The use of treated waste water and of sludge in forest ration practices


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The use of treated wastewater and sludge in forest ration practices is one of preferable and safe reuse options in most of communities

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The use of treated waste water and of sludge in forest ration practices

  1. 1. Alexandria Sanitary Drainage Company Industrial Wastewater, Sludge and Reuse Sector Presented by Dr. Helalley Abdel Hady Helalley Chief of Industrial wastewater, Sludge and Reuse sector. Alexandria Sanitary Drainage Company.
  2. 2. Is the optimum use of Alexandria treated effluent through appropriate technologies and the best management practices to achieve best outcomes in terms of environmental basis and public health .
  3. 3. The provision of sewage treatment in Alexandria has resulted in the production of substantial quantities of effluent and sludge. In an arid country such as Egypt, these materials should be regarded as valuable resources for agricultural irrigation and soil fertilization, particularly as water resources are strictly limited and there is an urgent need for continued horizontal expansion of agriculture into the desert areas as the population increases.
  4. 4. Wastewater production and STP’s capacity (Master plan 2037) 3000000 2500000 Wast water daily rate S.T.P capacity 2000000 Produced 1500000 1000000 500000 0 2006 2012 2017 2022 Year 2027 2032 2037
  5. 5. Final Disposal points of Alexandria wastewater The Main drains in Alexandria are: • El Qalaa which receives the effluent of ETP. • West Noubaria and El Omoum drain dispose into the Mediterranean through Lake Maryout. Quala Drain 92,358 El-Mex Pumping Station 7,993,945 Sea Locks 82,200 East Treatment Plant 607,000 432,236 West Treatment Plant 410,325 Evapotranspiration 169,344 Semouha Drain 19,152 Amlak Drain 65,664 Lake Mayout receives pollution loads from rural areas QUALA 915,790 Underground water 24,974 Nubaria Canal 2,530,000 Omoum Drain 4,200,000 Gonet Zohra Drain 131,616
  6. 6. Factors that are relevant for the feasibility of treated wastewater reuse for forestation will largely depend on:
  7. 7. Type of treatment and of industrial pollutants The reuse potential obviously will depend on the quality of the wastewater. This depends on the type of treatment of domestic wastewater and, especially, on the industrial pollutants and their removal during the on-site treatment process.
  8. 8. Availability of suitable areas for forestation To find suitable areas for forestation around the New Industrial Cities in the desert does not seem to be a problem
  9. 9. Irrigation methods and soil types The most suitable irrigation method for reuse of treated wastewater is drip irrigation because irrigation efficiency is high, labor requirement is low, and contact between farm workers and effluent is minimal. However, high quality effluent is required to prevent clogging of the emitters. Sprinkler irrigation is not suitable because it will expose workers to pollutants and may result in severe damage to the leaves of the plants and significant yield loss.
  10. 10. Environmental impacts As part of the strategy, site-specific feasibility studies should be carried out to determine the potential and options for reuse of treated wastewater. As part of these studies an environmental impact assessment will be made, with special emphasis on the risks of groundwater pollution.
  11. 11.  Dr. Sama MZ Maximum Standards Permitted for Reusing Treated Sanitary Drainage Water & Degree of Treatment contd….. Presented by Dr. H.A.Helaly Degree of Treatment/Standards Metal Unit First Group Preliminary Second Group Secondary Third Group Advanced Cadmium Part per million 0.06 0.01 0.01 Lead Part per million 10 5 5 Copper Part per million Undetermined 0.2 0.2 Nickel Part per million 0.5 0.2 0.2 Zinc Part per million Undetermined 2 2 Arsenic Part per million Undetermined Undetermined 0.1 Chrome Part per million Undetermined Undetermined 0.1 Molybolenum (green fodder only) Part per million Undetermined 0.2 0.2 Manganese Part per million 0.2 0.2 0.2 Iron Part per million Undetermined 5 5 Cobalt Part per million Undetermined 0.05 0.05
  12. 12.  Dr. Sama MZ Presented by Dr. H.A.Helaly Group First Second Third Degree of Treatment Primary Secondary Advanced Plants Environmental & Health Precautions Trees for Timber Fencing farms No direct contact with water and entrance of farm workers only Prohibit from entering farms Take health measures required for the protection from infection with pathogenic organisms and treatments Palm trees, cotton, flax, linen, jute Fodder crops & dried cereals Husky fruits & crops Cooking vegetables Heat processed fruits Flower nurseries Raw edible plants Husky plants All kinds of horticulture crops Fodder & green grasses Cattle not yielding milk, and producing met could be used Food should be cooked prior to eating None Suitable Irrigation Methods Furrow Proposed Kind of Soils Light texture authorized for use in desert land 5 km away from dwelling communities while complying with periodical assessment of the environment Furrow & sprinkling Light medium texture All methods except spraying All kinds for soil
  13. 13. Reuse options of Alexandria WWTPs effluent: In Alexandria, effluent from wastewater treatment systems could be reused for urban landscaping, irrigation of many areas in each district. The direct reuse of treated wastewater into irrigation is preferable in the following cases: •Irrigation of green areas in resorts and golf playgrounds and similar conditions. •Green areas inside residence cordons in new cities. •Irrigation of green belts all around the cities. •Plantation of highways. •Irrigation of desert lands to be reserved for agricultural investment and specially irrigated with treated wastewater. •The use of the treated waste water and of the sludge in Forestation practices
  14. 14. Site 9N forest
  15. 15. Current location of Alexandria effluent reuse from km 26 WTP.
  16. 16. Location of proposed reuse areas of Alexandria reuse effluent
  17. 17. Cost Analysis of the proposed options  Dr. Sama MZ 1st Conference for Modern Nano-Technology in Water and Waste Water projects (MNTW'2012), Cairo, Egypt. 15 September 2012
  18. 18. Proposal for reuse effluent of Hanoville, Amriya and Agamy WWTPs.
  19. 19. Effluents form Borg Al –Arab WWTPs Borg Al-Arab WWTP: lie in a desert location and near to the West Egyptian Desert and therefore, the effluent of the existing and the new proposed wastewater treatment plants in this zone could be reused for many purposes such as: irrigation of green belts all around the zone, plantation of highways and irrigation of desert lands that can be reserved for agricultural investment and specially irrigated with treated wastewater,
  20. 20. Flow diagram of the Alexandria sludge treatment system using windrow composting
  21. 21. moisture adjustment Effective composting operation Sludge unloading Mixing and turning process
  22. 22. High quality compost
  23. 23. Pathogens Fecal Coliform Bacteria DS/MC Count/100/ ml -ve DS/MC/G Count/100 ml -ve Salmonella <2 <2 Ascaris ova -ve -ve Table (3): Typical pathogens count after the composting and co-composting. .
  24. 24. Average of heavy metals content 1400 1200 (mg/kg) 1000 800 600 400 200 0 Zn Cu Ni DS/MC Cd Pb Cr DS/MC/G Figures (6): The heavy metals content in the final composts from composting and co-composting.
  25. 25. 2nd International Conference and Exhibition Sustainable Water Supply and Sanitation. 27-29 February 2012