Agriculture Water Productivity

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Agriculture Water Productivity "A Tool for Modernizing Irrigation and Water Management", World Bank, Land and Water Days in Near East & North Africa, 15-18 December 2013, Amman, Jordan

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  • <number>
  • The major international rivers are situated in the Middle East, while Northern Africa’s shared waters are mainly groundwater resources.
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  • In California, almost 40% of energy consumption is in water sector and accounts for as much as 80% of cost.
    In US overall, 39% of freshwater withdrawals (not necessarily consumptive use) is for energy sector.
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  • Cereal yields only 56% of World average (25% of Western Europe), but ag R&D funding is only 0.5% of Ag GDP compared to FAO recommendation of 2% of Ag GDP.
    Arab countries spend on average $40 for logistics per ton of imported wheat compared to $11 per ton in Nethelands and $17 per ton in South Korea.
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  • Depending on how you define numerator and denominator
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  • Out of a $1.5 billion lending portfolio for water and agriculture in MENA, only about US$600 million is focused on agricultural water. With well defined country programs of agricultural water modernization, I am confident that the World Bank alone will be able to increase its financing to US$2 billion and help mobilize many times that with other sources of financing.
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  • Agriculture Water Productivity

    1. 1. Agriculture Water Productivity A Tool for Modernizing Irrigation and Water Management World Bank presentation to NENA FAO Land and Water Days Amman, Jordan December 18, 2013
    2. 2. Why agricultural water productivity? 10000 0.7 0.6 8000 0.5 6000 0.4 4000 0.3 2000 0 0.2 0.1 0
    3. 3. Irrigation is modernizing … Traditional Paradigm New Paradigm • Fixed allocations • Flexible allocations • Irrigated hectares • Level of efficiency • Kgs/hectare • GDP/m3,employment/m3 • “Use it or lose it” • System benefits • “Free” water • Metered water • Centralized management • User management • “Quantity service” • “Quality service” However policies, institutions and investments have lagged this shift and are holding us back!
    4. 4. …and we face some big challenges: Food Security ● The Middle East and North Africa is the region most dependent on grain imports: 56% of total consumption (compared to 13% for SS-Africa and 6% for Asia)
    5. 5. …and we face some big challenges: Increased Competition for Scarce and Uncertain Water If nothing changes, by 2050 one-third of water demand in Egypt, twothirds in Morocco and Yemen, and almost 90 percent in Jordan is expected to be unavailable or diverted to higher value uses such as municipal water demand (MENA Water Outlook).
    6. 6. …and we face some big challenges: Transboundary Rivers and Aquifers Some 60% of the MENA region’s water flows across international borders.
    7. 7. …and we face some big challenges: The Water-Energy Nexus
    8. 8. Big challenges require big solutions including, but beyond technology     Both production and non production solutions for food security (e.g.: Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Oman, Morocco) Water management systems which recognize intersectoral tradeoffs and complementarities (e.g.: Jordan, Morocco, Palestine) Identify ways to motivate co-riparians to work together (e.g.: Egypt, Libya, Sudan, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, Morocco, Mauritania) Explicitly factor energy as part of decision process (e.g.: Tunisia, Saudi Arabia)
    9. 9. How can agricultural water productivity assessments help?      Inclusive: Means to assess how agricultural water contributes to social, economic and environmental needs and priorities – not just agricultural production. Integrate: Brings together engineering and economics, supply augmentation and demand management, quantity and quality measures. Flexible: Can be applied to capture technical, policy and institutional issues at farm, irrigation scheme, basin, national and international levels. Transparency: Common information for all stakeholders as basis for cooperation and knowledge sharing. Objective: Basis for prioritizing policy and institutional reforms and physical investments with greatest impact
    10. 10. What would the assessments produce? IWMI: The Comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in Agriculture
    11. 11. FAO Water Report 38: Coping with water scarcity
    12. 12. AWP Initiative: What does WB hope to contribute?  Combined poverty and growth objectives  Lessons from programs in MENA and globally  Inter-sectoral perspective  Public and private sector agendas  Link technical to policy and investment decisions  Assist countries to mobilize financing for modernization

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