Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Customized Interactive Software EETC 2012


Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Customized Interactive Software EETC 2012

  1. 1. Customized, Interactive Software Sounds Great! Now What Does that Really Mean?Handout: EETC Conference March 2012 Susan Gunnewig, M.Ed. Lilla Dale McManis, Ph.D. Copyright 2012
  2. 2. Overview• Why is this topic applicable to early learners?• What are customization and interactivity really?• Why are they important?• How do these intersect in the learning process?• What are best practices for early learners?• How do we know we are on the right path for a child/children?*Disclaimer: Photos do not imply endorsement .
  3. 3. Why is this topic applicable to early learners?• Technology supports learning – Thirty plus years of research – Covers many areas • Literacy/Language • Mathematics • Social-Emotional • Critical ThinkingSee reviews by Penuel et al. 2009; McCarrick & Xiaoming 2007; Glaubke 2007; Clements & Sarama 2003
  4. 4. • Much wider variety of types of technology and content available: – Desktops/laptops – Interactive whiteboards – Tablets – Tables – eReaders, smartpens, iPod touch, digital cameras Rideout 2011; Gutnik et al. 2010
  5. 5. • Acceptance growing – Dedicated groups – US DOE Ready to Learn – Books, Articles, Websites, YouTube – Teacher preparation programs – NAEYC/Rogers Center Position Statement – This conference
  6. 6. Groups
  7. 7. What are Customization and Interactivity really?Customization is a vital subset of interactivity…..• “…Interactivity refers to those functions and/or operations made available to the learner to enable them to work with content material presented in a computer based environment.” (Sims 2000)• Customization allows “all learners to progress from where they are and not where we would have imagined them to be.” (CAST UDL Guidelines 2011)
  8. 8. Why be concerned with Interactivity?“I click/touch/speak therefore I am interacting…”Not so fast it turns out.When we pay attention to the elements thattruly define interactivity in computer enhancedsettings we can see the powerful potential forlearning.So, let’s take a look….
  9. 9. How can we understand Interactivity?Work of Rod Sims...• Relationships between interactive constructs and learning theories• Understanding/applying can reinforce potential for implementing appropriate strategies• Laid out as dimensions
  10. 10. What theories underlie Interactivity?Sims created his classification as dimensions:• Learners - the who of the learning process• Content - the what of the learning process• Pedagogy - the how of the learning process• Context - the when and where of the learning process
  11. 11. Interactivity and learners• Consideration of the learner dimension… – make applications more adaptive to specific characteristics of the target population
  12. 12. Focus Interactive Constructs Related TheoriesGoal Navigation; o Select navigational paths Sign Learning (Tolman, 1932); ConstructivistExploration o Retrieve appropriate content (Bruner, 1966); Information Pick Up (Gibson, o Move within a simulated environment 1966); Structural Learning (Scandura, 1973); o Explore conditions of rule operation Androgogy (Knowles, 1984); Adult Learning o Compare results (Cross, 1981); Soar (Newell, 1990)Making Selections o Access manageable pieces of material Information Processing (Miller, 1956) o Modify content structureTools o Access help or support tools Cognitive Dissonance (Festinger, 1957)Control: to Construct o Construct or modify properties of and/or Gestalt (Wertheimer, 1959); Lateral Thinking (deor Deconstruct relationships between learning objects Bono, 1967); Experiential (Rogers, 1969); Dual o Create personal narratives Coding (Paivio, 1986); Levels of Processing (Craik & Lockhart, 1972); Script (Schank, 1982); Component Display (Merrill, 1983); Cognitive Flexibility (Spiro, Feltovich, Jacobson & Coulson, 1992)Prompt for o Generate original responses Originality (Maltzman, 1960); Constructivistengagement (Bruner, 1960);Scaffolding; o Assemble or disassemble support tools as Constructivist (Bruner, 1966); Social LearningModelling required (Bandura, 1971); Script (Schank, 1982) o Adapt dynamic scaffolding according to individual schema o Access exemplars to support knowledge acquisition Interactivity and learners
  13. 13. Making o Access manageable Information ProcessingSelections pieces of material (Miller, 1956) o Modify content structure
  14. 14. Interactivity and content• Second dimension is content or subject matter in which… – level, depth, underlying information and presentation design are critical to overall interactive experience
