Module 2
<ul><li>Asian Versus America </li></ul><ul><li>Iceberg </li></ul><ul><li>Saner </li></ul>
Negotiation The Impact of culture on Negotiation Negotiation Factors Goal Attitudes Personal Styles Communications Time Se...
The American Way Communication Patterns in Negotiation Message Success All the  information on the  table Confronts provok...
05/09/08 Communication Patterns in Negotiation Message Success Some  information on the  table Express it implicitly Confr...
05/09/08 <ul><li>American </li></ul><ul><li>Individualist orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Informal and egalitarian </li></ul...
05/09/08 <ul><li>Work Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Rationale : </li></ul><ul><li>Fear of failure </li></ul><ul><li>Desire for ...
05/09/08 Culture A Culture B Behaviors Comportamientos Customs Costumbres Beliefs Creencias Values Valores assumptions Sup...
05/09/08 Professional Profesional Functional Funcional Company Compañía Industry Industria Regional/ National Regional/Nac...
05/09/08
05/09/08
05/09/08
<ul><li>Wall Street One </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://youtube.com/watch?v=Pxsn5Mm6fzA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wall Street Tw...
05/09/08
<ul><li>Nature of decision -making: degree of risk vs speed of feedback (payoff).  Naturaleza de la decisión tomada: Grado...
05/09/08
05/09/08
05/09/08
05/09/08
05/09/08
05/09/08
05/09/08
<ul><li>High Uncertainty Avoidance (80).  </li></ul><ul><li>PDI suggests inequality accepted </li></ul><ul><li>MAS: Work t...
<ul><li>One  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WQnXJZXaxcI </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two  </li></ul><ul><u...
<ul><li>High Individual.  </li></ul><ul><li>PDI suggests inequality accepted </li></ul><ul><li>MAS: live to work  </li></u...
<ul><li>One </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=002AY4cb5uw </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two </li></ul><ul><ul>...
<ul><li>Highest PDI in world inequality accepted </li></ul><ul><li>MAS, UAI, IDV middle  </li></ul>05/09/08
<ul><li>One </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ot9Jp6-mB-8 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube...
05/09/08
05/09/08 Mobile America Foggy Japanese Clinical French Vague British
<ul><li>Apart from the Koreans (who seem to like everybody’s jokes), few Orientals are amused by American or (most) Europe...
05/09/08 Values Symbols Behaviors
<ul><li>One </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dVcRecCk8sw </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two </li></ul><ul><ul>...
<ul><li>High Uncertainty.  </li></ul><ul><li>PDI average </li></ul><ul><li>MAS: live to work  </li></ul>05/09/08
<ul><li>One </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ahp8pyPuSEg&mode=related&search= </li></ul></ul><ul><li>T...
<ul><li>Long-term Orientation (LTO) highest-ranking factor (118) </li></ul><ul><li>Individualism (IDV) lower than any othe...
<ul><li>High Individual.  </li></ul><ul><li>PDI lover side </li></ul><ul><li>MAS: Work to Live </li></ul>05/09/08
<ul><li>High correlation between the Muslim religion with Power Distance (PDI) and Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI) scores  </l...
<ul><li>two highest rankings being equal at 64 - Power Distance (PDI) and Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI).  </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>Edward HALL </li></ul><ul><li>3 variables of Culture </li></ul><ul><li>1- High-context and Low-context cultures </...
<ul><li>Edward HALL </li></ul><ul><li>1-   High-context and Low-context cultures </li></ul><ul><li>High-context communicat...
<ul><li>Edward HALL </li></ul><ul><li>2- Dimensions of time </li></ul><ul><li>* Time orientation toward the Past, Present,...
<ul><li>Polychronic/Synchronic cultures </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>fluid time, circular </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>The U.S., British, German, Swiss, and Scandinavian cultures are relatively monochronic,  </li></ul><ul><li>Latin A...
<ul><li>Edward HALL </li></ul><ul><li>3- Relationship of man with Nature and Space </li></ul><ul><li>* Mastery, Harmony, S...
