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Field level pilot interventions in small-scale irrigation and agricultural water management

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Presented by IWMI's Davie Kadyampakeni at a national stakeholder meeting of the Feed the Future Innovation Laboratory for Small-Scale Irrigation (ILSSI) Project, held at the IWMI office in Accra, Ghana, on the June 23, 2016

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Field level pilot interventions in small-scale irrigation and agricultural water management

  1. 1. Photo Credit Goes Here Field level pilot interventions in small-scale irrigation and agricultural water management INNOVATION LAB ON SMALL SCALE IRRIGATION Davie Kadyampakeni Stakeholder workshop 23rd June 2016 (Photo credit left Dale Pulker)
  2. 2. IWMI - ILSSI GHANA Richard Appoh: Research Officer- AWM Nicole Lefore: Project Manager Jennie Barron: Project Leader Elsie Odonkor: Research Officer - Gender Benjamin Ghansah: Research Officer-GIS and Remote Sensing Davie Kadyampakeni: Researcher, AWM
  3. 3. NATIONAL PARTNERS • Research – University:  University of Development Studies (Dr. Slyvester Ayambila, Bizoola Gandaa, Prof. Saa Dittoh, Afishata Abujaja)  1 Msc. student 2015 – 2016 (MPhil Soil and Conservation and Management) (Raymond Tetteh) • Research Insititutes:  Animal Research Insitute (Dr. Emmanuel Panyan)  Water Research Insitute (Dr. Emmanuel Oboubie)
  4. 4. MAIN ACTIVITIES • GW/SW use: motorized water lifting devices (petrol pump), Watershed characterization • Gender: female & male irrigators • Irrigation management (Soil moisture based, CWR (ET), WFD, Drip & conservation agriculture - NCAT) • Crops (vegetables, & fodder) • Credit constraints and opportunities (survey & interviews, revolving fund) WFD installation and soil sampling Drip and tank-hose installation in Zanlerigu
  5. 5. BASELINE HYDROLOGICAL DATA FOR GHANA INTERVENTION SITES Watershed Rainfall (mm) Rain days Potential ET (mm) Mean Temp. (oC) Minimum Temp. (oC) Maximum Temp. (oC) Aridity Index Bihinaayili 1013 (523-1358) 89 1866 (1799-1966) 28.2 22.6 33.8 0.54 Zanlerigu 1001 (720-1464) 74 2001 (1930-2066) 29.2 23.0 35.4 0.50 Dimbasinia 989 (688-1365) 74 1977 (1911-2060) 29.1 23.0 35.2 0.50
  6. 6. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May. Jun. Jul. Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec. Rainfall 0.0 4.6 11.5 52.2 102.8 143.3 182.2 273.9 164.2 47.1 2.4 4.7 PET 163.1 174.2 202.5 190.3 176.9 149.4 142.4 137.8 140.7 162.1 172.3 164.0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Rainfall(mm)/PET(mm) Month Monthly rainfall/PET: Dimbasinia -2.0 -1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001 2006 2011 Inter-annualrainfallvariability Year Inter-annual rainfall variability: Dimbasinia ANNUAL RAINFALL AND POTENTIAL ET Rainfall (mm) Reliable rainfall (mm) Evapotranspiration (mm) Total water deficit (mm) Reliable water deficit (mm) 989 712 1977 -988 -1265
  7. 7. ANNUAL RAINFALL AND POTENTIAL ET -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001 2006 2011 Inter-annualraifallvariability Year Inter-annual rainfall variability: Zanlerigu Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May. Jun. Jul. Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec. Rainfall 0.1 4.3 9.2 47.1 112.2 136.4 160.8 291.2 195.7 70.5 4.0 0.1 PET 170.1 177.7 204.3 193.3 180.5 151.4 145.9 139.3 139.2 157.9 171.1 170.4 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 Rainfall(mm)/PET(mm) Month Monthly rainfall/PET: Zanlerigu Rainfall (mm) Reliable rainfall (mm) Evapotranspiration (mm) Total water deficit (mm) Reliable water deficit (mm) 1001 721 2001 -1000 -1280
  8. 8. -3.0 -2.0 -1.0 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001 2006 2011 Annualrainfallvariability Year Inter-annual rainfall variability: Bihinaayili Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May. Jun. Jul. Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec. Rainfall 4.2 7.0 25.4 83.1 121.2 141.2 148.9 211.5 182.1 75.5 7.9 5.2 PET 163.1 168.9 188.8 171.8 161.9 139.7 133.4 131.8 136.5 152.2 157.6 160.4 0 50 100 150 200 250 Rainfall(mm)/PET(mm) Month Monthly rainfall/PET: Bihinaayili ANNUAL RAINFALL AND POTENTIAL ET Rainfall (mm) Reliable rainfall (mm) Evapotranspiration (mm) Total water surplus/deficit (mm) Reliable water surplus/deficit (mm) 1013 760 1866 -853 -1106