  15. 15. Focus Interactive Constructs Related TheoriesThe more the better o Present questions frequently Connectionism (Thorndike, 1913)Essential o Ensure interactions implemented Contiguity (Guthrie, 1930); Drive Reduction (Hull, 1943)Engagement o Integrate meaningful engagement through Dual Coding (Paivio, 1986), Levels of Processing access to different content representations (Craik & Lockhart, 1972) o Enable the means to control displayed media elementsContent Dependent o Vary structural presentation as a function of Algo-Heuristic (Landa, 1974); Component content domain Display (Merrill, 1983); Elaboration (Reigeluth, o Enable learner elaboration of epitomes 1992)Multimedia o Enable the means to select media used to Symbol Systems (Salomon, 1979); Dual Coding display content structures (Paivio, 1986); Cognitive Flexibility (Spiro et al, o Enabling access to and manipulation of 1992) contentMinimalist o Include only necessary content GOMS (Card, Moran & Newell, 1983); Minimalist (Carroll, 1990) Interactivity and content
  16. 16. Minimalist o Include only GOMS (Card, Moran & necessary content Newell, 1983); Minimalist (Carroll, 1990)
  17. 17. Interactivity and pedagogy• This dimension determines extent learner is able to move/navigate, test/explore, and maneuver/self-pace…• Attends to what measures will represent completion: – teaching ‘instructivist’ model = assessment – learner ‘constructivist’ model = task completion
  18. 18. Focus Interactive Constructs Related TheoriesVary according to o Vary as a function of developmental stage Genetic Epistemology (Piaget, 1929); Conditions oflearner o Vary according to individual skills Learning (Gagne, 1985); Subsumption (Ausubel, o Integrate contextual and socio-cultural 1963); General Problem Solver (Newell & Simon, elements 1972); Androgogy (Knowles, 1984); Adult Learning (Cross, 1981); ACT (Anderson, 1976); ATI (Cronbach & Snow, 1977); Triarchic (Sternberg, 1977);Question- Answer- o Adopt a cyclic question (stimulus), answer Operant Conditioning (Skinner, 1950)Feedback (response) and feedback loopSelf pacing o Enable learner control Mathematical (Atkinson, 1972); Criterion o Enable self testing of achievement (mastery) Referenced (Mager, 1988)Problem Based o Enable assessment of individual success Experiential (Rogers, 1969); General Problem o Enable testing and problem solving of Solver (Newell & Simon, 1972); Double Loop currently held beliefs or concepts (Argyris & Schon, 1974); Repair (Brown & Van o Provide tools to solve problems Lehn, 1980); Mathematical Problem Solving (Schonfield, 1985) Interactivity and pedagogy
  19. 19. Self pacing o Enable learner control Mathematical (Atkinson, o Enable self testing of 1972); Criterion achievement (mastery) Referenced (Mager, 1988)
  20. 20. Interactivity and context• Fourth dimension is context in which learning occurs…• Can range from abstract to concrete• Context for learning demands two conditions:– integration of knowledge and information into situation– learner able to position self in that context to understand situation and purpose of information
  21. 21. Focus Interactive Exemplars Related TheoriesContextual, Situated o Enable access to people (real or simulated) Functional Literacy (Sticht, 1976); Social to provide assistance Development (Vygotsky, 1962); Symbol o Focus on action-consequence model Systems (Salomon, 1979); Phenomenography o Relate contextual controls (tools) to (Marton, Hounsell & Entwistle, 1984); support facilities Cognitive Flexibility (Spiro et al, 1982); o Enable social operations Situated (Lave & Wenger, 1990)Learning Styles o Enable learner and program adaptation Modes of Learning (Rumelhart & Norman, strategies 1978); Multiple Intelligences (Gardner, 1993) Interactivity and context
  22. 22. Contextual, o Enable access to people (real Functional Literacy (Sticht, 1976);Situated or simulated) to provide Social Development (Vygotsky, assistance 1962); Symbol Systems (Salomon, o Focus on action-consequence 1979); Phenomenography (Marton, model Hounsell & Entwistle, 1984); o Relate contextual controls Cognitive Flexibility (Spiro et al, (tools) to support facilities 1982); Situated (Lave & Wenger, o Enable social operations 1990)
  23. 23. Take-Aways about Interactivity• Not a given just because using technology• Need to actively consider the “interaction” in interactivity• By attending to the: – Learner – Content – Pedagogy – Context• Develop a tool to assess such as a rubric, checklist, observation form....make it real by having a photo or video to reference!