<ul><li>Deal-focused  cultures </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>direct approach to customer possible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
<ul><li>Ascription-based  cultures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Status ascribed (given) to certain groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
<ul><li>Formal  communication style </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of titles (academic or professional) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
05/09/08
<ul><li>Cultural Chauvinism </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnocentrity </li></ul>05/09/08
05/09/08
05/09/08 Cultural Chauvinism Level of Cultural Awareness Ethnocentrism Tolerance Minimization Understanding Description
05/09/08 Complete unawareness  of other cultures, which leads negotiators to attribute ignorance and bad intentions to oth...
05/09/08 Awareness  of ethnic, religious, racial, or national differences, along with a  conviction that   one’s own way i...
05/09/08 Awareness and  appreciation  of differences, still feeling one’s own way is more “realistic” - leads negotiators ...
05/09/08 Awareness of other cultures, with  focus on similarities  across cultures, may lead negotiator to  ignore importa...
05/09/08 Realization that  one’s own way is only one of many,  and that others are not abnormal in any way Cultural Chauvi...
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International Negotiation 2.1

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  • SAY: As we talk about culture today, we want to get beyond the superficial and better understand some of the elements of what we call “Deeper Culture” especially as it applies to national and ethnic culture. EXPLAIN that it’s natural to “snorkel along the surface” of the water and focus on the more obvious, visible differences in culture such as food, dress, and even observable behaviours and customs. When embarking on a cross-cultural adventure, it’s a very common phenomenon for people to want to know the “do’s” and “don’ts” of the new culture, which isn’t necessarily a bad place to start, but that’s often where the pursuit ends. It’s much less common for people to really go “deep sea diving” to better understand beliefs, values, and assumptions that also have a profound impact in cross-cultural communications interactions and working relationships.
  • How professionals acquire knowledge etc Harvard MBA vmore generalist approach, work well in teams MIT-MBA ’s specialists, good in individual assignments INSEAD MBAs international background and cross-cultural exposure proper behaviour: aggressiveness for lawyers, not for doctors sompe professions are closely linked witrh particular countries
  • Different task environments
  • GM: geographical diversification diversification, internationalisation, decentralised control start-ups: organic forms, when they grow they need to become more structured and systematic.
  • Deep cultural values, which we learn as very young children, are more resistant to change than superficial cultural expressions are. Values seem natural and universal. When we encounter different cultural symbols, people merely seem different, perhaps even colorful. But when they express different values, they seem unnatural, dangerous, or evil. The relationship between cultural symbols and cultural values can be seen as a series of layers wrapped around a central core—the deep values that motivate people’s behavior ( Figure 3.3 ). Cultural symbols are the visible manifestations of culture—the practices and behaviors we can see and catalog. These practices are expressions of deep-seated, invisible core values at the center. It is relatively easy to learn about these surface manifestations of culture, but much harder to get a feel for the significance these practices have.
  • International Negotiation 2.1

    1. 1. Module 2
    2. 2. <ul><li>Asian Versus America </li></ul><ul><li>Iceberg </li></ul><ul><li>Saner </li></ul>
    3. 3. Negotiation The Impact of culture on Negotiation Negotiation Factors Goal Attitudes Personal Styles Communications Time Sensitivity Emotionalism Agreement Form Agreement building Team Organization Risk Taking Contract Win/Lose Informal Direct High High Specific Bottom Up One leader High Relationship Win/Win Formal Indirect Low Low General Top Consensus Low Western Asian Source http://fletcher.tufts.edu/salacuse/topten.html
    4. 4. The American Way Communication Patterns in Negotiation Message Success All the information on the table Confronts provokes Become Vocal & animated Argument the way of Commu -nication Concession Conciliation Summary Wishes to close the deal effectively on his terms (win-lose) Express it all directly
    5. 5. 05/09/08 Communication Patterns in Negotiation Message Success Some information on the table Express it implicitly Confronts Challenges Considers options Eating and Drinking the way of commu- nication Making Friends Concession Wishes to close the deal and establish long-term relationship (win-win) The Chinese Way
