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Radiographic techniques
RADIOGRAPHS




Periapical                 Bitewing




              Occlusal
   Periapical views are used to record the
    crowns, roots, and surrounding bone.
   Root canal treatment.
   Assessment of root formation n completion.
   Assessment of root morphology.
    Assessment of relationship of roots to various vital
    structures.
   Implant site assessment and placement.
Radiographic techniques
   Principle: The central concept of the paralleling is that
    “the x-ray receptor is supported parallel to the long axis
    of the teeth and the central ray of the x-ray beam is
    directed at right angles to the teeth and receptor”.
   minimizes geometric distortion and presents the teeth
    and supporting bone in their true anatomic relationships
Instruments


 Receptor
Placement


Angulation

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Radiographic techniques

  • 2. RADIOGRAPHS Periapical Bitewing Occlusal
  • 3. Periapical views are used to record the crowns, roots, and surrounding bone.  Root canal treatment.  Assessment of root formation n completion.  Assessment of root morphology.  Assessment of relationship of roots to various vital structures.  Implant site assessment and placement.
  • 5. Principle: The central concept of the paralleling is that “the x-ray receptor is supported parallel to the long axis of the teeth and the central ray of the x-ray beam is directed at right angles to the teeth and receptor”.  minimizes geometric distortion and presents the teeth and supporting bone in their true anatomic relationships
  • 7. If the lack of parallelism does not exceed 20, the radiograph is generally acceptable.̊ Shallow palate Place 1 or 2 cotton rolls on bite block. Increase the vertical angulation by 5 to 15 degrees
  • 8. For maxilla, place the film on far side of the Bony film. growths For mandible, place film between the tori and tongue
  • 9. ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES Difficult for a Accuracy beginner Simplicity Discomfort Patient Duplication Compliance
  • 11. The bisecting-angle technique is based on a simple geometric theorem, Cieszynski ’ s rule of isometry, which states that two triangles are equal when they share one complete side and have two equal angles.
  • 12. Receptor is positioned as close as possible to the lingual surface of the teeth, resting in the palate or in the floor of the mouth.  The plane of the receptor and the long axis of the teeth form an angle, with its apex at the point where the receptor is in contact with the teeth. An imaginary line that bisects this angle, direct the central ray of the beam at right angles to this bisector.
  • 14. No film holder required.  Better technique when anatomical variations hinder paralleling tech.  Decreased exposure time.
  • 15. To reproduce the length of each root of a multi-rooted tooth accurately, the central beam must be angled differently for each root. (Inaccurate)  Another limitation of this technique is that the alveolar ridge often projects more coronally than its true position, thus distorting the apparent height of the alveolar bone around the teeth.
  • 16. to obtain three-dimensional information of location of an object. The right-angle (or The tube shift cross-section) technique technique buccal object rule and Clark ’ s rule
  • 18. to obtain three-dimensional information of location of an object. The right-angle (or The tube shift cross-section) technique technique buccal object rule and Clark ’ s rule
  • 20. Bitewing (also called interproximal ) radiographs include the crowns of the maxillary and mandibular teeth and the alveolar crest on the same receptor.
  • 21. interproximal caries in the early stages.  secondary caries below restorations.  Overhanging restorations.  evaluating the periodontal condition.(alveolar bone crest)  detecting calculus deposits.
  • 22. Parallel with the occlusal plane.  The aiming cylinder is positioned about + 10 degrees to project the beam parallel with the occlusal plane. Vertical Horizontal Bitewing Bitewing
  • 23. An occlusal radiograph displays a relatively large segment of a dental arch.  when patients are unable to open the mouth.  localization of objects.  To localize foreign bodies in the jaws and stones in the ducts.  To demonstrate and evaluate the integrity of the outlines of the maxillary sinus
  • 24. To obtain information about the location, nature, extent, and displacement of fractures of the mandible and maxilla.  To determine the medial and lateral extent of disease (e.g., cysts, osteomyelitis, tumors) and to detect disease in the palate or floor of the mouth.
  • 25. ANTERIOR MAXILLARY OCCLUSAL PROJECTION • Image Field • Receptor Placement • Projection of Central Ray • Point of Entry
  • 26. CROSS-SECTIONAL MAXILLARY OCCLUSAL PROJECTION • Image Field • Receptor Placement • Projection of Central Ray • Point of Entry
  • 27. LATERAL MAXILLARY OCCLUSAL PROJECTION • Image Field • Receptor Placement • Projection of Central Ray • Point of Entry
  • 28. ANTERIOR MANDIBULAR OCCLUSAL PROJECTION • Image Field • Receptor Placement • Projection of Central Ray • Point of Entry
  • 29. CROSS-SECTIONAL MANDIBULAR OCCLUSAL PROJECTION • Image Field • Receptor Placement • Projection of Central Ray • Point of Entry
  • 30. LATERAL MANDIBULAR OCCLUSAL PROJECTION • Image Field • Receptor Placement • Projection of Central Ray • Point of Entry
  • 31. INFECTION trismus Pain and Difficulty Extra oral Occlusal
  • 32. TRAUMA may have a Use periapical or dental or 2radiographs occlusal facial at right radiographs fracture. angle.
  • 33. lack of coordination or inability to comprehend is expected.  Speedily  Sedation
  • 34. Relax and reassure the patient  Describe and explain the procedures  Perform the procedure in the morning,  Sliding the film along the palate or tongue is likely to stimulate the gag reflex.  The longer the receptor stays in the mouth, the greater the possibility that the patient will start to gag.  The patient should be advised to breathe rapidly through the nose because mouth breathing usually aggravates this condition.  Shift the patient ’ s attention