Lecture delivered at the Institute for Autonomy and Governance (IAG)                        Notre Dame University         ...
U.S.-PHILIPPINES ALLIANCE:ADDRESSING 21ST CENTURY SECURITY CHALLENGES                     by              Rommel C. Banlao...
• An estimated 400 Philippine Navy  sailors and 400 U.S. servicemen  are currently taking part in the  Cooperation Afloat ...
• The Philippines has always  been supportive of United  States’ military presence in  Asia.• Thus, it is no longer surpri...
• RP-US alliance is the  cornerstone of  Philippine foreign,  defense and security  policy  – Rendered dormant in    1991 ...
30 April 2012
The 2-plus-2 meeting is the first of its kind inthe history of special relations between theU.S. and the Philippines.     ...
• The meeting aims to intensify  the habit of consultation and  cooperation on defense,  security, political, economic  an...
• In the 2-plus-2 meeting, both reaffirmed the  importance of their security alliance and decided  to level up this allian...
• The Philippines, particularly, highlighted in this meeting  the need for the U.S. to continuously assist the Armed  Forc...
• The Philippines’ support to  U.S. Pivot to Asia strategy  was first officially articulated  on 16 November 2011  during ...
• In the Manila Declaration of  2011, the U.S. and the  Philippines:   – reaffirmed their shared     obligations for mutua...
• Their determination to continue “their  bilateral cooperation in addressing broader  regional and global challenges, inc...
• Share common interest in:  – Maintaining freedom of navigation  – Unimpeded lawful commerce, and transit of    people ac...
• Commi to advance their “nations’ mutual  security interests through:  – Continuing a high-level strategic dialogue.”  – ...
• In other words, the Manila Declaration of 2011  not only renewed U.S.-Philippines security  alliance but also stressed t...
• To implement the Manila Declaration, the two allies even  instituted the holding of Bilateral Strategic Dialogues in ord...
• The U.S. and the Philippines, therefore, commit to  stick together as important allies in 21st century.• The recently co...
• There is no doubt that this alliance plays an important role in  U.S. pivot to Asia.• Through the MDT of 1951, the Visit...
• To indicate continuing American  military presence in the  Philippines, at least 600 American  troops belonging to the J...
• 28th Balikatan concluded on 27 April 2012• A milestone as it involved other American  allies from Australia Japan, and S...
• The U.S. is indeed pivoting to Asia. The Philippines plays a  significant part in it.• For the Philippines, it is not di...
• Their shared history and common values in  liberal democracy, rule of law, open society  and free market make the Philip...
U.S. Alliance withthe Philippines –weaved togetherwith Australia,Japan, South Korea,Taiwan and Thailand– makes the U.S.pre...
• As an American ally, the Philippines finds U.S.  pivot to Asia strategy as essential to ameliorate  its growing security...
• U.S. pivot to Asia strategy is also important for  the Philippines in addressing the country’s  internal security threat...
In other words, the Philippines expects the U.S. to help the country build its national capacity to meet the objectives of...
The U.S. is now rebalancing its global posture and presence after fulfilling its commitment in Iraq and Afghanistan.      ...
• In its objective to strengthen its presence in the Asia  Pacific by increasing “the institutional weight”,  “power proje...
• U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton  stressed in an article in Foreign Policy  that “the future of politics will be ...
• Increased American presence in the Philippines can be  established through the following:   – Greater U.S. access to Phi...
COAST WATCH SYSTEM (1995 - 2005)                                                            ORIGINAL COAST                ...
U.S. Presence in the Philippines Can facilitate the implementation of        INTEGRATED PN COAST WATCH SYSTEM             ...
IMPLICATIONS FOR PEACE AND DEVELOPMENT IN      MINDANAO         Philippine Institute for Peace, Violence and Terrorism Res...
Why Mindanao?•   Centrally located within Asia & the East ASEAN Growth Area (EAGA).•   Easily accessible by air, land, and...
Strategic Industries  Region 9  Processed fish products, Rubber, Seaweeds, Bottled  Sardines, Ceramics, Shellcrafts   Regi...
Magnetite                                               • The Philippines,                                                ...
Areas of high Mineral Development interest in Mindanao     COPPER-GOLD     • Surigao gold district holds                  ...
