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Improving Water Productivity: options at farm level.


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Presentation by Mr. Atef Swelam (ICARDA),
Technical Session 8: “Water productivity as the cornerstone of water-limited food production.”
Monday 21/10/2019
Cairo, Egypt, October 20-24, 2019. The 2nd Cairo Water Week (CWW)

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Improving Water Productivity: options at farm level.

  1. 1. International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas A CGIAR Research Center Improving water productivity: options at farm level Atef Swelam and Jacques Wery Cairo Water Week, October 21, 2019
  2. 2. 2 Water Productivity (WP): a framework of Indicators Consumed (depleted) • Evaporation • Transpiration • Quality deterioration What water? • Quality (EC) • Sources • Location (GW depth) • Time available What return? • Biomass, grain, fruit, meat, milk, fish (kg) • Income ($) • Social benefits (employment) • Nutrition (call., protein, carbohydrates, fat) • Environmental benefits (C) WP = 𝑹𝒆𝒕𝒖𝒓𝒏 𝑼𝒏𝒊𝒕 𝒐𝒇 𝑾𝒂𝒕𝒆𝒓 𝑪𝒐𝒏𝒔𝒖𝒎𝒆𝒅 Data Quality? • Measurement (ET) • Modeling • Remote Sensing
  3. 3. How can we shift from current practices to best practices to achieve the potential production?
  4. 4. 4 Water/Soil/Crops management have a strong influence on water productivity Mechanized Raisedbed Technology Mole drain practice to improve drainage efficiency and improve soil quality Irrigation infrastructure improvement Co-design of water productive and nutrition sensitive farming systems Mulching practice Deficit irrigation practice Update ET measurement and upgrade Kc for better water management Quantification of crop water productivity Scaling out/up the GAP to improve WP
  5. 5. Mechanized Raisedbed (Evaporation )Farmer practices (Evaporation ) + - MRB Technology
  6. 6. Soil moisture uniformity distribution to avoid water stress in the middle rows Evaporation + Transpiration - Yield
  7. 7. FP MRB
  8. 8. MRB: Better seed distributionFP: Bad seed distribution Waterlogging due to heavy rain and/or over-irrigation Safe disposal of runoff
  9. 9. 9 Mechanized Raisedbed Technology 12% of Egypt’s total wheat area (160,000 ha) • Less irrigation water (- 25%) • More yields (+30%) • Less seeds (-50%) Similar Systems and Contexts Water/Soil/Crops management have a strong influence on water productivity
  10. 10. Mole drain practice to improve drainage efficiency and improve soil quality • reduce soil salinity by 15% • increase yield by 10% • increase farm income by 20%
  11. 11. Before After Irrigation infrastructure improvement
  12. 12. 12 Co-design of water productive and nutrition sensitive farming systems • also in soil: sub- surface irrigation • WT contribution Same biomass (with the right variety) Less water used (up to 30%) Produce electricity (Marrou et al. 2013. European Journal of Agronomy) Integrate Crops, Vegetables, Forages/livestocks and Fruit Trees….and more in Multilayer Systems
  13. 13. Mulching practice Mulching of alternate furrows and irrigation with saline water on a salt- affected soil • Decrease ET by 12% • Increase in yields by 10% • Increase in WP by 14%
  14. 14. 75%ET, 100%N DI ETc 125%ET, 100%N Low quality yield = low income High quality yield = high income • A useful option for improved on-farm water management under shortage of water supply condition • Option for adaptation to climate change • Farmers adoption?
  15. 15. Sugarbeet Maize Pomegranate LE = Rn - G - H
  16. 16. 2015-162014-15 Impact of variability or extreme weather events on agricultural systems productivity
  17. 17. 17 Informing policies on trends, options and trade-offs “The analysis shows that achieving high AWP in all the region would either increase crop production by 8 million tons or save 8.1 BCM of water annually maintaining current production levels” Untapped potential of water savings and food security in the Euphrates-Tigress river basin through improved agricultural water productivity (Oweis et al., submitted, 2019) Hot spots of high and low water productivity in the irrigated areas for year 2002, 2006 and 2008 Euphrates- Tigress basin (project funded by SIDA)
  18. 18. 18 3 ha 3 million ha 300 k ha30 k ha 3 billion ha Improving agroecosystems productivity by scaling innovations and measuring impacts
  19. 19. 20 Quantification of crop water productivity in the Nile Delta over last three decades • Determining what crops have the highest water productivity in order to better planning the agricultural policy based on comparative advantages of these crops in a particular climatic conditions • Establishing big data would be use as reference for researchers and decision makers • Helping irrigation water planner for better improve the supply system according to the actual crow water requirements
  20. 20. 21 Where is farmer from big data? Big data for all: can it help improve agricultural productivity? Stockholm Water Week, August 28, 2019
  21. 21. 22 • The multidimensional nature of Water Productivity • Explore trade-offs and synergies (among WPs and with P) • At different scales (field, farm, watershed, country) • Quality of data  more measurements of WP • Opportunities to increase WP at farm and community levels • Sustainability of irrigated agriculture should be grounded in diversity Conclusion
  22. 22. Farmer is the Focal Point for Improving AWP Thank You On-Farm InterventionsResearch Gaps