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he concept of collaborative learning, the grouping and pairing of learners for the purpose of achieving a learning goal, has been widely researched and advocated - the term "collaborative learning" refers to an instruction method in which learners at various performance levels work together in small groups toward a common goal. The learners are responsible for one another's learning as well as their own. Thus, the success of one learner helps other students to be successful.Proponents of collaborative learning claim that the active exchange of ideas within small groups not only increases interest among the participants but also promotes critical thinking.There is persuasive evidence that cooperative teams achieve at higher levels of thought and retain information longer than learners who work quietly as individuals. The shared learning gives leanres an opportunity to engage in discussion, take responsibility for their own learning, and thus become critical thinkers.Develops higher level thinking skillsPromotes student-faculty interaction and familiarityIncreases student retentionBuilds self esteem in studentsEnhances student satisfaction with the learning experiencePromotes a positive attitude toward the subject matterDevelops oral communication skillsDevelops social interaction skillsPromotes positive race relationsCreates an environment of active, involved, exploratory learningUses a team approach to problem solving while maintaining individual accountabilityEncourages diversity understandingEncourages student responsibility for learningInvolves students in developing curriculum and class proceduresStudents explore alternate problem solutions in a safe environmentStimulates critical thinking and helps students clarify ideas through discussion and debateEnhances self management skillsFits in well with the constructivist approachEstablishs an atmosphere of cooperation and helping schoolwideStudents develop responsibility for each otherBuilds more positive heterogeneous relationshipsEncourages alternate student assessment techniquesFosters and develops interpersonal relationshipsModelling problem solving techniques by students' peersStudents are taught how to criticize ideas, not peopleSets high expectations for students and teachersPromotes higher achievement and class attendance .Students stay on task more and are less disruptiveGreater ability of students to view situations from others' perspectives (development of empathy)Creates a stronger social support systemCreates a more positive attitude toward teachers, principals and other school personnel by students and creates a more positive attitude by teachers toward their studentsAddresses learning style differences among studentsPromotes innovation in teaching and classroom techniquesClassroom anxiety is significantly reducedTest anxiety is significantly reducedClassroom resembles real life social and employment situationsStudents practice modeling societal and work related rolesCL is synergystic with writing across the curriculumCL activities can be used to personalize large lecture classesSkill building and practice can be enhanced and made less tedious through CL activities in and out of class.CL activities promote social and academic relationships well beyond the classroom and individual courseCL processes create environments where students can practice building leadership skills.CL increases leadership skills of female studentsIn colleges where students commute to school and do not remain on campus to participate in campus life activities, CL creates a community environment within the classroom.
a philosophical and theoretical framework of a scientific school or discipline within which theories, laws, and generalizations and the experiments performed in support of them are formulated; broadly: a philosophical or theoretical framework of any kind. Marriam web dictionary
Principally m groups of students in forced to use only SMD artifact, producing activities. using this artifact studtens must complete projects/AssignmentShould be in contact with group members and Facilitator.This projects need lot of literature review , interview etc.Regularly report to members and facilitatorOther projects also available Motivates the learner to know the progress of his groups and others
Mobile collaborative learning dr.azizah25 oct
To explore learner perception on the effectiveness of Mobile Collaborative Learning using Smart Devices Hasnain Zafar firstname.lastname@example.org Supervisions : AP Dr. Azizah and Dr. Noorminshah
Content Introduction Research Background Problem Statement Research Question and Objective Literature Review Conceptual Framework Research Design Preliminary Study
Learning is not a spectator sport. - Chickering and Gamson I never teach my pupils; I only attempt to provide the conditions in which they can learn. - Albert Einstein I have never in my life learned anything from any man who agreed with me. - Dudley Field Malone
Collaborative Learning (CL) Teaching and learning method where more than one learner (same place or different) share information and work together to develop content knowledge (Miller 1999) “….an interactive team structure composed of actors, both humans and artificial reasoning system, working to achieve a common design goal via shared ideas, expertise, responsibilities and /or resources” (Ostergaard and Summers 2007)
Motivation CL Active exchange of ideas Critical thinking Zonal Proximal Development Retain information longer Better Understanding , self esteem, higher motivation, achievement (Nanamaker, Booker, Curtis, and Lowery 2004) depends on strategies and tools used.
Zonal Proximal Development(ZPD) Things I can’t do Things I Can do Things I can do with little support (Vygotsky 1920)
Mobile learning(mLearning) Any activity that allows individuals to be more productive when consuming, interacting with, or creating information, mediated through a compact digital device that the individual carries on a regular basis, has reliable connectivity, and fits in a pocket or purse (eLearning Guild, 2007). Metcalf (2006) notes that mLearning combines the technologies of mobile computing with elearning and may be defined as any form of electronically delivered instruction material with an emphasis on Internet or wireless based technologies.
