The use of treated wastewater and of sludge in forestration
Dr. Helalley Abdel Hady Helalley
Chief of Industrial wastewater, Sludge and Reuse sector.
Alexandria Sanitary Drainage Company.
Alexandria Sanitary Drainage Company
Industrial Wastewater, Sludge and Reuse Sector
Is the optimum use of Alexandria treated effluent
through appropriate technologies and the best
management practices to achieve best outcomes in
terms of environmental basis and public health .
The provision of sewage treatment in Alexandria has resulted
in the production of substantial quantities of effluent and sludge.
In an arid country such as Egypt, these materials should be
regarded as valuable resources for agricultural irrigation and soil
fertilization, particularly as water resources are strictly limited
and there is an urgent need for continued horizontal expansion
of agriculture into the desert areas as the population increases.
2006 2012 2017 2022 2027 2032 2037
Wastewater production and STP’s capacity (Master plan 2037)
East Treatment Plant
The Main drains in Alexandria are:
• El Qalaa which receives the effluent of ETP.
• West Noubaria and El Omoum drain dispose into the Mediterranean through Lake Maryout.
loads from rural areas
Final Disposal points of Alexandria wastewater
Factors that are relevant for the
feasibility of treated wastewater reuse
for forestation will largely depend on:
Type of treatment and of industrial pollutants
The reuse potential obviously will depend on the quality of the
wastewater. This depends on the type of treatment of domestic
wastewater and, especially, on the industrial pollutants and their
removal during the on-site treatment process.
Availability of suitable areas for forestation
To find suitable areas for forestation around the New
Industrial Cities in the desert does not seem to be a
Irrigation methods and soil types
The most suitable irrigation method for reuse of treated
wastewater is drip irrigation because irrigation efficiency is high,
labor requirement is low, and contact between farm workers and
effluent is minimal. However, high quality effluent is required to
prevent clogging of the emitters. Sprinkler irrigation is not
suitable because it will expose workers to pollutants and may
result in severe damage to the leaves of the plants and
significant yield loss.
As part of the strategy, site-specific feasibility studies should be
carried out to determine the potential and options for reuse of
treated wastewater. As part of these studies an environmental
impact assessment will be made, with special emphasis on the
risks of groundwater pollution.
Third Group Advanced
0.010.010.06Part per millionCadmium
5510Part per millionLead
0.20.2UndeterminedPart per millionCopper
0.20.20.5Part per millionNickel
22UndeterminedPart per millionZinc
0.1UndeterminedUndeterminedPart per millionArsenic
0.1UndeterminedUndeterminedPart per millionChrome
0.20.2UndeterminedPart per millionMolybolenum (green fodder only)
0.20.20.2Part per millionManganese
55UndeterminedPart per millionIron
0.050.05UndeterminedPart per millionCobalt
Maximum Standards Permitted for Reusing Treated Sanitary Drainage Water
& Degree of Treatment
Dr. Sama MZ
Presented by Dr. H.A.Helaly
Proposed Kind of
Environmental & Health
authorized for use in
desert land 5 km away
of the environment
No direct contact with water
and entrance of farm workers
Prohibit from entering farms
Take health measures required
for the protection from
infection with pathogenic
organisms and treatments
Trees for TimberPrimary
Light medium texture
Cattle not yielding milk, and
producing met could be used
Food should be cooked prior to
Palm trees, cotton, flax, linen, jute
Fodder crops & dried cereals
Husky fruits & crops
Heat processed fruits
Raw edible plants
All kinds for soil
All kinds of horticulture crops
Fodder & green grasses
Dr. Sama MZ
Presented by Dr. H.A.Helaly
In Alexandria, effluent from wastewater treatment systems could
be reused for urban landscaping, irrigation of many areas in each
The direct reuse of treated wastewater into irrigation is preferable
in the following cases:
•Irrigation of green areas in resorts and golf playgrounds and similar
•Green areas inside residence cordons in new cities.
•Irrigation of green belts all around the cities.
•Plantation of highways.
•Irrigation of desert lands to be reserved for agricultural investment and
specially irrigated with treated wastewater.
•The use of the treated waste water and of the sludge in
Reuse options of Alexandria WWTPs effluent:
Current location of Alexandria effluent reuse from km 26 WTP.
Location of proposed reuse areas of Alexandria effluent
Dr. Sama MZ
1st Conference for Modern Nano-Technology in Water and Waste Water projects (MNTW'2012), Cairo, Egypt. 15 September 2012
Cost Analysis of the proposed options
Proposal for reuse effluent of Hanoville, Amriya and Agamy WWTPs.
Borg Al-Arab WWTP: lie in a desert location and near to the West
Egyptian Desert and therefore, the effluent of the existing and the
new proposed wastewater treatment plants in this zone could be
reused for many purposes such as: irrigation of green belts all
around the zone, plantation of highways and irrigation of desert lands
that can be reserved for agricultural investment and specially
irrigated with treated wastewater,
Effluents form Borg Al –Arab WWTPs
Flow diagram of the Alexandria sludge
treatment system using windrow
Fecal Coliform Bacteria -ve -ve
Salmonella <2 <2
Ascaris ova -ve -ve
Table (3): Typical pathogens count after the composting and co-composting. .
Average of heavy metals content
Zn Cu Ni Cd Pb Cr
Figures (6): The heavy metals content in the final composts from composting and co-composting.
2nd International Conference and Exhibition
Sustainable Water Supply and Sanitation. 27-29 February 2012