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ConservationSeeding PracticesJohn NowatzkiExtension Ag Machine Systems Specialist
History
Langdon Average Temp Increase 2°Since 1903GrowingSeason12 dayslonger
Air Seeder Principles and FunctionsBasic Criteria for Effective SeedersOpener Design & Seed/Fertilizer PlacementManaging C...
Channel Setting Instructions for ResponseCard RF1. Press and release the "GO" or "CH" button.2. While the light is flashin...
Where is Your Home Area?1 2 3 4 5 60 0 00001. North Dakota2. South Dakota3. Manitoba4. Saskatchewan5. Montana6. Other
What is your Occupation?1 2 3 40 0001. Farmer/Rancher2. Dealer Personnel3. Factory Personnel4. Other
Which crops do you grow?1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 100 0 0 0 0000001. Barley2. Buckwheat3. Canola4. Corn5. Dry Edible Beans6. Field...
Which crops do you grow?1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 100 0 0 0 0000001. Oats2. Potatoes3. Rye4. Safflower5. Soybeans6. Sugarbeets7. S...
What is your tillage system?1 2 3 4 50 0 0001. Intensive Tillage2. Minimum Tillage3. One-Pass System4. No Till5. Other
Basic Criteria for Effective Seeders1. Precisely Meter Seeds2. Plant Seed at Uniform Depth3. Plant Through Residue4. Funct...
Basic Criteria for Effective Seeders1 2 3 4 5 6 7 80% 0% 0% 0%0%0%0%0%1. Precisely Meter Seeds2. Plant Seed at UniformDept...
Factors Affecting Choice of Opener Type• Soil Type and Conditions• Crop Residue• Amount, Type, Position• Crops to Plant• P...
Factors Affecting Choice of Opener TypeHigh-disturbanceLow-disturbanceOpener Disturbance65% - STIR = 16.925% - STIR = 4.87...
What Type of Opener do you use?1 2 3 40 0001. Disc Opener2. Hoe Opener3. Combination4. Other
Choice of Opener Type: Seed to Soil ContactWater Transfer from Soil to Seed: The Role of Vapor TransportWater Transfer fro...
Choice of Opener Type: Seed to Soil ContactWater Transfer from Soil to Seed: The Role of Vapor TransportWater Transfer fro...
Opener DesignProducer Management Goals: Hoe vs. DiscDisc Openers – Leaves Residue Standing• Slow Soil Warming (Cooling)• M...
Opener DesignSeed and Fertilizer Placement• Factors Affecting Amount of N with the Seed• Distance between Rows• Distributi...
Opener DesignSeparate Fertilizer Placement SystemsBanding Fertilizer• Beside Seed• Below SeedMid-row Banding - FertilizerD...
Opener DesignSeparate Fertilizer Placement Systems• 30 lb./acre of N - wheat• 10-20 lb./a of N - Canola• Mid-row banding• ...
Opener DesignPaired-row vs. Single Row Spacing• Wheat PlantLateral spread - 5 inchesDepth–6inches30 days after plantingEar...
Opener DesignPaired-row vs. Single Row Spacing• Wheat PlantLateral spread - 5 inchesDepth–6inches30 days after plantingPai...
Opener Design Preferences?1 2 3 4 5 60% 0% 0%0%0%0%1. Separate FertilizerPlacement2. Starter Fertilizer withSeed3. All Fer...
Managing Crop Residue• Residue is a Resource toConserve and Use.• Limits Evaporation• Preserves Moisture• Maintains Humidi...
Managing Crop Residue at Harvest Time• Spread Straw Uniformly• Harrows• Incorporate Weeds Seeds• Increases Seed Longevity•...
Managing Crop ResidueEffect of Corn Residue Placement on Wheat YieldResidue Placement Wheat Yield (bu/ac)random coverage 7...
oneNDSU Residue Management ProjectGolden ValleyCountyStutsman County Cass CountySoil name Amor loam Barnes-Buse loam Glynd...
