It is radiographic technique for producing a
single image of the facial structures that includes
both maxillary and mandibular dental arches and
their supporting structures .
1: Evaluation of trauma .
2:Third molars .
3:Extinsive disease such as large lesions .
.4: Tooth development (mixed dentition)
.5: Retained teeth or root tips (in edentulous
.6: Developmental anomalies
7: Panoramic radiographs are also useful for
patient who don’t tolerate intraoral procedures
1. Broad coverage of the facial bones and teeth
2. Low patient radiation dose .
3. Simple & fast technique
4. The fact that it can be used in patient
.unable to open their mouths
1. The image doesn’t display the fine anatomic
detail available on intra oral Periapical
2. Uneven magnification and geometric
3. The presence of overlapping structures such
as the cervical spine can hide the incisor region
Technique and positioning
1. patients should be asked to remove any earrings .
Jewelry hair pins spectacles dentures or orthodontic
2. the procedure and equipment movements should be
explained to reassure patients
3. patients should be placed accurately within the
machines using the various head-positioning devicesand
light-beam marker positioning guides
4. patients should be instructed to place their tongue into
the roof of the mouth so that it is in contact with hard
palate and not to move throughout the exposure cycle (
approximately 18 second )
Inf. orbital rim
Floor of Maxillary sinus
Ant. wall of Maxillary sinus
Inf. Orbital canal and foramen
Panoramic Innominate line
(Infra temporal surface of
Inf. border of Mandible
Inf. Alveolar canal
Ext. oblique ridge
All this diagnostic information is missed in intraoral X-rays