    6. 6. 05/09/08 <ul><li>American </li></ul><ul><li>Individualist orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Informal and egalitarian </li></ul><ul><li>Task orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Willing to confront directly, </li></ul><ul><li>criticize, discuss controversial </li></ul><ul><li>topics, and press personal </li></ul><ul><li>opinions </li></ul><ul><li>Written rules apply to everyone </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese </li></ul><ul><li>Collectivist orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Formal and hierarchical </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship-orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid direct confrontation, </li></ul><ul><li>open criticism, and </li></ul><ul><li>controversial topics. </li></ul><ul><li>Faith in personal relationships </li></ul><ul><li>than in written rules </li></ul>American vs. Chinese Asian business style vs. others
    7. 7. 05/09/08 <ul><li>Work Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Rationale : </li></ul><ul><li>Fear of failure </li></ul><ul><li>Desire for familial </li></ul><ul><li>betterment </li></ul><ul><li>Material gains </li></ul><ul><li>Social esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Security during old age </li></ul><ul><li>Entrepreneurial </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Attributes : </li></ul><ul><li>Trustworthiness </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Frugality </li></ul><ul><li>Building of relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Creativity </li></ul>Overseas Chinese Business Ethics and Success Overseas Chinese Business Ethics Asian business style vs. others
    8. 8. 05/09/08 Culture A Culture B Behaviors Comportamientos Customs Costumbres Beliefs Creencias Values Valores assumptions Suposiciones
    9. 9. 05/09/08 Professional Profesional Functional Funcional Company Compañía Industry Industria Regional/ National Regional/Nacional
    10. 10. 05/09/08
    11. 11. 05/09/08
    12. 12. 05/09/08
    13. 13. <ul><li>Wall Street One </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://youtube.com/watch?v=Pxsn5Mm6fzA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wall Street Two </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://youtube.com/watch?v=RBKuESaGa00 </li></ul></ul>05/09/08
    14. 14. 05/09/08
    15. 15. <ul><li>Nature of decision -making: degree of risk vs speed of feedback (payoff). Naturaleza de la decisión tomada: Grado del riesgo versus la velocidad de la retroalimentación. </li></ul>05/09/08 degree of risk high low speed of feedback high low biotechnology bond trading retailing Accounting consultants
    16. 16. 05/09/08
    17. 17. 05/09/08
    18. 18. 05/09/08
    19. 19. 05/09/08
    20. 20. 05/09/08
    21. 21. 05/09/08
    22. 22.
    23. 23.
    24. 24.
    25. 25. 05/09/08
    26. 26. <ul><li>High Uncertainty Avoidance (80). </li></ul><ul><li>PDI suggests inequality accepted </li></ul><ul><li>MAS: Work to Live </li></ul><ul><li>Low Individualism (13) </li></ul><ul><li>Collectivist </li></ul>05/09/08
    27. 27. <ul><li>One </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WQnXJZXaxcI </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Az0_2pGnOAA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Three </li></ul>05/09/08
    28. 28. <ul><li>High Individual. </li></ul><ul><li>PDI suggests inequality accepted </li></ul><ul><li>MAS: live to work </li></ul><ul><li>Low Individualism (13) </li></ul><ul><li>Collectivist </li></ul>05/09/08
    29. 29. <ul><li>One </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=002AY4cb5uw </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e-5JA7Z8KLI </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Three </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=avqLJ2DG0pA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Four </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gr6PbjvSgEs&mode=related&search = </li></ul></ul>05/09/08
    30. 30. <ul><li>Highest PDI in world inequality accepted </li></ul><ul><li>MAS, UAI, IDV middle </li></ul>05/09/08
    31. 31. <ul><li>One </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ot9Jp6-mB-8 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ci2D1ig4df4&mode=related&search= </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two </li></ul>05/09/08
    32. 32. 05/09/08
    33. 33. 05/09/08 Mobile America Foggy Japanese Clinical French Vague British
    34. 34. <ul><li>Apart from the Koreans (who seem to like everybody’s jokes), few Orientals are amused by American or (most) European jokes. The Confucian and Buddhist preoccupation with truth, sincerity, kindliness and politeness automatically eliminates humour techniques such as sarcasm, satire, exaggeration and parody, and finds little merit in crazy homour or jokes about religion, sex and underprivileged minorities. Sick or black humour is definitely out. </li></ul>05/09/08
    35. 35. 05/09/08 Values Symbols Behaviors
    36. 36. <ul><li>One </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dVcRecCk8sw </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UlAkOhH9eek </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Three </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m9yFYnKF6D8 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Four </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D-B52PV876I&mode=related&search= </li></ul></ul>05/09/08