Stripper Header
oneNDSU Residue Management Project• Tall Stubble – 24”• Medium Stubble – 12”• Short Stubble – 6”
NDSU Residue Management ProjectShortMedium35 to 40% Standing13% StandingTall100% Standing
Data Transfer• Cellular Modem• Remote Computer calls Modem• FTP Data to NDSU Server Computer• Updated Data on Internethttp...
Residue Management Project - WinterJanuary 2011
MediumTallShortJanuary 2011
-20-1001020304050Average TemperaturesStutsman CountyDec. 1 - March 12011-12Air Temperature Tall Stubble TemperatureMedium ...
-20-1001020304050 Air Temperature Tall Stubble TemperatureMedium Stubble Temperature Short Stubble TemperatureStrip Till T...
Crop Residue – Spring 2011 Soil Temperature010203040506070Soil TemperatureGolden Valley CountyApril 1-302011Tall Stubble T...
Crop Residue – Spring 2011 Soil Moisture0.005.0010.0015.0020.0025.0030.0035.0040.0045.0050.00Soil MoistureStutsman CountyA...
0.005.0010.0015.0020.0025.0030.0035.0040.0045.0010/1/11 10/8/11 10/15/11 10/22/11 10/29/11 11/5/11 11/12/11Soil MoistureSt...
Equipment and Cost• SolarStream Cellular Modem - $750• Cellular Service - $180/year• Data Logger - $500• Sensors• Temperat...
Depth Control• Influences Seedling Emergence and Yield• Important Factors• Independent Pressure• Gauge Wheels• Shank Linka...
Depth ControlWHEAT PLANTING DEPTH STUDYJim Herbek, John James, and Dottie CallDept. of Agronomy, Univ. of KY. 2001
HOW PERFECT DO WHEAT STANDS NEED TO BE?Lloyd Murdock, Jim Herbek, John James, and Dottie Dept. ofAgronomy, Univ. of KY. 20...
Varying Conditions• No Openers Work as Well in Wet Soils• Compacts Soil• Buildup on PackerWheels• “Glazed” Furrow
Varying Conditions• Flexible Frames• Parallel Linkage• Hydraulic Shanks
Soil Disturbance• Disc Openers Cause Less Soil Disturbance• More Residue on Surface• Less Soil Temperature Change• Less So...
Soil DisturbanceSoil disturbance and fuel consumption for various types of openersOpener configuration Soil surfacedisturb...
onePrecision Agriculture ImplicationsSection Controlon Air Seeders
• Seed/Fertilizer Placement• Depends on Seedbed Utilization• Increase Yield with Optimum Fertilizer Placement• 30 lb. Nitr...
• Planting Depth• 3”+ Reduces Wheat Yield• Depth Critical for Small-seeded Crops• Effects of Skips on Yield• -10% Skip ok ...
PlantingTechnologyFeedstheWorld1804 1 billion1850 1.2 billion1900 1.6 billion1927 2 billion1950 2.55 billion1955 2.8 billi...
Questions - CommentsOffice 701-231-8213 Cell 701-261-9842John.Nowatzki@ndsu.eduhttp://www.ag.ndsu.edu/agmachinery
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Conservation seeding equipment 3 29-2012

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Conservation seeding equipment 3 29-2012

  1. 1. ConservationSeeding PracticesJohn NowatzkiExtension Ag Machine Systems Specialist
  2. 2. History
  3. 3. Langdon Average Temp Increase 2°Since 1903GrowingSeason12 dayslonger
  4. 4. Air Seeder Principles and FunctionsBasic Criteria for Effective SeedersOpener Design & Seed/Fertilizer PlacementManaging Crop ResidueSoil DisturbanceDepth ControlVarying ConditionsPrecision AgricultureEnergy Requirements
  5. 5. Channel Setting Instructions for ResponseCard RF1. Press and release the "GO" or "CH" button.2. While the light is flashing red and green, enter the 2 digitchannel code (i.e. channel 1 = 01, channel 21 = 21).Channel is 413. After the second digit is entered, Press and release the "GO"or "CH" button. The light should flash green to confirm.4. Press and release the "1/A" button. The light should flashamber to confirm.