  9. 9. Site Nat. Partners Sites Interventions Farmers Technical interventions Crops Finance Bihinaayili UDS 1  Tank and hose  Water can  WFD  Roselle • Credit/ Revolving fund  16 Zanlerigu UDS 1  Tank and hose  Water can  Roof top WH and drip irrigation  WFD  Onion  Leafy vegetables • Credit/ Revolving fund  21 Dimbasinia UDS 1  Drip (IDE kits)  Drip (UDS kits)  Water can  WFD  Tomato • Credit/ Revolving fund  24
  10. 10. WATER USE IN HOMEGARDENS- ZANLERIGU (A. Yimer, 2016) Net irrigation (mm) 315 Gross irrigation (mm) 450 Cumulative ETc (mm) 391.5 Effective rainfall (mm) 19.1 Season duration (days) 78 Zanlerigu irrigated cowpea Crop stage Init Dev't Mid Late Wateruse,effectiverainfalland irrigationrequirements(mm) 0 20 40 60 80 ETc (mm/day) ETcum cowpea (mm/dec) Effective rain (mm) Irrigation Requirement (mm) Crop stage Init Dev't Mid Late Kc 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 Cowpea Kc
  11. 11. WATER USE AND IRRIGATION SCHEDULNG STUDIES-ZANLERIGU Zanlerigu (Onion) Init Deve Mid Late CumulativeETcandirrigation requirements(mm) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 ETcum onion (mm) Irrigation requirement (mm) Crop stage Init Deve Mid Late ETcandeffectiverainfall(mm) 0 2 4 6 8 10 ETc (mm/day) Effective rain (mm) Net irrigation (mm) 358.9 Gross irrigation (mm) 512.8 Cumulative ETc (mm) 449.8 Season duration (days) 80 Effective rainfall (mm) 27
  12. 12. WATER USE AND IRRIGATION SCHEDULNG STUDIES-BIHINAAYILI Net irrigation (mm) 388.7 Cumulative ETc (mm) 449.8 Gross irrigation (mm) 556 Season duration (days) 94 Irrigation requirement (mm) 373.2 Irrigation requirement (mm) 373.2 Zanlerigu irrigated corchrus Crop stage Init Dev't Mid Late Wateruse,effectiverainfalland irrigationrequirements(mm) 0 20 40 60 80 100 ETc (mm/day) ETcum corchrus (mm/dec) Effective rain (mm) Irrigation Requirement (mm) Crop stage Init Dev't Mid Late Kc 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00 1.05 Corchrus Kc
  13. 13. CONSTRAINTS TO DRY SEASON IRRIGATION i. Too much time is spent on watering with the storage tank + water hose as compared to the watering can/ bucket. ii. The nozzles of the watering can easily get clogged and this impedes the speed of water discharged during watering therefore making it time consuming and tedious. iii. The delivery pipe of the pump is too short, hence, making it difficult and time consuming in conveying water into the tanks. iv. Use of the water hose sometimes destroys some of seedlings. Dragging the hose when watering destroys young plants as a farmer moves through the farm with the hose. Pressure from hose is also too low.
  14. 14. CONSTRAINTS TO DRY SEASON IRRIGATION (2) v. The quality of hose provided might not be good in some cases. The farmers usually drag the hose on their fields and so they are easily perforated. vi. Insufficient water from the water source. At the peak of the dry season, the water in some of the wells were inadequate. vii. Storage tanks (~250 to 1000 L) provided are too small and so it requires pumping water several times before you are able to get all beds irrigated.
  15. 15. PROJECT CHALLENGES • Drying up of wells in Dimbasinia leading to abandonment of crop fields in during the growing season • Land and water access disputes • Flooding in the middle of the dry season that led to loss of onion in Zanlerigu
  16. 16. LESSONS LEARNED (T. Assefa, 2015) • Opportunity for rainwater harvesting and water storage in northern Ghana: for households with rooftops with corrugated iron. • Shallow wells provide reliable water source for SSI-start planting in September/October each year to meet periods of peak water requirement • There are serious water deficits at watershed scale: need for 1100 to 1300 mm to meet irrigation water needs throughout the dry season • Challenges with use of WFD - farmers and AEAs require additional training
  17. 17. www.feedthefuture.gov PARTNER LOGO GOES HERE (click slide master to add)

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