UAS in agriculture 2-2014

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Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) applications to agriculture.

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UAS in agriculture 2-2014

  1. 1. UAS in Agriculture John Nowatzki Extension Ag Machine Systems Specialist
  2. 2. Unmanned Aircraft Systems Crop Production Livestock Production
  3. 3. UAS in Agriculture What are UAS? Impacts of ND Test Site Typical Equipment UAS in Agriculture Today Current US Regulations 2014 UAS at NDSU/UND Current ND Commercial Activity Future of UAV in Agriculture Privacy Issues
  4. 4. Impacts of North Dakota Test Site • Allow the FAA to develop research and operational experiences • Help ensure the safe integration of UAS into the nation's airspace – “sense and avoid,” – command and control, – ground control standards – human factors – airworthiness – lost link procedures – interface with the air traffic control
  5. 5. FAA Test Site • University of Alaska • standards for unmanned aircraft categories, and state monitoring • State of Nevada – operator standards and certification requirements • New York’s Griffiss International Airport – test and evaluation • North Dakota Department of Commerce – airworthiness data and validate high reliability link technology • Texas A&M University – Corpus Christi – safety requirements for UAS vehicles • Virginia Tech – UAS failure mode testing and technical risks areas
  6. 6. Air Vehicle Control Station Antenna(s) + + What “is” a UAS? Generally speaking…
  7. 7. What are Unmanned Aircraft Systems? What
  8. 8. What are UAS for Agriculture? Small Unmanned Aircraft 18” – 10’ Remote controlled or Auto-pilot Under 1000’ Cameras: Digital Images, Video, Thermal
  9. 9. • Weight = 2 to 6 pounds • Wing span = 2 to 8 feet • Battery powered • Various Cameras UAS
  10. 10. Equipment E382 Fixed Wing Package $2,000 • Skywalker Airframe, 188cm Wingspan • ArduPilot Mega 2.5 Autopilot – Includes GPS, IMU, Pressure Sensor and Flight Data Log • SX260 HS Camera with CHDK Installed • 3DR Telemetry Radios • Remote Control Unit • Battery & Charger • 4 Extra Batteries • http://www.event38.com/
  11. 11. Typical Equipment Aphex Hexacopter Camera $ 2,000 • NX1000 Camera and Mount • Remote Control Unit • Telemetry:3DR Radios, Air and Ground, • Batteries • Battery Charger • Spare Parts: • 5 Propeller Pairs • 2 Arms • 2 Legs • 1 Motor • http://www.event38.com/
  12. 12. Typical Equipment Aparotors - Kit: $3800 • Multi-rotor kit fully assembled • Radio controller and receiver • Stabilized Camera Gimbal • 2 batteries (flight time 10 min / battery) • Battery Charger (25 minutes) • Camera GoPro3 with 8GB card – http://aparotors.com/
  13. 13. Equipment Precision Scout - Kit: $17,500 • Real-time live feed recorded and streamed to the ground • GPS location and proper flight orientation • communication fails, will safely return home • •Controller •GPS Unit • •Hi-resolution Video/Still Camera •Telemetry • •Dual Battery Charger •6 Batteries • •16gb micro SD memory card •Lifetime Protective Case • http://aparotors.com/
  14. 14. Equipment SensFly eBee Package $35,000 • Case with foam protection • 1 eBee central body • 1 pair of wings • 10 spare propellers • 2 Lithium-Polymer battery packs • Lithium-Polymer battery charger • 2.4 GHz USB radio modem • 1 remote control • 1 still camera • 1 USB cable for interfacing with camera and on-board autopilot https://www.sensefly.com/
  15. 15. Typical Equipment Trimble UX5 Aerial Imaging Rover ($50,000) • EPP foam; carbon frame structure • Electric pusher propeller; brushless 700 W motor • 14.8 V, 6000 mAh battery • 16.1 MP mirrorless APSC camera • 0.94 - 9.4 in image resolution http://www.trimble.com/Survey/ux5.aspx
  16. 16. Typical Equipment Multi-spectral Camera ($3,800) • Size 4.5 x 3.0 x 0.9 in. • Weight 3.53 oz. • Visible light and near-infrared wavelengths • Software: PixelWrench2, processing multispectral images of crops • http://fieldofviewllc.com/
  17. 17. Typical Equipment Thermal Imaging Camera ($10,000) • Thermal Imager - Uncooled VOx Microbolometer • Spectral Band 7.5 - 13.5 μm • Time to Image ~4.0 sec • Size (w/o lens) 1.75" x 1.75" x 1.18" • RS-232 Compatible Communication 57,600 & 921,600 baud • Image Processing & Display Controls NTSC/PAL (field switchable) • http://www.flir.com/US/
  18. 18. Thermal Imaging Takes a Crop’s Temperature Plants Absorb and Reflect Light Red Absorbed, NIR Reflected • Locating insect Infestations • Early Disease Pressure • Under-irrigated Field Sections.
  19. 19. Multispectral Imaging Plants Absorb and Reflect Light Red Absorbed, NIR Reflected
  20. 20. • 231 images geo-referenced • Pseudocolor mosaic • Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) mosaic PrecisionAg Payload
  21. 21. Data Processing Software Agisoft PhotoScan ($3,800) • Aerial Triangulation • Polygonal Model Generation (plain / textured) • Setting Coordinate System • Geo-referenced Digital Elevation Model (DEM) Generation • Geo-referenced Orthophoto Generation • http://fieldofviewllc.com/
  22. 22. Current FAA Rules • Private, Recreation Use • On-farm? • University: Certificate of Authorization • Airframe • Location • Operator • Dates • 6-9 Months
  23. 23. NDSU Carrington Research Center • Valid Uses of UAS in Ag – Crop Research – Livestock Research • Feedlot Bedding Materials • Animal Body Temperatures UAS at NDSU and UND Proof of Concept
  24. 24. NDSU – UND Collaborations Agricultural Research School of Aerospace Research Extension Centers UAS Center Extension Service Remote Sensing
  25. 25. Commercial Service in 2014 • North Country Ag Services - Kris Poulson – Contract to fly fields on schedule, or when requested – Purchased UTC Aerospace Systems – will manufacture UAS – Quad and Fixed wing – Process data • Field of View – Cameras and Sensors – Training – Image Analyses
  26. 26. Potential Applications • Near Real-time Crop Monitoring • In-season Fertilization • Pest Location and Movements • Weed Infestations • Monitoring Livestock on Rangeland • Others ……..................... • …………………………… • ……………………………
  27. 27. Privacy • Who Regulates UAS? • Illegal Uses • Who Owns the Images • Other Issues
  28. 28. Megan’s First UAS Operation
  29. 29. The End of Megan’s First UAS Operation!
  30. 30. UAS Mapping Vegetation http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6bgbp9Vj2t4
  31. 31. Questions - Comments Office 701-231-8213 Cell 701-261-9842 John.Nowatzki@ndsu.edu http://www.ag.ndsu.edu/agmachinery

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