  6. 6. Where is Your Home Area?1 2 3 4 5 60 0 00001. North Dakota2. South Dakota3. Manitoba4. Saskatchewan5. Montana6. Other
  7. 7. What is your Occupation?1 2 3 40 0001. Farmer/Rancher2. Dealer Personnel3. Factory Personnel4. Other
  8. 8. Which crops do you grow?1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 100 0 0 0 0000001. Barley2. Buckwheat3. Canola4. Corn5. Dry Edible Beans6. Field Peas7. Flax8. Lentils9. Millet10. Mustard
  9. 9. Which crops do you grow?1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 100 0 0 0 0000001. Oats2. Potatoes3. Rye4. Safflower5. Soybeans6. Sugarbeets7. Sunflower8. Wheat, Durum9. Winter Wheat10. Other
  10. 10. What is your tillage system?1 2 3 4 50 0 0001. Intensive Tillage2. Minimum Tillage3. One-Pass System4. No Till5. Other
  11. 11. Basic Criteria for Effective Seeders1. Precisely Meter Seeds2. Plant Seed at Uniform Depth3. Plant Through Residue4. Function in Varying Soil Types5. Durable6. Economical7. Correctly Place Fertilizer and Seed
  12. 12. Basic Criteria for Effective Seeders1 2 3 4 5 6 7 80% 0% 0% 0%0%0%0%0%1. Precisely Meter Seeds2. Plant Seed at UniformDepth3. Plant Through Residue4. Function in Varying SoilTypes5. Durable6. Economical7. Correctly Place Fertilizerand Seed8. Other
  13. 13. Factors Affecting Choice of Opener Type• Soil Type and Conditions• Crop Residue• Amount, Type, Position• Crops to Plant• Producer Management Goals
  14. 14. Factors Affecting Choice of Opener TypeHigh-disturbanceLow-disturbanceOpener Disturbance65% - STIR = 16.925% - STIR = 4.8715% - STIR = 2.4315% - STIR = 1.9535% - STIR = 5.68
  15. 15. What Type of Opener do you use?1 2 3 40 0001. Disc Opener2. Hoe Opener3. Combination4. Other
  16. 16. Choice of Opener Type: Seed to Soil ContactWater Transfer from Soil to Seed: The Role of Vapor TransportWater Transfer from Soil to Seed: The Role of Vapor TransportStewart B. Wuest. USDA-ARS, Pendleton, ORVapor alone is sufficient to supply water for germination.
  17. 17. Choice of Opener Type: Seed to Soil ContactWater Transfer from Soil to Seed: The Role of Vapor TransportWater Transfer from Soil to Seed: The Role of Vapor TransportStewart B. Wuest. USDA-ARS, Pendleton, ORVapor alone is sufficient to supply water for germination.Barley, pea, mustard,and wheat weretested for their abilityto germinate rapidlywith vapor alone.
  18. 18. Opener DesignProducer Management Goals: Hoe vs. DiscDisc Openers – Leaves Residue Standing• Slow Soil Warming (Cooling)• Maintains Soil MoistureHoe Openers – Mixes Residue into Soil• Promotes Soil Warming and Drying• Promotes Residue Decomposition• Place Seed into Moist Soil
  19. 19. Opener DesignSeed and Fertilizer Placement• Factors Affecting Amount of N with the Seed• Distance between Rows• Distribution of Seed and Fertilizer• Soil Texture, Soil pH• Soil Moisture• Fertilizer Placement• Type of Fertilizer• CropGreater risk of nitrogentoxicity in sandy soilsthan in clay soils
  20. 20. Opener DesignSeparate Fertilizer Placement SystemsBanding Fertilizer• Beside Seed• Below SeedMid-row Banding - FertilizerDouble Shooting Fertilizer• Below and to Side of Seed• Beside SeedBarton™ Double-shoot
  21. 21. Opener DesignSeparate Fertilizer Placement Systems• 30 lb./acre of N - wheat• 10-20 lb./a of N - Canola• Mid-row banding• P too far from the plantsto deliver a “starter”effect to young plants?Fertilizer banded more than a few inchesfrom the seed row may not be available tothe plant until the tillering stage when crownroots develop (Washington State University)
  22. 22. Opener DesignPaired-row vs. Single Row Spacing• Wheat PlantLateral spread - 5 inchesDepth–6inches30 days after plantingEarly fertilizer access improves tiller survival wheresoils have low nutrient levels.Yield increases inwheat by bandingbelow the seedcompared to bandedbetween seed rows.
