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Waste to Fertilizer: A dream to come true for Sub-Saharan Africa!

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Presented by IWMI's Josiane Nikiema at the 39th WEDC (Water, Engineering and Development Centre) International Conference held in Kumasi on July 11 – 15, 2016.

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Waste to Fertilizer: A dream to come true for Sub-Saharan Africa!

  1. 1. WASTE TO FERTILIZER Josiane Nikiema, Olufunke Cofie and the IWMI RQ team A dream to come true for Sub-Saharan Africa! Contacts: j.nikiema@cgiar.org or iwmi@cgiar.org
  2. 2. OUTLINE
  3. 3. A. DAILY FERTILIZER POTENTIAL FOR 200,000 PEOPLE 100 MT of municipal solid wastes (MSW) 50 MT of inorg. wastes 50 MT of org. wastes 6-12 MT of biochar 15 MT of compost 0.6-1.2 ha of land 1.5 ha of land 100 m3 of fecal sludge (FS) Land application Composting 1.5 MT of compost 4 MT of co-compost 0.7 ha of Land 0.5 ha of land (maize) 1.3 ha of land (maize) Biochar 1 MT of biochar 0.2 ha of land
  4. 4. EXAMPLE: CROP YIELDS AND IMPACT ON INCOME 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 Sheshegu Tuu-tengle Sheshegu Tuu-tengle YieldinMT/ha Control Farm 1 Farm 2 Farm 3 MAIZE SORGHUM ($/ha) Users Non-users Total fixed costs 191 137 Total variable costs 314 323 Revenues 919 606 Net Income 414 146 Location: Krobo
  5. 5. DAILY FERTILIZER POTENTIAL FOR 200,000 PEOPLE270 m3 of urine Direct land application Struvite N:P:K:Mg of 6:29:0:10 Slow release fertilizer, suitable for plants or to supplement other minerals 11 ha of Land 27 MT of excreta Co-composting Biochar 4-9 ha of Land 3-6 MT of biochar 13-26 MT of (co-)compost 0.3-0.6 ha of Land 80% of the nutrients needed to grow food for the same population size
  6. 6. B. REUSE OPTIONS TESTED – – • • Crop type Non fertilized Urine fertilized Chemically fertilized Country Cabbage 19.5 32 31.0 Togo Cassava 45 60 60.0 Ivory Coast Cotton 0.18 0.35 0.38 Mali Corn 2.4 3.6 3.5 Benin Egg plant 2.8 16.0 17.1 Burkina Faso Lettuce 6.8 15.7 13.3 Togo Okra 1.7 2.3 2.6 Burkina Faso Sorghum 2.3 3.8 4.1 Burkina Faso Tomato 2.1 5.2 5.8 Burkina Faso Yam 4.0 8.0 6.0 Ivory Coast Crop Yields (Tons ha-1) for urine trials in different West African countries. (CREPA, 2006)
  7. 7. 2. ORGANIC SOLID WASTE • Compared to Africa, Asia is more advanced – E.g. Sri Lanka has 115 municipal solid waste (MSW) compost plants – A2Z in Ludhiana (India) processes 900 MT/d of MSW through – These plants are either fully publicly owned or managed under a PPP Examples of Kenyan compost plants Dudutech 4 MT/d EcoH Holdings 550 MT/d Nawacom Coop. Society 28 MT/ d Uganda;60 MT/d Ghana; 600 MT/d And more large MSW compost plants… Composting is common because it reduces volumes of wastes and need for landfills
  8. 8. 3. THE STORY IS QUITE DIFFERENT WITH EXCRETA • • Few exceptions processing some MT per day are: Sanergy, KenyaSoil – Haiti NGOs Burkina Faso Rwanda Kenya South Africa Etc. Safisana compost Uses digested (sludge + org. wastes) Loowatt, Madagascar
  9. 9. 4. THE STORY IS WORSE WITH FECAL SLUDGE FORTIFER (Wafo) In Ghana Senegal • – – – • – –
  10. 10. C. THERE IS OPPORTUNITY FOR SCALING UP • – – • – – • Nutrients Organic matter Improves soil quality Improve crop yields
  11. 11. D. WHAT IS NEEDED FOR SUCCESSFUL SCALING-UP? • – – – • •
  12. 12. ON THE GROUND, WE ALSO NEED TO: • – • – – • – – • •
  13. 13. RECYCLING OF WASTE INTO FERTILIZER WILL THEN BECOME A FACT FOR SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA Compost •Biochar Direct land application (Co-)compost • Biochar Direct application •Struvite: MgNH4PO4.6H2O Compost •Dry soil conditioner •Biochar

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