Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Cover slide option 1 Title
Water Resources
Development in the
Koshi Basin
Pennan Chinnasamy,
Luna Bharati, Ambika
Khadka, ...
INTRODUCTION
• IWMI
• IWMI Nepal
• Koshi basin
Taskent
WHY NEPAL?
• Nepal is one of the most water abundant countries in the world with total
mean annual runoff of 224 billion c...
IWMI – NEPAL PROJECTS
• Basin level water
management
• Impact of Climate Change
in the basin level
• Water resources and
v...
KOSHI BASIN
Objectives for the Koshi Basin
Analysis
• Resource assessment i.e. water
availability vs. water use at sub-
ba...
KOSHI BASIN (CONTD…)
• Koshi Basin (87,311 km2):
Transboundary basin-Largest
contributor to the Ganges river
• The elevati...
HYDROLOGICAL MODEL: SWAT
INPUT DATA
Spatial: topography – Digital elevation map
Land use map
Soil map
Climate data: Time s...
KOSHI WATER BALANCE (1998-2008)
CC ANALYSIS
RCP4.5
RCP8.5
Water Resources Development in
the Koshi
• Water resource development in the Koshi basin
• Need for water accounting model...
Water use status (demand and supply) in the Koshi Basin
• Collection of district
level water use and
demand data
• Estimat...
Study Definition
Spatial Boundary System Components
Time Horizon Network Configuration
Evaluation
Water Sufficiency Ecosys...
Results for 2000 baseline year and
future Scenarios
Koshi Basin Water Supply Estimates
• Spatial Variations
• Temporal Variations
Water Demands in the basin
• Spatial Variations
• Temporal Variations
• Sectoral Demands
Subbasin level annual average wat...
Water Demands in the basin
• Spatial Variations
• Temporal Variations
• Sectoral Demands
Subbasin level annual average wat...
Koshi Basin Water Resource
Development
• Based on JICA (1985,
2014)
• 7 Run of the River Type
• 4 Storage type
• High capa...
www.iwmi.org
Water for a food-secure world
Results
Project Type
Available
Storage
(MCM)
Hydropower Generation (GWh)
Winter...
Total water storage
potential is 8382 MCM
Water demand under Baseline scenario with WRDs.
Demands and Flow Winter
Pre-
mon...
Past Current Future
Waterdemand
Time
Current trend
Higher water availability
Lower water availability
Lower stress/growth
...
Seasonal variations in water demand and unmet demand under baseline, water resources
development, population growth, agric...
Seasonal variations in water demand and unmet demand under baseline, water resources
development, population growth, agric...
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
14000
16000
18000
20000
PeakLoad(MW)
Energy(GWh...
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
14000
16000
18000
20000
PeakLoad(MW)
Energy(GWh...
www.iwmi.org
A water-secure world
Total annual volume
of water flowing into
India = 57405 MCM
Total annual volume
of water...
www.iwmi.org
Water for a food-secure world
Conclusion
• Study provides first estimates of sectoral water demands and unmet...
Water Resources Development in the Koshi Basin
Water Resources Development in the Koshi Basin
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Water Resources Development in the Koshi Basin

393 views

Published on

Presented by Pennan Chinnasamy (IWMI-Nepal) and Ambika Khadka (IWMI-Nepal) at Nepal National Water Week, March 17-22, 2015.

Published in: Environment
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Water Resources Development in the Koshi Basin