  23. 23. Opener DesignPaired-row vs. Single Row Spacing• Wheat PlantLateral spread - 5 inchesDepth–6inches30 days after plantingPaired-row• Fertilizer band between wheat rows within2” to 3” of each seed row• 2” below seed
  24. 24. Opener Design Preferences?1 2 3 4 5 60% 0% 0%0%0%0%1. Separate FertilizerPlacement2. Starter Fertilizer withSeed3. All Fertilizer withSeed4. Paired Row - FertilizerBetween Rows5. Fertilizer Below Seed6. Other
  25. 25. Managing Crop Residue• Residue is a Resource toConserve and Use.• Limits Evaporation• Preserves Moisture• Maintains Humidity in Soil• Food for Beneficial Fungi,Bacteria, Insects
  26. 26. Managing Crop Residue at Harvest Time• Spread Straw Uniformly• Harrows• Incorporate Weeds Seeds• Increases Seed Longevity• Disc Openers• Leave Tall Stubble• How Opener – Shorter Stubble• Residue No Longer than Planter Row Width
  27. 27. Managing Crop ResidueEffect of Corn Residue Placement on Wheat YieldResidue Placement Wheat Yield (bu/ac)random coverage 73.80.25 inches away 75.40.50 inches away 73.10.75 inches away 75.01.25 inches away 72.0Bare Soil 81.9Residue Placement to Improve Yields of No-TillageWinter Wheat Following CornJohn H. Grove and Christopher E. Kiger, Agronomy Dept., Univ.of KY 1987
  28. 28. oneNDSU Residue Management ProjectGolden ValleyCountyStutsman County Cass CountySoil name Amor loam Barnes-Buse loam Glyndon silt loamTillage System No-till (20+ years) No-till 10 years ConventionalCrop Rotation wheat-corn-pea-wheatwheat-soybean-soybean-wheat-soybean-soybean-corn-dry bean-cornsugarbeet-wheat-soybean or corn• Started in 2010• Electronic Sensors• Data on Internet• Updated Daily
  29. 29. Stripper Header
  30. 30. oneNDSU Residue Management Project• Tall Stubble – 24”• Medium Stubble – 12”• Short Stubble – 6”
  31. 31. NDSU Residue Management ProjectShortMedium35 to 40% Standing13% StandingTall100% Standing
  32. 32. Data Transfer• Cellular Modem• Remote Computer calls Modem• FTP Data to NDSU Server Computer• Updated Data on Internethttp://www.ageng.ndsu.nodak.edu/farmmonitor
  33. 33. Residue Management Project - WinterJanuary 2011
  34. 34. MediumTallShortJanuary 2011
  35. 35. -20-1001020304050Average TemperaturesStutsman CountyDec. 1 - March 12011-12Air Temperature Tall Stubble TemperatureMedium Stubble Temperature Short Stubble TemperatureAverage Temp 22°F Average Temp 29°FAverage Temp 29°F Average Temp 29°FCrop Residue – Winter Temperature 2011-12-20-1001020304050Average TemperaturesCass CountyDec. 1 - March 12011-2012Air Temperature Medium Stubble TemperatureShort Stubble Temperature Chisel Plowed TemperatureRidge Tilled TemperatureAverage 22°F Average 29°FAverage 27°F Average 28°FAverage 25°F-100102030405060Average TemperaturesGolden Valley CountyDec. 1 - March 12011-2012Air Temperature Tall Stubble TemperatureMedium Stubble Temperature Short Stubble TemperatureAverage 24°F Average 28°FAverage 27°FAverage 27°FSimilarSoil Temperatureswithout SnowRidge TillColdest
