The use of treated wastewater and of sludge in forestration


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Forestration is the community preferable and safe effluent reuse

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The use of treated wastewater and of sludge in forestration

  1. 1. Presented by Dr. Helalley Abdel Hady Helalley Chief of Industrial wastewater, Sludge and Reuse sector. Alexandria Sanitary Drainage Company. Alexandria Sanitary Drainage Company Industrial Wastewater, Sludge and Reuse Sector
  2. 2. Is the optimum use of Alexandria treated effluent through appropriate technologies and the best management practices to achieve best outcomes in terms of environmental basis and public health .
  3. 3. The provision of sewage treatment in Alexandria has resulted in the production of substantial quantities of effluent and sludge. In an arid country such as Egypt, these materials should be regarded as valuable resources for agricultural irrigation and soil fertilization, particularly as water resources are strictly limited and there is an urgent need for continued horizontal expansion of agriculture into the desert areas as the population increases.
  4. 4. 0 500000 1000000 1500000 2000000 2500000 3000000 2006 2012 2017 2022 2027 2032 2037 Year Wastwaterdailyrate Produced S.T.P capacity Wastewater production and STP’s capacity (Master plan 2037)
  5. 5. Quala Drain 92,358 East Treatment Plant 607,000 432,236 Sea Locks 82,200 Semouha Drain 19,152 Gonet Zohra Drain 131,616 Evapotranspiration 169,344 West Treatment Plant 410,325 El-Mex Pumping Station 7,993,945 QUALA 915,790 Omoum Drain 4,200,000 Nubaria Canal 2,530,000 Underground water 24,974 Amlak Drain 65,664 Lake Mayout The Main drains in Alexandria are: • El Qalaa which receives the effluent of ETP. • West Noubaria and El Omoum drain dispose into the Mediterranean through Lake Maryout. receives pollution loads from rural areas Final Disposal points of Alexandria wastewater
  6. 6. Factors that are relevant for the feasibility of treated wastewater reuse for forestation will largely depend on:
  7. 7. Type of treatment and of industrial pollutants The reuse potential obviously will depend on the quality of the wastewater. This depends on the type of treatment of domestic wastewater and, especially, on the industrial pollutants and their removal during the on-site treatment process.
  8. 8. Availability of suitable areas for forestation To find suitable areas for forestation around the New Industrial Cities in the desert does not seem to be a problem
  9. 9. Irrigation methods and soil types The most suitable irrigation method for reuse of treated wastewater is drip irrigation because irrigation efficiency is high, labor requirement is low, and contact between farm workers and effluent is minimal. However, high quality effluent is required to prevent clogging of the emitters. Sprinkler irrigation is not suitable because it will expose workers to pollutants and may result in severe damage to the leaves of the plants and significant yield loss.
  10. 10. Environmental impacts As part of the strategy, site-specific feasibility studies should be carried out to determine the potential and options for reuse of treated wastewater. As part of these studies an environmental impact assessment will be made, with special emphasis on the risks of groundwater pollution.
  11. 11. Third Group Advanced Second Group Secondary First Group Preliminary Unit Degree of Treatment/Standards Metal per millionCadmium 5510Part per millionLead 0.20.2UndeterminedPart per millionCopper per millionNickel 22UndeterminedPart per millionZinc 0.1UndeterminedUndeterminedPart per millionArsenic 0.1UndeterminedUndeterminedPart per millionChrome 0.20.2UndeterminedPart per millionMolybolenum (green fodder only) per millionManganese 55UndeterminedPart per millionIron 0.050.05UndeterminedPart per millionCobalt Maximum Standards Permitted for Reusing Treated Sanitary Drainage Water & Degree of Treatment contd…..  Dr. Sama MZ Presented by Dr. H.A.Helaly
  12. 12. Proposed Kind of Soils Suitable Irrigation Methods Environmental & Health Precautions Plants Degree of Treatment Group Light texture authorized for use in desert land 5 km away from dwelling communities while complying with periodical assessment of the environment Furrow Fencing farms No direct contact with water and entrance of farm workers only Prohibit from entering farms Take health measures required for the protection from infection with pathogenic organisms and treatments Trees for TimberPrimary First Light medium texture Furrow & sprinkling Cattle not yielding milk, and producing met could be used Food should be cooked prior to eating Palm trees, cotton, flax, linen, jute Fodder crops & dried cereals Husky fruits & crops Cooking vegetables Heat processed fruits Flower nurseries Raw edible plants Husky plants SecondarySecond All kinds for soil All methods except spraying None All kinds of horticulture crops Fodder & green grasses AdvancedThird  Dr. Sama MZ Presented by Dr. H.A.Helaly
  13. 13. In Alexandria, effluent from wastewater treatment systems could be reused for urban landscaping, irrigation of many areas in each district. The direct reuse of treated wastewater into irrigation is preferable in the following cases: •Irrigation of green areas in resorts and golf playgrounds and similar conditions. •Green areas inside residence cordons in new cities. •Irrigation of green belts all around the cities. •Plantation of highways. •Irrigation of desert lands to be reserved for agricultural investment and specially irrigated with treated wastewater. •The use of the treated waste water and of the sludge in Forestation practices Reuse options of Alexandria WWTPs effluent:
  14. 14. Site 9N forest
  15. 15. Current location of Alexandria effluent reuse from km 26 WTP.
  16. 16. Location of proposed reuse areas of Alexandria effluent reuse
  17. 17.  Dr. Sama MZ 1st Conference for Modern Nano-Technology in Water and Waste Water projects (MNTW'2012), Cairo, Egypt. 15 September 2012 Cost Analysis of the proposed options
  18. 18. Proposal for reuse effluent of Hanoville, Amriya and Agamy WWTPs.
  19. 19. Borg Al-Arab WWTP: lie in a desert location and near to the West Egyptian Desert and therefore, the effluent of the existing and the new proposed wastewater treatment plants in this zone could be reused for many purposes such as: irrigation of green belts all around the zone, plantation of highways and irrigation of desert lands that can be reserved for agricultural investment and specially irrigated with treated wastewater, Effluents form Borg Al –Arab WWTPs
  20. 20. Flow diagram of the Alexandria sludge treatment system using windrow composting
  21. 21. moisture adjustment Sludge unloading Mixing and turning processEffective composting operation
  22. 22. High quality compost
  23. 23. Pathogens DS/MC Count/100/ ml DS/MC/G Count/100 ml Fecal Coliform Bacteria -ve -ve Salmonella <2 <2 Ascaris ova -ve -ve Table (3): Typical pathogens count after the composting and co-composting. .
  24. 24. Average of heavy metals content 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 Zn Cu Ni Cd Pb Cr (mg/kg) DS/MC DS/MC/G Figures (6): The heavy metals content in the final composts from composting and co-composting.
  25. 25. 2nd International Conference and Exhibition Sustainable Water Supply and Sanitation. 27-29 February 2012