  1. 1. Cover slide option 1 Title Water Resources Development in the Koshi Basin Pennan Chinnasamy, Luna Bharati, Ambika Khadka, Utsav Bhattari. p.Chinnasamy@cigar.org Nepal Water Week March 21, 2015 Photo: Hamish John Appleby / IWMI
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION • IWMI • IWMI Nepal • Koshi basin Taskent
  3. 3. WHY NEPAL? • Nepal is one of the most water abundant countries in the world with total mean annual runoff of 224 billion cubic meters (BCM) and per capita water availability of 9,000 m3. • There is large temporal and spatial variation in water availability. 85% of rainfall is during the four monsoon months (June-Sept.) • Water resources remain a particularly under-developed sector –Nepal is currently only utilizing 7% of its annual water availability (14% in the Koshi Basin). 24% of arable land is irrigated and out of 43,000 MW hydropower potential, only 689 MW has been developed • The impact of CC: what it means to future water availability and development. • The general perception is that if this resource is properly harnessed, it would be the ticket out of poverty through economic growth mainly in the hydropower and agriculture sectors.
  4. 4. IWMI – NEPAL PROJECTS • Basin level water management • Impact of Climate Change in the basin level • Water resources and vulnerability assessments for entire Nepal Bharati 2015
  5. 5. KOSHI BASIN Objectives for the Koshi Basin Analysis • Resource assessment i.e. water availability vs. water use at sub- basin level (SWAT and WEAP) • Impact of CC on river basin hydrology • Future basin development scenarios – risks, vulnerabilities, opportunities • Partners/Donors: ICIMOD, CIDA CSIRO, World Bank, WLE
  6. 6. KOSHI BASIN (CONTD…) • Koshi Basin (87,311 km2): Transboundary basin-Largest contributor to the Ganges river • The elevation of the basin varies from about 20m in the plains in India to more than 8,000 m in the Great Himalayan Range. Mount Everest (8,848 m) is also located in the basin. • The basin in the Nepal part is undeveloped but there are plans to build multiple water infrastructure.
  7. 7. HYDROLOGICAL MODEL: SWAT INPUT DATA Spatial: topography – Digital elevation map Land use map Soil map Climate data: Time series Rainfall Min and max temperature Relative Humidity Solar Radiation Wind Speed Hydrological Cycle is based on following Water Balance Equation:   n i gwseepasurfdayot QwEQRSWSW 1 )( Where, SWt : Final soil water content (mm) SWo : Initial soil water content (mm) t : Time in days Rday : Amount of precipitation on day I (mm) Qsurf : Amount of surface runoff on day i (mm) Ea : Amount of evapotranspiration on day i (mm) wseep : Amount of percolation on day i (mm) Qgw : Amount of return flow on day i (mm)
  8. 8. KOSHI WATER BALANCE (1998-2008)
  9. 9. CC ANALYSIS RCP4.5 RCP8.5
  10. 10. Water Resources Development in the Koshi • Water resource development in the Koshi basin • Need for water accounting model – WEAP • Water storage potential in the basin • Hydropower potential in the basin • Future water demands and how infrastructure development can aid
  11. 11. Water use status (demand and supply) in the Koshi Basin • Collection of district level water use and demand data • Estimate relationship between water use and demand • Test against future climate change scenarios • Aid in formulation of better management plans
  12. 12. Study Definition Spatial Boundary System Components Time Horizon Network Configuration Evaluation Water Sufficiency Ecosystem Requirements Pollutant Loadings Sensitivity Analysis Current Accounts Demand Pollutant Generation Reservoir Characteristics Resources and Supplies River Simulation Wastewater Treatment Scenarios Demographic and Economic Activity Patterns of Water Use, Pollution Generation Water System Infrastructure Hydropower Allocation, Pricing and Environmental Policy Component Costs Hydrology WEAP Structure
  13. 13. Results for 2000 baseline year and future Scenarios
  14. 14. Koshi Basin Water Supply Estimates • Spatial Variations • Temporal Variations
  15. 15. Water Demands in the basin • Spatial Variations • Temporal Variations • Sectoral Demands Subbasin level annual average water demand for the Baseline Scenario.
  16. 16. Water Demands in the basin • Spatial Variations • Temporal Variations • Sectoral Demands Subbasin level annual average water unmet demand for the Baseline Scenario.