  36. 36. -20-1001020304050 Air Temperature Tall Stubble TemperatureMedium Stubble Temperature Short Stubble TemperatureStrip Till TemperatureAverage 8°FAverage 32°FAverage 33°FAverage 30°FAverage 32°FAverage TemperaturesCass CountyDec. 1 - March 12010-2011Crop Residue – Winter Temperature 2010-11-30-20-1001020304050Average TemperatureGolden Valley CountyDec. 1 - March 12010-2011Air Temperature Tall Stubble TemperatureMedium Stubble Temperature Short Stubble TemperatureAverage 14°F Average 32°FAverage 31°F Average 26°F-20-1001020304050Air Temperature Tall Stubble TemperatureMedium Stubble Temperature Short Stubble TemperatureAverage Temp 12°F Average Temp 32°FAverage Temp 32°F Average Temp 32°FAverage TemperaturesStutsman CountyDec. 1 – March 12010-2011SimilarSoil Temperatureswith Snow
  37. 37. Crop Residue – Spring 2011 Soil Temperature010203040506070Soil TemperatureGolden Valley CountyApril 1-302011Tall Stubble Temperature Medium Stubble Temperature Short Stubble TemperatureAverage 40 Average 41 Average 420102030405060Soil TemperaturesStutsman CountyApril 1-302011Tall Stubble Temperature Medium Stubble Temperature Short Stubble TemperatureAverage 39 Average 42 Average 390102030405060Soil TemperaturesCass CountyApril 1-302011Tall Stubble Temperature Medium Stubble TemperatureShort Stubble Temperature Strip Till TemperatureAverage 42 Average 41Average 40 Average 42SoybeansSugarbeetsPrevent PlantNo Difference inTemperatures
  38. 38. Crop Residue – Spring 2011 Soil Moisture0.005.0010.0015.0020.0025.0030.0035.0040.0045.0050.00Soil MoistureStutsman CountyApr. 1 - June 302011Tall Stubble Moisture Medium Stubble Moisture Short Stubble MoistureAverage 32% VWC Average 31% VWC Average 30% VWC0510152025303540Soil MoistureGolden Valley CountyApr. 1 - June 302011Tall Stubble Moisture Medium Stubble Temperature Short Subble MoistureAverage 18% VWC Average 17% VWC Average 18% VWC0102030405060Soil MoistureCass CountyApr. 1 - June 302011Tall Stubble Moisture Medium Stubble MoistureShort Stubble Moisture Strip Till MoistureAverage 38% VWCAverage 46% VWCAverage 41% VWCAverage 34% VWCSoybeansSugarbeetsPrevent PlantShort StubbleDrierStrip TillDrierSimilar
  39. 39. 0.005.0010.0015.0020.0025.0030.0035.0040.0045.0010/1/11 10/8/11 10/15/11 10/22/11 10/29/11 11/5/11 11/12/11Soil MoistureStutsman CountyOct. 1 - Nov. 152011Tall Stubble Moisture Medium Stubble Moisture Short Stubble MoistureCrop Residue – Fall 2011 Soil MoistureAverage 33 % VWC Average 37 % VWC Average 37 % VWC05101520253035404510/4/201110/5/201110/6/201110/7/201110/8/201110/9/201110/10/201110/11/201110/12/201110/13/201110/14/201110/15/201110/16/201110/17/201110/18/201110/19/201110/20/201110/21/201110/22/2011Soil MoistureCass CountyOct. 4 - Oct 222011Medium Stubble Moisture Short stubble MoistureChisel Plowed Moisture Ridge Tilled MoistureAverage 26% VWC Average 33% VWCAverage 31% VWC Average 9% VWC0510152025303540Soil MoistureGolden Valley CountySept. 29 - Nov. 152011Tall Stubble Moisture Medium Stubble Temperature Short Subble MoistureAverage 14% VWC Average 10% VWC Average 2% VWCTall isDriestRidge TillIs DriestTall isWettestTall isWettest
  40. 40. Equipment and Cost• SolarStream Cellular Modem - $750• Cellular Service - $180/year• Data Logger - $500• Sensors• Temperature $100• Moisture $140• Wind $240• Rainfall $400
  41. 41. Depth Control• Influences Seedling Emergence and Yield• Important Factors• Independent Pressure• Gauge Wheels• Shank Linkage• Castor WheelsAccurate and controllable methods of depthplacement are more important in small-seededcrops because seeds usually are plantedshallower than in larger-seeded crops.
