplomatic overtures, Soviet Union accepted integration.  By the time of the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the U.S. had military and economic interests in every region of the globe.
  • 11. Post-Cold War (1992–present)  A concept that defined the world power after the Cold-War was known as the new world order.  After collapse of Soviet Union and following re-emergence of the nation of Russia, and the big changes during these years was a transition from a bipolar world to a multipolar world.  While the United States remains a strong power economically and militarily, rising nations such as China, India, Brazil, and Russia as well as a united Europe have challenged its dominance.
  • 12. AFTER COLD WAR, THESE INSTITUONS HELP TO MAINTAIN WORLD STABILITY
  • 13.  After attacks of September 11, forced Americans to see clearly that foreign policy still matters, and that our oceans and our ICBMs do not make us safe. They brought home the stark reality that if we do not engage with the world, the world will engage with us, and in ways we may not like.1  After collapse of first the Soviet bloc in Eastern Europe and then the Soviet Union itself, the reunification of Germany, the end of in South Africa, pro-democracy demonstrations in China’s Square, the international coalition formed to combat Iraq’s Saddam Hussein in the Middle East stretched the ability of the U.S. foreign policy and determined. Foreign Policy Association The 2002 Arthur Ross Lecture April 22, 2002 New York, NY
  • 14. After September 11 USA Bush Doctrine  Unilaterally withdrawing from the ABM Treaty and rejecting the Kyoto Protocol.  United States had the right to secure itself against countries that harbor or give aid to terrorist groups, which was used to justify the 2001 invasion of Afghanistan (longest war in United States history) and then I raq (with coaliton powers)  Bush increased unilateralism in foreign policy, specifically regarding the his decision to withdraw from the ABM treaty  United States had the right to act unilaterally in its own security interests, without the approval of international bodies such as the United Nations.  This represented a departure from the Cold War policies of deterrence and containment under the TRUMAN DOCTRINE and post–Cold War philosophies such as the POWELL DOCTRINE and the CLINTON DOCTRINE. US foreign policy polarized with Bush like a Richard Nixon (During Vietnam War)
  • 15.  "The Roots of the Bush Doctrine: 1- Power, 2-Nationalism, and 3-Democracy Promotion in U.S. Strategy 1 In 2002- President Bush identified Iraq, Iran, and North Korea as an "axis of evil." 1) Princeton University research fellow Dr. Jonathan Monten, in his 2005 International Security journal article Bush’s Policies Are a Radical Departure from Clinton’s
  • 16. At the End Obama’s Administration  Cooperation with allies  Multilateralism,  Ending of the Iraq War,  Continuation of the process of ending U.S. combat operations in Afghanistan,  Destroying Al-Qaeda's core leadership (Osame bin Laden etc.)  Promoting Paris Agreement about global climate change  Brokoring Nuclear Deal with Iran  Normalizing U.S. relations with Cuba
  • 17. US retreat from the world scene and to an abandon of U.S. allies, or not?  OBAMA’S FOREIGN POLICY FIVE KEY POINTS;  ‘’bringing a responsible end to this war in Iraq and refocusing on the critical challenges in the broader region,"  "by building the first truly 21st century military and showing wisdom in how we deploy it,"  "by marshalling a global effort to meet a threat that rises above all others in urgency – securing, destroying, and stopping the spread of weapons of mass destruction,"  "rebuild and construct the alliances and partnerships necessary to meet common challenges and confront common threats", and  "while America can help others build more secure societies, we must never forget that only the citizens of these nations can sustain them."
  • 18. So What is The Next?
  • 19. Thank U So Much Gracias Děkuji! 감사합니다 Terima kasih Təşəkkür edirə Köszönöm Teşekkür ederim Grazie Dakujem ً‫شكرا‬!