    37. 37. <ul><li>High Uncertainty. </li></ul><ul><li>PDI average </li></ul><ul><li>MAS: live to work </li></ul>05/09/08
    38. 38. <ul><li>One </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ahp8pyPuSEg&mode=related&search= </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QzM0qgi-6hs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Three </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FpIXXkRDXzA&mode=related&search= </li></ul></ul>05/09/08
    39. 39. <ul><li>Long-term Orientation (LTO) highest-ranking factor (118) </li></ul><ul><li>Individualism (IDV) lower than any other Asian country </li></ul><ul><li>20 compared to an average of 24 </li></ul><ul><li>Low Individualism ranking is manifest in a close and committed member 'group', </li></ul><ul><ul><li>family, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>extended family, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>extended relationship </li></ul></ul>05/09/08
    40. 40. <ul><li>High Individual. </li></ul><ul><li>PDI lover side </li></ul><ul><li>MAS: Work to Live </li></ul>05/09/08
    41. 41. <ul><li>High correlation between the Muslim religion with Power Distance (PDI) and Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI) scores </li></ul><ul><li>High PDI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of significant upward mobility of its citizen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Combination of these two create societies that are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>highly rule-oriented with laws, rules, regulations, and controls in order to reduce the amount of uncertainty, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>inequalities of power and wealth have been allowed to grow </li></ul></ul>05/09/08
    42. 42. <ul><li>two highest rankings being equal at 64 - Power Distance (PDI) and Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI). </li></ul><ul><li>Buddhist and Shinto countries have the closest correlation Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI) </li></ul><ul><li>Same correlation that the majority of Catholic countries have demonstrated </li></ul>05/09/08
    43. 43. <ul><li>Edward HALL </li></ul><ul><li>3 variables of Culture </li></ul><ul><li>1- High-context and Low-context cultures </li></ul><ul><li>2- Dimensions of time </li></ul><ul><li>3- Relationship of Man with Nature and Space </li></ul><ul><li>Edward HALL </li></ul><ul><li>3 variables de la Cultura </li></ul><ul><li>1 Culturas de alto y bajo contexto </li></ul><ul><li>2 Dimensiones del tiempo </li></ul><ul><li>3 Relaciones del hombre con la naturaleza y el espacio. </li></ul>05/09/08
    44. 44. <ul><li>Edward HALL </li></ul><ul><li>1- High-context and Low-context cultures </li></ul><ul><li>High-context communication style </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vagueness common (implicit style) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tact & diplomacy prioritised </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Important to read between the lines/pick up signals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Harmony and “face” important </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Low-context communication style </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Directness common (explicit style) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clarity & honesty appreciated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Things can be taken on face value </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Culturas de alto y bajo contexto </li></ul><ul><li>Estilo de comunicación de alto contexto </li></ul><ul><li>-La ambigüedad es común (estilo implícito) </li></ul><ul><li>-Táctica y diplomacia priorizada </li></ul><ul><li>-Importancia de leer entre líneas </li></ul><ul><li>-Armonía </li></ul><ul><li>Estilo de comunicación de bajo contexto </li></ul><ul><li>-Lo directo es lo común (estilo explicito) </li></ul><ul><li>-Claridad y honestidad es apreciada </li></ul><ul><li>-Las cosas pueden ser tomadas por su “face value” </li></ul>05/09/08
    45. 45. <ul><li>Edward HALL </li></ul><ul><li>2- Dimensions of time </li></ul><ul><li>* Time orientation toward the Past, Present, or Future </li></ul><ul><li>* Time is linear or circular </li></ul><ul><li>* Monochronic and polychronic time </li></ul><ul><li>2 Dimensiones del tiempo </li></ul><ul><li>Orientación en el tiempo dirigida hacia el pasado, presento o futuro </li></ul><ul><li>El tiempo es lineal o circular </li></ul><ul><li>Tiempo mono-crónico o poli-crónico. </li></ul>05/09/08
    46. 46. <ul><li>Polychronic/Synchronic cultures </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>fluid time, circular </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>including past, present and future </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>relationships more important than deadlines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>do several things at once </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Monochronic/Sequential cultures </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>fixed time, linear </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>deadlines, tight schedules, systematic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>do one thing at a time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Culturas poli-crónicas/sincrónicas </li></ul><ul><li>-Tiempo fluido, circular </li></ul><ul><li>-incluyendo pasado, presente y futuro. </li></ul><ul><li>-Hacer varias cosas al tiempo </li></ul><ul><li>Culturas mono-crónicas/secuenciales </li></ul><ul><li>-Tiempo fijo, lineal </li></ul><ul><li>-Plazos, agendas apretadas, sistemáticas </li></ul><ul><li>-Hacer una sola cosa al tiempo </li></ul>05/09/08