  42. 42. Depth ControlWHEAT PLANTING DEPTH STUDYJim Herbek, John James, and Dottie CallDept. of Agronomy, Univ. of KY. 2001
  43. 43. HOW PERFECT DO WHEAT STANDS NEED TO BE?Lloyd Murdock, Jim Herbek, John James, and Dottie Dept. ofAgronomy, Univ. of KY. 2001Effects of Skips on Wheat Yields• Method:• Plants removed to make skips• Skips 6”, 12”, or 18” long• Results:• Length of Skip – No Yield Effect• No Yield Effect if:• -10% Skip - all Varieties• -20% Skip -Tillering VarietiesDepth Control
  44. 44. Varying Conditions• No Openers Work as Well in Wet Soils• Compacts Soil• Buildup on PackerWheels• “Glazed” Furrow
  45. 45. Varying Conditions• Flexible Frames• Parallel Linkage• Hydraulic Shanks
  46. 46. Soil Disturbance• Disc Openers Cause Less Soil Disturbance• More Residue on Surface• Less Soil Temperature Change• Less Soil Erosion• Conserve Soil Moisture
  47. 47. Soil DisturbanceSoil disturbance and fuel consumption for various types of openersOpener configuration Soil surfacedisturbanceSTIR*factorFuel consumptionto seed one acre(spacing in inches) % gallons/acreDouble disc (7-10) 65 6.33 0.34D disc separate fertilizer opener (7-12) 85 13.8 0.43Double disc – fluted coulters (7-10) 55 7.2 0.43Double disc – narrow offset 25 4.9 0.32D disc – very heavy direct seeding one pass 85 16.6 1.1D disc – very heavy direct /row cleaners 90 17.5 1.3Hoe in heavy residue (10-15) 65 16.9 0.74Hoe (6-12) 90 23.4 0.74Inverted tee,.e.g., cross-slot (7-10) 15 1.9 0.40Single disc (7-10) 15 2.4 .035S disc with separate fertilizer opener (7-10) 35 5.7 .048
  48. 48. onePrecision Agriculture ImplicationsSection Controlon Air Seeders
  49. 49. • Seed/Fertilizer Placement• Depends on Seedbed Utilization• Increase Yield with Optimum Fertilizer Placement• 30 lb. Nitrogen with Wheat Seed• Uniform Depth – Not as Critical• Crop Residue• Standing Stubble Warms and Dries Earlier in Spring• Bare Soil Warmer and Drier• Stubble Height• No Influence on Winter Soil Temperature• Short Stubble – Drier Spring and FallSummary
  50. 50. • Planting Depth• 3”+ Reduces Wheat Yield• Depth Critical for Small-seeded Crops• Effects of Skips on Yield• -10% Skip ok with Wheat• Soil Disturbance and Energy Consumption• Hoe in heavy residue – 65% Disturbance, 0.74gal/acre• Single disc – 15% Disturbance, 0.35 gal/acreSummary
  51. 51. PlantingTechnologyFeedstheWorld1804 1 billion1850 1.2 billion1900 1.6 billion1927 2 billion1950 2.55 billion1955 2.8 billion1960 3 billion1965 3.3 billion1970 3.7 billion1975 4 billion1980 4.5 billion1985 4.85 billion1987 5 billion1990 5.3 billion1995 5.7 billion1999 6 billion2000 6.1 billion2005 6.45 billion2010 6.8 billion2011 7 billionCurrent World Population:7,029,599,952
  52. 52. Questions - CommentsOffice 701-231-8213 Cell 701-261-9842John.Nowatzki@ndsu.eduhttp://www.ag.ndsu.edu/agmachinery

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