  17. 17. Koshi Basin Water Resource Development • Based on JICA (1985, 2014) • 7 Run of the River Type • 4 Storage type • High capacity • Sapta Koshi • Sun Koshi
  18. 18. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world Results Project Type Available Storage (MCM) Hydropower Generation (GWh) Winter Pre- monsoon Monsoon Post- monsoon Annual Arun III ROR - 8 33 60 8 109 Bhote Koshi ROR - 47 100 187 72 406 Lower Arun ROR - 364 524 695 348 1931 Sundarijal ROR - 27 61 113 21 222 Sun Koshi (HEP) ROR - 25 54 94 38 210 Tama Koshi ROR - 38 161 372 63 634 Upper Arun ROR - 169 279 451 225 1124 Dudh Koshi S 162 25 34 209 47 315 Sapta Koshi High Dam S 4420 761 2375 10716 2695 16547 Sun Koshi S 3040 242 501 3627 784 5154 Tamor S 760 81 553 2189 258 3081 Total 8382 1787 4676 18712 4558 29733 * ROR = Run-Of the-River, S = Storage
  19. 19. Total water storage potential is 8382 MCM Water demand under Baseline scenario with WRDs. Demands and Flow Winter Pre- monsoon Monsoon Post- monsoon Annual Baseline Flow (m3 /s) 39 166 699 144 262 Domestic demand (MCM) 386 395 524 262 1566 (6 %) Agricultural demand (MCM) 1890 6608 13489 2009 23996 (92 %) Industrial demand (MCM) 105 107 142 71 424 (2 %) Demand (MCM) 2380 7110 14154 2342 25986 Unmet demand (MCM) 273 370 0 17 660 * Brackets indicate percentage change from Baseline scenario. MCM- Million Cubic Meters
  20. 20. Past Current Future Waterdemand Time Current trend Higher water availability Lower water availability Lower stress/growth Higher stress/growth Future Scenarios
  21. 21. Seasonal variations in water demand and unmet demand under baseline, water resources development, population growth, agricultural growth and industrial growth scenarios. Scenarios Winter Pre- monsoon Monsoon Post- monsoon Annual Baseline Demand (MCM) 2380 7110 14154 2342 25986 Unmet (MCM) 273 370 0 17 660 Population growth Demand (MCM) 2727 9356 15521 2576 30180 Unmet (MCM) 337 555 0 27 920 Unmet Percent change (%) 23 50 0 60 39 Agricultural growth Demand (MCM) 2406 8795 15215 2506 28922 Unmet (MCM) 370 543 0 58 970 Unmet Percent change (%) 36 47 0 241 47 Industrial growth Demand (MCM) 2788 9419 15604 2618 30429 Unmet (MCM) 386 575 7 35 1003 Unmet Percent change (%) 41 55 0 106 52 * Unmet Percentage Change is the change in unmet demand between Baseline and Scenario.
  22. 22. Seasonal variations in water demand and unmet demand under baseline, water resources development, population growth, agricultural growth and industrial growth scenarios. Scenarios Winter Pre- monsoon Monsoon Post- monsoon Annual Baseline Demand (MCM) 2380 7110 14154 2342 25986 Unmet (MCM) 273 370 0 17 660 Population growth Demand (MCM) 2727 9356 15521 2576 30180 Unmet (MCM) 337 555 0 27 920 Unmet Percent change (%) 23 50 0 60 39 Agricultural growth Demand (MCM) 2406 8795 15215 2506 28922 Unmet (MCM) 370 543 0 58 970 Unmet Percent change (%) 36 47 0 241 47 Industrial growth Demand (MCM) 2788 9419 15604 2618 30429 Unmet (MCM) 386 575 7 35 1003 Unmet Percent change (%) 41 55 0 106 52 * Unmet Percentage Change is the change in unmet demand between Baseline and Scenario. Total water storage potential is 8382 MCM !
  23. 23. 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 20000 PeakLoad(MW) Energy(GWh) year Energy (GWh) System Peak Load (MW)
  24. 24. 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 20000 PeakLoad(MW) Energy(GWh) year Energy (GWh) System Peak Load (MW) Total Hydropower generation is 29000 GWh
  25. 25. www.iwmi.org A water-secure world Total annual volume of water flowing into India = 57405 MCM Total annual volume of water flowing into India = 55138 MCM Base Case : Year 2000 Case 1: Irrigated area = Irrigable area Case 2: Hydropower generation + E-flows (B) Total annual volume of water flowing into India = 56837 MCM
  26. 26. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world Conclusion • Study provides first estimates of sectoral water demands and unmet demands for the basin. • Study provides first estimates of the water storage and hydropower generation potential for the basin. • Water resource developments can ease climate vulnerability, water availability issues and future water demands. • Water resource developments can have huge hydropower generation potential • Ease current and future National power shortage • Enable economic growth by trans-boundary power sharing agreements • Industrial developments

×