  24. 24. Customization
  25. 25. Why be concerned with Customization?• In learning environments, such as schools and universities, individual variability is the norm, not the exception. When curricula are designed to meet the needs of an imaginary “average,” they do not address the reality learner variability. They fail to provide all individuals with fair and equal opportunities to learn by excluding learners with different abilities, backgrounds, and motivations who do not meet the illusive criteria for “average.”UDL Guidelines 2011
  26. 26. How can we understand Customization?The UDL framework….• encourages creating flexible designs from the start• that have customizable options• options for accomplishing varied and robust enough• to provide effective instruction to all learners
  27. 27. What theories underlie Customization?Foundational Research on UDL• Draws from a variety of research fields: – neuroscience – learning sciences – cognitive psychology• Deeply rooted in concepts such as: – Zone of Proximal Development, scaffolding, mentors, and modeling• Foundational-individual differences: – Piaget – Vygotsky – Bruner – Bloom
  28. 28. Principles & Guidelines• Based on neuroscience* research, Principles guide UDL and provide underlying framework for the Guidelines• Guidelines organized according to the three main Principles: – representation – action and expression – engagement*Neuroscience, the study of the nervous system, advances the understanding of human thought, emotion, and behavior.
  29. 29. Principle I: Provide Multiple Means of Representation• Learners differ in the ways they perceive and• comprehend information presented – The “what” of learning
  30. 30. Principle II Provide Multiple Means of Action and Expression• Learners differ in the ways they can navigate a learning environment and• express what they know – The “how” of learning
  31. 31. Principle III Provide Multiple Means of Engagement• Affect represents crucial element to learning• Learners differ markedly in ways they can be engaged• or motivated to learn – The “why” of learning
  32. 32. Principle I: Provide Multiple Means ofRepresentationDisplay information in a flexible format• Speed or timing of video, animation, sound, simulations• Layout of visual or other elements• Visual or tactile (e.g., vibrations) equivalents for sound effects or alerts• Touch equivalents (tactile graphics or objects of reference) for key visuals that represent concepts• Auditory cues for key concepts and transitions in visual information
  33. 33. Principle I: Provide Multiple Means ofRepresentationProvide options for comprehension• Cues to draw attention to critical features• Explicit prompts for each step in a sequential process• Interactive models that guide exploration and new understandings• Graduated scaffolds that support information processing strategies• Opportunities to revisit key ideas and linkages between ideas
  34. 34. Principle II: Provide Multiple Means ofAction and ExpressionProvide options for expression and communication• Models or examples of the process and product of goal-setting• Scaffolds that can be gradually released with increasing independence and skills (e.g., embedded into digital reading and writing software)
  35. 35. Principle II: Provide Multiple Means ofAction and ExpressionProvide options for executive functions• Embedded prompts to “stop and think” before acting• Embedded prompts to “show and explain your work” (e.g., portfolio review, art critiques)• Representations of progress (e.g., before and after photos, graphs and charts showing progress over time, process portfolios)
  36. 36. Principle III. Provide Multiple Meansof Engagement Provide options for recruiting interest • Provide learners with as much discretion and autonomy as possible by providing choice: – Type of rewards or recognition available – Context or content used for practicing and assessing skills – Tools used for information gathering or production • Provide tasks for active participation, exploration and experimentation • Vary level of novelty or risk & sensory stimulation
  37. 37. Principle III. Provide Multiple Meansof EngagementProvide options for sustaining effort and persistence• Prompt or require learners to explicitly formulate or restate goal• Differentiate the degree of difficulty or complexity within which core activities can be completed• Provide prompts that guide learners in when and how to ask peers and/or teachers for help• Encourage and support opportunities for peer interactions and supports
  38. 38. Principle III. Provide Multiple Means ofEngagementIncrease mastery-oriented feedback by providing feedback that:• encourages perseverance, focuses on development of efficacy and self-awareness, and use of specific supports and strategies in the face of challenge• emphasizes effort, improvement, and achieving a standard rather than on relative performance• is frequent, timely, and specific• is substantive and informative rather than comparative or competitive• models how to incorporate evaluation, including identifying patterns of errors and wrong answers, into positive strategies for future success