Mindanao plays avital role in maritime       activities    in Southeast          Asia
Thus, the U.S. is very muchconcerned on the status of:– GPH-MILF Peace Talks– Implementation of the 1996 Final  Peace Agre...
CONCLUSION    Philippine Institute for Peace, Violence and Terrorism Research                 Consulting – Training - Rese...
• In the Joint Statement signed after the 2+2 meeting, both  countries recognize that “The U.S.-Philippines alliance is st...
• They also acknowledge that “Americans and Filipinos are  inextricably bound by common values and shared aspirations,  in...
Their alliance“remains ananchor forpeace, stability,and prosperityin the Asia-Pacific region.”                 Philippine ...
Will the RP-USAlliance bringpeace anddevelopmentin Mindanao?                 Philippine Institute for Peace, Violence and ...
Thank youvery much   Philippine Institute for Peace, Violence and Terrorism Research                Consulting – Training ...
Increased US Military Presence in the Philippines: Implications for Peace and Development in Mindanao
Increased US Military Presence in the Philippines: Implications for Peace and Development in Mindanao
Increased US Military Presence in the Philippines: Implications for Peace and Development in Mindanao
Increased US Military Presence in the Philippines: Implications for Peace and Development in Mindanao
Increased US Military Presence in the Philippines: Implications for Peace and Development in Mindanao
Increased US Military Presence in the Philippines: Implications for Peace and Development in Mindanao
Increased US Military Presence in the Philippines: Implications for Peace and Development in Mindanao
Increased US Military Presence in the Philippines: Implications for Peace and Development in Mindanao
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Increased US Military Presence in the Philippines: Implications for Peace and Development in Mindanao

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Increased US Military Presence in the Philippines: Implications for peace and development in Mindanao | Presented by security studies expert Rommel Banlaoi at the Institute for Autonomy & Governance, Cotabato City Philippines on July 6, 2012

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Increased US Military Presence in the Philippines: Implications for Peace and Development in Mindanao

  1. 1. Lecture delivered at the Institute for Autonomy and Governance (IAG) Notre Dame University Cotabato City 6 July 2012 INCREASED U.S. MILITARY PRESENCE IN THE PHILIPPINES : Implications for Peace and Development in Mindanao Rommel C. Banlaoi Philippine Institute for Peace, Violence and Terrorism Research Consulting – Training - Researching Countering Political Violence and Terrorism Through Peace Research www.pipvtr.com
  2. 2. U.S.-PHILIPPINES ALLIANCE:ADDRESSING 21ST CENTURY SECURITY CHALLENGES by Rommel C. Banlaoi Philippine Institute for Peace, Violence and Terrorism Research Consulting – Training - Researching Countering Political Violence and Terrorism Through Peace Research www.pipvtr.com
  3. 3. • An estimated 400 Philippine Navy sailors and 400 U.S. servicemen are currently taking part in the Cooperation Afloat Readiness and Training (CARAT) 2012 exercises. – July 2-10, 2012 – Involving: • Four Philippine Navy ships – BRP Magat Salamat, BRP Miguel Malvar, BRP Salvador Abecede and BRP Teotimo Figuracion • Two Philippine Coast Guard vessels - BRP Pampanga and the PCG Helo 1636 • US Navy’s USS Vandegrift and USNS Safeguard Philippine Institute for Peace, Violence and Terrorism Research Consulting – Training - Researching Countering Political Violence and Terrorism Through Peace Research www.pipvtr.com
  4. 4. • The Philippines has always been supportive of United States’ military presence in Asia.• Thus, it is no longer surprising to see the Philippines warmly welcoming the CARAT exercises, particularly in the context of U.S. pivot strategy to Asia. Philippine Institute for Peace, Violence and Terrorism Research Consulting – Training - Researching Countering Political Violence and Terrorism Through Peace Research www.pipvtr.com
  5. 5. • RP-US alliance is the cornerstone of Philippine foreign, defense and security policy – Rendered dormant in 1991 – Reinvigorated in 2001 – Enhanced in 2010 Philippine Institute for Peace, Violence and Terrorism Research Consulting – Training - Researching Countering Political Violence and Terrorism Through Peace Research www.pipvtr.com
  6. 6. 30 April 2012
