SHOROUQ
ZEOUD
AHED
EALAMAT
Wastewater Treatment
BY
Main Topic
Introduction
Process of W.W.T
Benefits
Problems
Conclusions
Introduction
 At 2.8%, MENA has one of the highest average
population growth rates in the world.
 This situation is comp...
 Most nations in the region are already importing virtual
water, in the form of food, and will likely have to increase
sp...
The answer
 is water demand management–more efficient water
use within all sectors. One specific component is to
increasi...
Process of W.W.T
 At the wastewater treatment plants, wastewater
undergoes five major processes :
Preliminary
treatment
S...
 Preliminary treatment : incoming wastewater, called influent, passes through
screens consisting of upright bars, spaced ...
Methane Gas
 Methane gas is often used as an energy source at
the wastewater treatment plants. The gas may be
used in eng...
Benefits
 There are several benefits of treated wastewater reuse :
1. It preserves the high quality, expensive fresh wate...
Problems
Components
in
wastewater
most toxic
Health
: helminthes diseases,
microbial
pathogens
Reduce soil
permeability
Co...
Isn’t used to
irrigate
vegetables or
salad crops eaten
raw
Available
information on
crops and soil
sensitive to
wastewater...
Conclusions
 Domestic WWTR is one tool to address the food
and water insecurity facing many countries in
MENA.
 In most ...
 To help the gradual and coherent introduction of
such a policy, which protects the environment and
public health, govern...
ANY QUESTION
wastewater
wastewater
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wastewater

  1. 1. SHOROUQ ZEOUD AHED EALAMAT Wastewater Treatment BY
  2. 2. Main Topic Introduction Process of W.W.T Benefits Problems Conclusions
  3. 3. Introduction  At 2.8%, MENA has one of the highest average population growth rates in the world.  This situation is compounded by the high urbanization rate in MENA, which at 3.2%, is higher than the rate for developing countries as a whole, 2.9%. Overall, within the region, about 80% of fresh water is used in agriculture.  This means that the region will increasingly suffer from twin and related problems of food and water insecurity.
  4. 4.  Most nations in the region are already importing virtual water, in the form of food, and will likely have to increase specific imports, such as cereal crops. Despite this, many countries wish to increase fresh water supplies to domestic, and industrial usages, and at the same time, expand irrigated agriculture.  How can these seemingly contradictory objectives be reconciled ????
  5. 5. The answer  is water demand management–more efficient water use within all sectors. One specific component is to increasingly reuse domestic wastewater .  this what we are called Wastewater Treatment by ;  Wastewater treatment plants, also called sewage treatment plants or water pollution control plants, remove most pollutants from wastewater before it is released to local waterways.
  6. 6. Process of W.W.T  At the wastewater treatment plants, wastewater undergoes five major processes : Preliminary treatment Secondary treatment Primary treatment Sludge treatmentDisinfection
  7. 7.  Preliminary treatment : incoming wastewater, called influent, passes through screens consisting of upright bars, spaced one to three inches apart. These bars remove large pieces of trash including rags, sticks, newspaper, soft drink cans, bottles, plastic cups and other similar items .  Primary treatment : Next, the wastewater enters primary settling tanks, also called sedimentation tanks, for one to two hours. The flow of the water is slowed, allowing heavier solids to settle to the bottom of the tank and the lighter materials to float .  Secondary treatment : Secondary treatment is called the activated sludge process. This is because air and “seed” sludge from the plant treatment process are added to the wastewater to break it down further .  Disinfection : Even after primary and secondary treatment, disease causing organisms may remain in the treated wastewater to disinfect and kill harmful organisms, the wastewater spends a minimum of 15-20 minutes in chlorine-contact tanks mixing with sodium hypochlorite .  Sludge treatment : 1. Thickening 2. Digestion 3. Sludge dewatering
  8. 8. Methane Gas  Methane gas is often used as an energy source at the wastewater treatment plants. The gas may be used in engines to produce electricity or directly drive plant equipment. Gas is also used in boilers to provide heat for digestion and plant-wide buildings.  Fuel cells convert the methane gas and carbon dioxide into heat and electricity that is then used to operate the plants. This technology efforts to enhance clean air operations at its facilities. There is a significant reduction in air emissions as a result of using fuel cells.
  9. 9. Benefits  There are several benefits of treated wastewater reuse : 1. It preserves the high quality, expensive fresh water for the highest value purposes–primarily for drinking. 2. Collecting and treating wastewater protects existing sources of valuable fresh water, the environment in general, and public health. 3. Treated wastewater can sometimes be a superior source for agriculture, than some fresh water sources. It is a constant water source, and nitrogen and phosphorus in the wastewater may result in higher yields than freshwater irrigation .
  10. 10. Problems Components in wastewater most toxic Health : helminthes diseases, microbial pathogens Reduce soil permeability Contaminate shallow aquifers.
  11. 11. Isn’t used to irrigate vegetables or salad crops eaten raw Available information on crops and soil sensitive to wastewater irrigation Mapping sensitive areas, such as shallow aquifers solution
  12. 12. Conclusions  Domestic WWTR is one tool to address the food and water insecurity facing many countries in MENA.  In most MENA countries, valuable fresh water will have to be preserved solely for drinking, very high value industrial purposes, and for high value fresh vegetables and salad crops consumed raw .  The economic, social and environmental benefits of such an approach are clear.
  13. 13.  To help the gradual and coherent introduction of such a policy, which protects the environment and public health, governments shall have to adapt an Integrated Water Management approach, facilitate public participation, disseminate existing knowledge, and generate new knowledge, and monitor and enforce standards.
  14. 14. ANY QUESTION

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