  39. 39. Take-Aways About Customization• Founded on theory and science• Options need to be – Varied – Robust – Flexible• Options need to attend to – representation – action and expression – engagement
  40. 40. How do these intersect in best practices?• Open ended technology-based instruction based on scaffolding (Vygotskian approach), but with a framework more aligned with discovery (Piaget) and constructivism (Bruner)• Computer assisted instruction based on scaffolding (Vygotskian approach), information processing (NeoPiagetians), and actions and reactions (Skinner)
  41. 41. ExamplesOpen Ended….• Interactive Whiteboards• Multi-touch Tables• Tablets
  42. 42. Interactive WhiteboardsTouch equivalents (tactile graphics or objects of reference) for key visuals that represent concepts
  43. 43. Provide tasks for active participation, exploration and experimentation
  44. 44. Emphasizeseffort, improvement, and achieving astandard ratherthan on relativeperformance
  45. 45. Differentiate thedegree of difficulty orcomplexity withinwhich core activitiescan be completed
  46. 46. Models or examples of theprocess and product ofgoal-setting
  47. 47. TablesEncourage and support opportunities for peer interactions /supports
  48. 48. Layout of visualor otherelements
  49. 49. Interactive models that guide exploration and new understandings
  50. 50. Feedback that isfrequent, timely, andspecific
  51. 51. TabletsProvide learners with as much discretion andautonomy as possible by providing choice
  52. 52. Provide prompts thatguide learners inwhen and how to askpeers and/orteachers for help
  53. 53. ExamplesComputer-Assisted Instruction…• Desktops/Laptops• Tablets
  54. 54. Scaffolds that can be graduallyreleased with increasingindependence and skills Desktops & laptops
  55. 55. Models how to incorporate evaluation, including identifying patterns oferrors and wrong answers, into positive strategies for future success
  56. 56. TabletsFeedback focuses on development ofefficacy and self-awareness
  57. 57. Explicit promptsfor each step in asequential process
  58. 58. Representations ofprogress(e.g., before andafterphotos, graphs andcharts showingprogress overtime, processportfolios)
  59. 59. How do we know we are on the right path?“The goal of education in the 21st century is notsimply the mastery of content knowledge or use ofnew technologies. It is the mastery of the learningprocess.” UDL Guidelines 2011Let’s look at some exampleswhere this may not be happening….
  60. 60. NAEYC /Rogers Center Technology Position Statement Guiding PrincipleEffective uses of technology and media are:• active• hands-on• engaging• empowering• give the child control• provide adaptive scaffolds to ease task accomplishment• one of many options to support children’s learning
  61. 61. Summary• Customization and interactivity are based in theory and science• Consideration of these may be even more critical for early learners• More options for early childhood raises stakes for skill in evaluating interactivity and customization• Educators have to be even more diligent that technology is used for the process of learning and not technology for technology’s sake
  62. 62. Main SourcesSims, R. (2000). An Interactive Conundrum: Constructs of interactivity and learning theory. Australian Journal of Educational Technology, 16(1), 45-57. Design for Learning Guidelines version 2.0. (2011). Wakefield, MA: Author.
  63. 63. OurEvaluationTool
  64. 64. Q&A
  65. 65. Where we will be at EETC…• Thurs. 9:15-10:15 & 10:30-11:30 Roundtable- Usability of a Literacy and Math Content-infused Interactive Whiteboard with Preschoolers & Roundtable-Using Research to Inform Guidelines for Early Childhood Educational Technology Program Development• Thurs. 2:45-3:45 Breakout Session- Why and How to Evaluate Educational Technology for Early Learners• Fri. 9:15-10:45 Breakout Session- The Power of Using Technology for Progress Monitoring in Early Childhood
  66. 66. Good places for social connections!•• LinkedIn: Early Childhood Technology Network• Twitter: #ecetechchat – Every Weds. night @ 9 ESTSpecial Announcement Childhood Technology Today Survey 2012OPEN NOW!!
  67. 67. Future talks/presentations• McCormick Center for Early Childhood Leadership Connections Conference May 12 in Chicago – Evaluating Educational Technology in Early Childhood• National Head Start Association (NHSA) Conference April 18 in Nashville – Using Technology to Support Young Children’s Social- Emotional Development• International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) Conference June 25 in San Diego – School Readiness: Outcomes & Approaches
  68. 68. We’d like to stay in Where we will bePlease turn in your next….. Conference touch….. Connections Card! • National Head Start Association Conference April 18 in NashvilleHandout: – Using Technology to Support Social-Emotional Development in Young Children • McCormick Center for Early Childhood Leadershipimages/documents/EETC/Customized_handout.pdf Connections Conference May 10-12 in Chicago – Evaluating Educational Technology in Early Childhood • International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) Conference June 25 in San Diego – School Readiness: Outcomes and Approaches