  7. 7. The 2-plus-2 meeting is the first of its kind inthe history of special relations between theU.S. and the Philippines. Philippine Institute for Peace, Violence and Terrorism Research Consulting – Training - Researching Countering Political Violence and Terrorism Through Peace Research www.pipvtr.com
  8. 8. • The meeting aims to intensify the habit of consultation and cooperation on defense, security, political, economic and foreign policies between the two allies.• Moreover, the meeting intends to solidify their existing alliance to respond effectively to current and emerging security challenges in the Asia Pacific. Philippine Institute for Peace, Violence and Terrorism Research Consulting – Training - Researching Countering Political Violence and Terrorism Through Peace Research www.pipvtr.com
  9. 9. • In the 2-plus-2 meeting, both reaffirmed the importance of their security alliance and decided to level up this alliance to meet the many security challenges facing both countries. Philippine Institute for Peace, Violence and Terrorism Research Consulting – Training - Researching Countering Political Violence and Terrorism Through Peace Research www.pipvtr.com
  10. 10. • The Philippines, particularly, highlighted in this meeting the need for the U.S. to continuously assist the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) in building its capacity for territorial defense, counter-insurgency, counter- terrorism, and nation building. – It meant asking from the U.S. more access to Excess Defense Articles (EDA), greater priority to International Military Education and Training (IMET), and more grants from Foreign Military Financing (FMF). – The Philippines cannot be a useful ally in U.S. pivot to Asia strategy without adequate military capacity. Philippine Institute for Peace, Violence and Terrorism Research Consulting – Training - Researching Countering Political Violence and Terrorism Through Peace Research www.pipvtr.com
  11. 11. • The Philippines’ support to U.S. Pivot to Asia strategy was first officially articulated on 16 November 2011 during the 60th Anniversary of the U.S-Philippines Mutual Defense Treaty (MDT).• Signed the Manila Declaration on U.S. Philippines Alliance Philippine Institute for Peace, Violence and Terrorism Research Consulting – Training - Researching Countering Political Violence and Terrorism Through Peace Research www.pipvtr.com
  12. 12. • In the Manila Declaration of 2011, the U.S. and the Philippines: – reaffirmed their shared obligations for mutual defense and – stressed the need “to maintain a robust, balanced, and responsive security partnership including cooperating to enhance the defense, interdiction, and apprehension capabilities” of the Philippine military Philippine Institute for Peace, Violence and Terrorism Research Consulting – Training - Researching Countering Political Violence and Terrorism Through Peace Research www.pipvtr.com
  13. 13. • Their determination to continue “their bilateral cooperation in addressing broader regional and global challenges, including: – Maritime security – Threats to security such as climate change, nuclear proliferation, terrorism, and transnational crime.”• Commitment to continue their “close and effective cooperation to counter al-Qaida- linked terrorist groups in the Southern Philippines” Philippine Institute for Peace, Violence and Terrorism Research Consulting – Training - Researching Countering Political Violence and Terrorism Through Peace Research www.pipvtr.com
  14. 14. • Share common interest in: – Maintaining freedom of navigation – Unimpeded lawful commerce, and transit of people across the seas and – Subscribe to a rules-based approach in resolving competing claims in maritime areas through peaceful, collaborative, multilateral, and diplomatic processes within the framework of international law;” Philippine Institute for Peace, Violence and Terrorism Research Consulting – Training - Researching Countering Political Violence and Terrorism Through Peace Research www.pipvtr.com
  15. 15. • Commi to advance their “nations’ mutual security interests through: – Continuing a high-level strategic dialogue.” – They also committed to support “increasing regional cooperation in the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), the ASEAN Defense Ministers’ Meeting-Plus (ADMM+), the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), and the East Asia Summit (EAS).” Philippine Institute for Peace, Violence and Terrorism Research Consulting – Training - Researching Countering Political Violence and Terrorism Through Peace Research www.pipvtr.com