    47. 47. <ul><li>The U.S., British, German, Swiss, and Scandinavian cultures are relatively monochronic, </li></ul><ul><li>Latin American, African, Middle Eastern, and Southern European societies are polychronic. </li></ul><ul><li>Las culturas norteamericanas, británicas, alemanas y escandinavas son relativamente mono-crónicas. </li></ul><ul><li>Las culturas Latinoamericanas, africanas, el medio este y de europa del sur son sociedades poli-crónicas. </li></ul>05/09/08
    48. 48. <ul><li>Edward HALL </li></ul><ul><li>3- Relationship of man with Nature and Space </li></ul><ul><li>* Mastery, Harmony, Subjugation to nature </li></ul><ul><li>* Proxemic : Intimity, Personnal or Social areas </li></ul><ul><li>3 Relaciones del hombre con la naturaleza y el espacio </li></ul><ul><li>-”Mastery”, armonía, subyugación de la naturaleza. </li></ul><ul><li>-”Proxemic”: intimidad, áreas personal y social. </li></ul>05/09/08
    49. 49. <ul><li>Deal-focused cultures </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>direct approach to customer possible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the best product gets the order </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>contract protects the two parties </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Relationship-focused cultures </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>introduction by third party essential </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>time needed to develop relationship </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>mutual trust is essential </li></ul></ul></ul>05/09/08
    50. 50. <ul><li>Ascription-based cultures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Status ascribed (given) to certain groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Older males </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Members of important families </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People with the right background </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Achievement-based cultures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Status has to be won/earned/achieved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Young people in high positions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People evaluated on results </li></ul></ul></ul>05/09/08
    51. 51. <ul><li>Formal communication style </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of titles (academic or professional) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Politeness & protocol important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common in ascriptive cultures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Informal communication style </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Little use of titles or polite forms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speaking plainly is encouraged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common in achievement-based cultures </li></ul></ul>05/09/08
    52. 52. 05/09/08
    53. 53. <ul><li>Cultural Chauvinism </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnocentrity </li></ul>05/09/08
    54. 54. 05/09/08
    55. 55. 05/09/08 Cultural Chauvinism Level of Cultural Awareness Ethnocentrism Tolerance Minimization Understanding Description
    56. 56. 05/09/08 Complete unawareness of other cultures, which leads negotiators to attribute ignorance and bad intentions to other side Cultural Chauvinism Level of Cultural Awareness Ethnocentrism Tolerance Description Minimization Understanding
    57. 57. 05/09/08 Awareness of ethnic, religious, racial, or national differences, along with a conviction that one’s own way is the “right” one Cultural Chauvinism Level of Cultural Awareness Ethnocentrism Tolerance Description Minimization Understanding
    58. 58. 05/09/08 Awareness and appreciation of differences, still feeling one’s own way is more “realistic” - leads negotiators to try to “educate” or “develop” other side Cultural Chauvinism Level of Cultural Awareness Ethnocentrism Tolerance Description Minimization Understanding
    59. 59. 05/09/08 Awareness of other cultures, with focus on similarities across cultures, may lead negotiator to ignore important difference relevant to a negotiation Cultural Chauvinism Level of Cultural Awareness Ethnocentrism Tolerance Description Minimization Understanding
    60. 60. 05/09/08 Realization that one’s own way is only one of many, and that others are not abnormal in any way Cultural Chauvinism Level of Cultural Awareness Ethnocentrism Tolerance Description Minimization Understanding

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