Mobile Learning “We now appreciate mobile learning not just as learning that is facilitated by mobile technology, but also as the processes of coming to know through conversations and explorations across multiple contexts amongst people and personal interactive technologies” (Sharples et al. 2007a) Mobile learning can be described as the delivery of learning through mobile devices (Ally, 2005)
Mobile Learning Geoff Stead 2008 Many bits( modes, devices, roles, approaches) It adds to mix (part of the blend, reaches new parts) Formal, Now largely thought as an aid to informal learning (Pachler, Bachmair, Cook, 2009) mlearning is more about performance support and complimenting learning (Clark, 2011).
Motivation for Mobile CL. 314.7 million units in Q1 2010 Smartphone sales to end users reached 54.3 million units, > 48% 2009. 1.6 billion units sold in 2010. Smartphone sales grew 72% Companies Will Generate 50 Percent of Web Sales Via Their Social Presence and Mobile Applications by 2015 Context-aware, mobile-based application capabilities for E- commerce Top 10 Strategic Technologies for 2012. more than 4 are in Mobile Computing.Source: Gartner Worldwide Mobile Device Sales Statistics for 2010; 2011
Motivation for Mobile CL. Mobile devices possession 100 % among adolescents. 20 to 25 % of them have smartphones with internet access few people actually utilize the time spent in transit to learn (Sharples, Taylor, & Vavoula, 2005, p. 3). Collaboration in Context as a Framework for Designing Innovative Mobile Learning Activities ---------(Daniel Spikol, Arianit Kurti and Marcelo Milrad. 2010)
Effective LearningCollaborative Mobile learning learning Social Learning Constructivis m Excel in learning Adult learner.(Chacon, 2007; Chacon, Wolf, & Chen, 2007) Learning is Socially Constructed
Problem statement back ground Challenge can we keep curiosity alive in over achieving age? John Brown (2010) Learning is about Social Nothing can beat Collaborative learning Smart devices can build scaffolding for Mobile Collaborative Learning
Factors for Creative andEffective MCLO Curiosity Motivation Driving Positive Vibe/Social Cues Responsibility Respect for Community Members Engagement. Efficiency A result oriented. Photo from Flicker
MCLO Objectives Knowledge Negotiation Context Contingent Scaffolding CoordinationFacilitator * MCLO Task Induction* Micro learning Motivation Collaboratio Player Reputation n (Zurita el al. 2003; Luther , Buckman 2011) David Wood 1998
Research Questions What is the perception of learner about using SD in Mobile Collaborative learning? Main Question: Sub-Questions How do the SD , Mobile “To explore Mobile Collaborative learning Collaborative learning objects influenceeffectiveness using Smart collaboration in Mobile Devices (SD.)” learning? How to Design Innovative and effective MCLO based on learner perception ?
Research Question and Objectives Questions1. What is the perception of Objectives: learner about using SD 1. To conduct exploratory in Mobile Collaborative research to find out more learning? about learning activities in MCL. This will help to2. How to Design Innovative design better MCLO. and effective MCLO 2. To develop MCLO based based on learner on learner perception. perception ? 3. To Evaluate effectiveness3. How to Evaluate MCLO of MCLO Framework. framework?
Significance of theresearch This research study expected to explore Learner perception about MCL using SD. The research will identify the important techniques and features for MCLO. The research will create new context of Collaboration and will lead to effective learning. The research will reduce the Pedagogical gap between learner ,content and instructor by producing innovative and effective MCLO.
Scope of Research To support design of innovative MCLO in mobile technology enhanced learning where Pedadagoy, Context and Learning theory are the driving force rather than technology. Promote new innovative activities for in mobile collaboration learning context. Explore effect of Scaffolding in mobile collaborative learning object.
Literature Review Mobile Device ◦ Memex (1945 Bush) ◦ Computer vanish into background (Mike weiser 1991) ◦ Tablets, Smart devices Distance education 1700 ◦ Open universities 1969 Collaborative learning ◦ Vygotsky (1978) ZPD ◦ Mobile devices ….Communication , collaboration (Klopfer 2002) ◦ MLO (Quinn 2002) ◦ CSCL (Zurita 2007; 2010) ◦ Mobile Society (Sharple 2010) ◦ Mobility as new landscape (Skipol 2010)
Research Design a philosophical and Qualitative research questions are theoretical framework of more exploratory where a scientific school Quantitative research questions are more confirmatory.discipline within which theories, laws, and Paradig generalizations and the m This research will use both experiments performed in quantitative and qualitative support of them are approach known as a formulated mixed method. consists of assumption about the physical and social world (ontology) and about knowledge The paradigm for this (epistemology) and how to acquire the knowledge research is post-positivist, In (methodology). this research we are going to use both positivist and interpretive paradigm. 16/27
Research Methodology Conducting mixed methods research involves collecting, analyzing, and interpreting quantitative and qualitative data in a single study or in a series of studies that investigate the same underlying phenomenon. Model 1. Qualitative methods are used to help develop QUALITATIVE quantitative measures and instruments QUANTITATIVE RESULT Model 2: Qualitative methods are used to help explain quantitative findings.