  16. 16. • In other words, the Manila Declaration of 2011 not only renewed U.S.-Philippines security alliance but also stressed the need to raise the level of their alliance to a higher plane.• The Manila Declaration identified broader goals in order to make this alliance more relevant and more mutually beneficial. Philippine Institute for Peace, Violence and Terrorism Research Consulting – Training - Researching Countering Political Violence and Terrorism Through Peace Research www.pipvtr.com
  17. 17. • To implement the Manila Declaration, the two allies even instituted the holding of Bilateral Strategic Dialogues in order to provide opportunities for both countries “to consult and exchange views on a broad range of bilateral, regional, and global issues” reflecting their “common values and interests” Philippine Institute for Peace, Violence and Terrorism Research Consulting – Training - Researching Countering Political Violence and Terrorism Through Peace Research www.pipvtr.com
  18. 18. • The U.S. and the Philippines, therefore, commit to stick together as important allies in 21st century.• The recently concluded 2-plus-2 meeting reiterated that point. Philippine Institute for Peace, Violence and Terrorism Research Consulting – Training - Researching Countering Political Violence and Terrorism Through Peace Research www.pipvtr.com
  19. 19. • There is no doubt that this alliance plays an important role in U.S. pivot to Asia.• Through the MDT of 1951, the Visiting Forces Agreement (VFA) of 1999 and the Mutual Logistic Support Agreement (MLSA) of 2007, American military presence in the Philippines is justified. Philippine Institute for Peace, Violence and Terrorism Research Consulting – Training - Researching Countering Political Violence and Terrorism Through Peace Research www.pipvtr.com
  20. 20. • To indicate continuing American military presence in the Philippines, at least 600 American troops belonging to the Joint Special Operations Task Force ‐Philippines (JSOTFP) are currently deployed in Mindanao on rotational basis.• Since 2000, American and Filipino troops have been conducting combined and joint military exercises in Philippine territories. Philippine Institute for Peace, Violence and Terrorism Research Consulting – Training - Researching Countering Political Violence and Terrorism Through Peace Research www.pipvtr.com
  21. 21. • 28th Balikatan concluded on 27 April 2012• A milestone as it involved other American allies from Australia Japan, and South Korea as well as partners from Indonesia and Malaysia. Philippine Institute for Peace, Violence and Terrorism Research Consulting – Training - Researching Countering Political Violence and Terrorism Through Peace Research www.pipvtr.com
  22. 22. • The U.S. is indeed pivoting to Asia. The Philippines plays a significant part in it.• For the Philippines, it is not difficult to embrace American pivot strategy having been a long-standing security ally.• Armed forces of both countries fought together during – the Second World War (1945), – the Korean War (1950-1953), – the Vietnam War (1964-973), – the Persian Gulf War (1991), and – the Global War on Terror (2001-2011)• They fought common wars through the years to defend democracy, promote rule of law and pursue free trade. Philippine Institute for Peace, Violence and Terrorism Research Consulting – Training - Researching Countering Political Violence and Terrorism Through Peace Research www.pipvtr.com
  23. 23. • Their shared history and common values in liberal democracy, rule of law, open society and free market make the Philippines an integral part of US pivot strategy towards Asia.• The bilateral security relationship between the U.S. and the Philippines has, in fact, “gained prominence as a key link in the evolving U.S. foreign policy ‘pivot’ or ‘rebalancing’ toward Asia.” Philippine Institute for Peace, Violence and Terrorism Research Consulting – Training - Researching Countering Political Violence and Terrorism Through Peace Research www.pipvtr.com
  24. 24. U.S. Alliance withthe Philippines –weaved togetherwith Australia,Japan, South Korea,Taiwan and Thailand– makes the U.S.presence really feltin Asia and thePacific. Philippine Institute for Peace, Violence and Terrorism Research Consulting – Training - Researching Countering Political Violence and Terrorism Through Peace Research www.pipvtr.com
  25. 25. • As an American ally, the Philippines finds U.S. pivot to Asia strategy as essential to ameliorate its growing security dilemma with China. Philippine Institute for Peace, Violence and Terrorism Research Consulting – Training - Researching Countering Political Violence and Terrorism Through Peace Research www.pipvtr.com
  26. 26. • U.S. pivot to Asia strategy is also important for the Philippines in addressing the country’s internal security threats. Philippine Institute for Peace, Violence and Terrorism Research Consulting – Training - Researching Countering Political Violence and Terrorism Through Peace Research www.pipvtr.com
  27. 27. In other words, the Philippines expects the U.S. to help the country build its national capacity to meet the objectives of Philippine National Security Policy covering the presidential term 2011-2016. Philippine Institute for Peace, Violence and Terrorism Research Consulting – Training - Researching Countering Political Violence and Terrorism Through Peace Research www.pipvtr.com
  28. 28. The U.S. is now rebalancing its global posture and presence after fulfilling its commitment in Iraq and Afghanistan. Philippine Institute for Peace, Violence and Terrorism Research Consulting – Training - Researching Countering Political Violence and Terrorism Through Peace Research www.pipvtr.com
  29. 29. • In its objective to strengthen its presence in the Asia Pacific by increasing “the institutional weight”, “power projection”, and “deterrence capacity” of U.S. armed forces in the region, the Philippines is willing to serve as a key strategic hub, if not spoke, for this purpose.• The 2-plus-2 meeting of both countries’ defense and foreign affairs officials in Washington DC this week further operationalized how the Philippine can fit into the U.S. pivot strategy toward Asia. Philippine Institute for Peace, Violence and Terrorism Research Consulting – Training - Researching Countering Political Violence and Terrorism Through Peace Research www.pipvtr.com
  30. 30. • U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton stressed in an article in Foreign Policy that “the future of politics will be decided in Asia, not Afghanistan or Iraq, and the United States will be right at the centre of the action”.• The invigorated U.S.-Philippine alliance can presently facilitate the U.S to pivot effectively to Asia as it prepares to meet this future.• Operationally, it means increasing U.S. presence in the Philippines as the U.S. increases its presence in Asia. Philippine Institute for Peace, Violence and Terrorism Research Consulting – Training - Researching Countering Political Violence and Terrorism Through Peace Research www.pipvtr.com
  31. 31. • Increased American presence in the Philippines can be established through the following: – Greater U.S. access to Philippine ports and airfields for re-fueling and service of warships and planes; – Stationing of U.S. warships and reconnaissance and other aircraft, on a rotational basis; – Increasing the number and frequency of joint military exercises, training, ship and aircraft visits, and related activities; – Increasing the number of U.S. troops serving on a temporary basis; and, – The Philippine purchase and leasing of U.S. military ships and aircraft Source: Thomas Lum, The Republic of the Philippines and U.S. Interests (Washington DC: Congressional Research Service, 5 April 2012), p. 28. Philippine Institute for Peace, Violence and Terrorism Research Consulting – Training - Researching Countering Political Violence and Terrorism Through Peace Research www.pipvtr.com
  32. 32. COAST WATCH SYSTEM (1995 - 2005) ORIGINAL COAST ZAMBALES (1996) WATCH STATIONS CABRA (1998) CAPUL (1995) LALUTAYA (2002) AYUNGIN (2000)MELVILLE(1995) ZAMBOANGA (1995) TINACA (2005) Source: PN
  33. 33. U.S. Presence in the Philippines Can facilitate the implementation of INTEGRATED PN COAST WATCH SYSTEM BASCO, BATANES BURGOS, ILOCOS NORTE SAN VICENTE, CAGAYAN LEGEND: CWC-NORTH, LA UNION CASIGURAN, AURORA OPERATIONAL BOLINAO, PANGASINAN UPCOMING ZAMBALES MRIC CABRA CAPUL LAWAK BUSUANGA LALUTAYA CUYO RIZAL REEF AYUNGIN CWC-WEST SURIGAO TUBBATAHA REEF SIATON, NEGROS ORIENTAL MELVILLE CWC-WM MANGSEE MAPUN CWC-EM ZAMBOANGA PILAS KALAMANSIG SAN AGUSTIN TAGANAK MAITUM PANGUTARAN TONGKIL MAASIM TINACA PANDAMI BALUT Source: PN BONGAO
  34. 34. IMPLICATIONS FOR PEACE AND DEVELOPMENT IN MINDANAO Philippine Institute for Peace, Violence and Terrorism Research Consulting – Training - Researching Countering Political Violence and Terrorism Through Peace Research www.pipvtr.com
  35. 35. Why Mindanao?• Centrally located within Asia & the East ASEAN Growth Area (EAGA).• Easily accessible by air, land, and sea transport using Roll-On Roll-Off facilities.• 38 seaports (4 strategic container ports) and 15 major airports (2 international). interlinked and able to support high volumes.• 19th largest island in the world (land area exceeds Ireland or Sri Lanka).• A deep pool of skilled human resources from a population of over 22 million.• Abundant, available, fertile land perfectly suited for agriculture; 44% of food consumed in the Philippines is produced here.• Fair tropical climate with no typhoons.• Within the rich fishing lanes of the South China and Celebes Seas; accounts for 35% of the country’s fish catch.• Adequate public utilities and telecom facilities.• Strong government support through infrastructure development and favorable policies.• Emerging location for Tourism and Business Process Outsourcing Philippine Institute for Peace, Violence and Terrorism Research Consulting – Training - Researching Countering Political Violence and Terrorism Through Peace Research www.pipvtr.com