Research Design and Methodology • Social Constructivist learning • Conversational Theory • Mobile learning theory • Mobile Technology • social mediation • Collaboration • Activity Theory • Scaffolding Mobile • social conversation EnhancementCollaborative • Conflicts MCL Theories learning • Mobility Brown et al., 1989; Vygotsky. 1978Zurita and Arrigo and Chiappone 2004Nussbaum, 2004 Mike Sharples *Community of Practice Model: KM
AT Smart Mobile Devices(Mediating Artifact) 1 2 Better learning Group of Completing outcome and Project 3 Project/Assignme performance members nt (outcome) (Subjects) (objectives)Facilitator 7 4 5 6 The learner checks project related Community(other Task(Division information (Rules) project members) of labor) Bendy et al. 2000;Engestrom,1999;Leont’ev,1978) Uden 2007;Kurti,Spikol, & Milrad, 2007; Sharples, Taylor, &
Conceptual FrameworkDesign Issues Dimension of M. Learning Structural factors and their L. Objectives learning context (Wang) Activities instantiation (Prensky) Identity Rules: User Role Organizational and rules, Learning roles Engage Profile Individual d Peers Outcome and Feed back: Test Mobility Learner Scores, Leagues Improved Goals and Skills Instructor Collaborative Mobile Objectives: Skills and Knowledge Interface Design Activity Improved Task Conflict, Competition, Knowledge challenge, opposition: Media Types Spatio- Situated Individual and Team Temporal development Social Representation or Knowledge Collaboration Facility story: Case Support studies, role play Community Interaction: Team Blogs, wikis, discussi Building on Hokyoung and Parsons (2009) groups, test, teamwo rk
Conceptual FrameworkDesign Issues Dimension of M. Learning Collaborative Learning Activities L. Objectives learning context (Wang) Activities Exposition: Explanation User Role Identity , revelation of and Project(Organized New Profile content) Knowledg Peers Individual e Exploration: story telling / Mobility Learner Scaffolding Representation Improved Knowledge Collaborative Elaboration: sharing Mobile Instructor and discussing Interface Design Activity Task Exploitation: Role Media Types Spatio- playing Situated Temporal Social Conflict, Competition, Knowledge Collaboration Facility challenge, opposition: Support Individual and Team development Community Interaction: Contextual Blogs, wikis, discussi Knowledge on Hokyoung and Parsons (2009) groups, test, teamwo rk
Operational Framework details PHASE OBJECTIVES TASKS INSTRUMENTS DELIVERABLES METHOD1) Research •To Identify and plan the •Conduct literature review •Structured • Research proposal research •Analyze problem domain interview and and Plane andInitiation and •To understand the •Compare and contrast the survey questions Research questionsPlanning Problem domain clearly past works and objectives created2) Literature Review •To study the related •Browsing internet, reading •Books, journals • Innovative Learning topics and Issues in past materials, sorting them, articles, research strategy and ideas works and analyzing the research papers, handbook, from different •To Define gaps in the related issues thesis, report, perspectives literature magazines, etc.3) Preparing sample •To State conceptual •To conduct preliminary •Factors for MCLO design of the structure of the Survey with the real field Research Research and to for initial data prepare Research design and paradigm4) Research •To prepare and design •To conduct the schedule •MLF ,ATMethodology suitable Data collection of the research techniques and To Plan for the data collection & analysis 5) Data Collection •To gather related data •To conduct a short •Data Collected of the study and analyze Interview with fascinators through an interview it to obtain accurate of Mobile collaborative and survey with result learning project in appropriate Malaysian Universities respondents •To develop survey questionnaire 21/27
Planning and execution Year RemarksActivity 2011 2012 2013Literature review X X In ProcessStudy Perception of M-learning in Malaysia X X Preparing Questions to interview Mobile Collaborative learner /FacilitatorsFirst Assessment X Nov. 2011Pilot Project requirement Identification XIdentifying and Selecting Universities X XPicking the Groups XPublishing the result X X X Published 3 papers, Journal Draft.Developing MCLO X XEvaluating MCLO XData Analysis X XThesis Writing X X X Chapter 1 , chapter 2 Draft, Chapter 3 in progress