  36. 36. Strategic Industries Region 9 Processed fish products, Rubber, Seaweeds, Bottled Sardines, Ceramics, Shellcrafts Region 10 Pineapple, High-value crops&vegetables, Aqua- marine, Tourism, Fiber-base (silk, abaca) Region 11 Banana, Coconut, Processed fruits, Processed food products, Wood Industry, ARMM Housewares Seaweeds, Fish/fish products Region 12 Rubber, Palm Oil, Pineapple, Processed Fruits, Fish/Fish Products Region 13 Banana, Palm Oil, Coffee, Fish/Fish products, Citronella Oil, Wood & Wood Products SOURCE: Department of Trade and Industry
  37. 37. Magnetite • The Philippines, particularly Mindanao, is Gold one of the mostChromite mineralized countries in Magnetite the world. Manganese Chromite • Third in gold • Fourth in copper Magnetite • Fifth in Nickel • Sixth in Chromite Gold Untapped mineral wealth isChromite around US$840 billion Source: Fernando Sajona, Geologic Setting and Mineral Potential of the Chromite Philippines, 2006.
  38. 38. Areas of high Mineral Development interest in Mindanao COPPER-GOLD • Surigao gold district holds Surigao-Agusan promise for porphyry copper district mineralization Mindanao • Time for rational exploration Central in Diwalwal-Masara area Zamboanga Cordillera • Zamboanga is an emerging district • Discovery of Tampakan grabs attention for Cotabato Diwalwal-Masara • Central Cordillera of Mindanao district remains unexplored; gold Cotabato panning activities reported. Known district Areas of interestSource: Fernando Sajona, Geologic Setting andMineral Potential of the Philippines, 2006.
  39. 39. Mindanao plays avital role in maritime activities in Southeast Asia
  40. 40. Thus, the U.S. is very muchconcerned on the status of:– GPH-MILF Peace Talks– Implementation of the 1996 Final Peace Agreement between the GPH and the MNLF– GPH-NDF Peace Talks– Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters– Abu Sayyaf Group– Crime-Terrorism-Insurgency Situation in Mindanao– Warlordism and Private Armed Groups in Mindanao– Over-all state of local governance in the Southern Philippines READ: Thomas Lum, The Republic of the Philippines and U.S. Interests. Washington DC: Congressional Research Service, 5 April 2012. www.pipvtr.com
  41. 41. CONCLUSION Philippine Institute for Peace, Violence and Terrorism Research Consulting – Training - Researching Countering Political Violence and Terrorism Through Peace Research www.pipvtr.com
  42. 42. • In the Joint Statement signed after the 2+2 meeting, both countries recognize that “The U.S.-Philippines alliance is stronger than ever, reflecting the deep and abiding ties linking our two nations and forged through a history of shared sacrifice and common purpose.” Philippine Institute for Peace, Violence and Terrorism Research Consulting – Training - Researching Countering Political Violence and Terrorism Through Peace Research www.pipvtr.com
  43. 43. • They also acknowledge that “Americans and Filipinos are inextricably bound by common values and shared aspirations, including a commitment to democracy and the rule of law, building a robust economic partnership, and deepening people- to-people ties.” Philippine Institute for Peace, Violence and Terrorism Research Consulting – Training - Researching Countering Political Violence and Terrorism Through Peace Research www.pipvtr.com
  44. 44. Their alliance“remains ananchor forpeace, stability,and prosperityin the Asia-Pacific region.” Philippine Institute for Peace, Violence and Terrorism Research Consulting – Training - Researching Countering Political Violence and Terrorism Through Peace Research www.pipvtr.com
  45. 45. Will the RP-USAlliance bringpeace anddevelopmentin Mindanao? Philippine Institute for Peace, Violence and Terrorism Research Consulting – Training - Researching Countering Political Violence and Terrorism Through Peace Research www.pipvtr.com
  46. 46. Thank youvery much Philippine Institute for Peace, Violence and Terrorism Research Consulting – Training - Researching Countering Political Violence and Terrorism Through Peace Research www.pipvtr.com

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