Learning theory and its application in the digital age


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Discussing behaviourism, constructivism and cognitivism.

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Learning theory and its application in the digital age

  1. 1. HLMT ASSIGNMENT 1 Learning theory and its application in the digital age 7/14/2013Twaambo Chiinza
  2. 2. OVERVIEW  Learning theory  Traditional learning theories  Behaviourism  Cognitivism  Constructivism  Summary  References
  3. 3. LEARNING THEORY What is a learning theory?  Learning theories are conceptual frameworks that describe how information is absorbed, processed, and retained during learning. (wikipedia)  It studies how learning transfer occurs or can occur more effectively.
  4. 4. TRADITIONAL LEARNING THEORIES The three traditional learning theories are;  Behaviourist theory  Observable change in behavior in response to positive or negative stimuli  Cognitivist theory  deals with the internal mental processes of the mind and how these processes could be used to endorse effective learning  Constructivist theory  promotes a learning experience, where the learning approach for each learner would be different and where the methods and end results cannot be easily measured.
  5. 5. BEHAVIOURISM  Focuses on the notable change in behaviour of the learner in response to stimuli.  Also called the “stimuli-response” theory.  Believes behaviour can be shaped by  Positive reinforcement  Negative reinforcement  Punishment
  6. 6. BEHAVIOURISM OVERVIEW  Classical Conditioning (Pavlov)  GOMS Model (Card, Moran, and Newell)  Operant Conditioning (Skinner)  Social Learning Theory (Bandura)
  7. 7. BEHAVIOURISM IN THE DIGITAL AGE  Use of the following software is recommended;  Drill and practice –Feedback is given after each answer (positive or negative) before proceeding to the next exercise  Tutorial - allows students to memorize (rote learning) key concepts and sometimes answer questions after memorizing  Simulation – that aids to clarify abstract concepts and hence encourage retention
  8. 8. BEHAVIOURIST EXAMPLES OF SOFTWARE  Dig Deeper Quiz - Archeology (BBC)  Destination D-Day - (BBC)  Fresh Backed Fractions (Funbrain.com)  Math Arcade (Funbrain.com)  Math Baseball (Funbrain.com)  SpeedMath Deluxe (Jefferson Lab)  Lord of the Flies Comprehension Check (Nobelprize.org)  SpellaRoo (Funbrain.com)
  9. 9. COGNITIVIST  Focuses on the internal mental process of the learner (including insight, information processing, memory, perception)  essentially argues that the “black box” of the mind should be opened and understood. The learner is viewed as an information processor (like a computer).  Focuses on the mind – thinking, knowledge, memory and problem solving
  10. 10. COGNITIVIST OVERVIEW  Assimilation Theory (Ausubel)  Attribution Theory (Weiner)  Cognitive Load Theory (Sweller)  Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (Mayer)  Component Display Theory  Elaboration Theory (Reigeluth)  Gestalt Psychology (Tolman)  Mental Models (Johnson-Laird)  Schema Theory  Stage Theory of Cognitive Development (Piaget)
  11. 11. COGNIVISM IN THE DIGITAL AGE  Use of the following software is recommended;  Educational computer games  Information mapping tools and/ webbing software  Internet research tools  Audio/ video presentation tools  Interactive software  Interactive whiteboards
  12. 12. COGNIVIST EXAMPLES OF SOFTWARE  Flashcards by Microsoft  Math Worksheet Generator  Kinect for Windows SDK Kodu Interactive Classroom Photosynth Accessibility Guide for Educators Microsoft Mathematics Add-in for Word and OneNote WorldWide Telescope
  13. 13. CONSTRUCTIVIST  Constructivism as a paradigm or worldview posits that learning is an active, constructive process.  The learner is an information constructor.  People actively construct or create their own subjective representations of objective reality.  New information is linked to prior knowledge, thus mental representations are subjective.
  14. 14. CONSTRUCTIVIST OVERVIEW  Cognitive Apprenticeship (Collins et al.)  Communities of Practice (Lave and Wenger)  Discovery Learning (Bruner)  Social Development Theory (Vygtosky)  Problem-Based Learning (PBL)  Situated Learning (Lave)
  15. 15. CONSTRUCTIVISM IN THE DIGITAL AGE  Software that provides collaborative and reflective practices that lend themselves to a project based environment.  The software acts as a cognitive tool.  it is able to give physical representations of concepts that might otherwise prove to be quite abstract for learners; this in turn leads to students exercising and developing metacognitive awareness and self-regulatory ability.
  16. 16. CONSTRUCTIVISM IN THE DIGITAL AGE  Information banks (text or encyclopedia),  Symbol pads (notebooks, laptop computers)  Construction kits and scaffolding tools (Logo, legos, tinkertoys),  Phenomenaria (area for presenting phenomena and making them available for manipulation; i.e., aquarium, Geometric Supposer, physics microworlds, STELLA, simulations) and  Task managers (element which sets tasks, helps with execution, and provides feedback; i.e., teacher, computer managed instruction systems). Perkins (1991)
  17. 17. CONSTRUCTIVIST EXAMPLES OF SOFTWARE  Construction Kits & Scaffolding Tools  Logo & LEGO TC Logo, Hypercard, ScienceWare , KIE, View , Tabletop , Learning Science Project WISE  Phenomenaria and Virtual Worlds  Space Shuttle Commander , ScienceSpace, Lake Iluka , STELLA  Telecollaboration and Computer Mediated Communication  Bubble Dialog, Round Table , Judi Harris' Projects , CSILE , Testbed for Telecollaboration , Kidspace , Kidlink  Cognitive Apprenticeship  POV , Perseus Project , Jason Project , MayaQuest , StudySupportEnvironments  Situated Authentic Learning  Jasper Series, Voyage of the Mimi , National Geographic's Kid Network, WorldWide Telescope
  18. 18. SUMMARY  The main software that can be used in learning are;  Drill and practice software  Tutorial software  Simulation software  The different theories can use the same software but for the realization of different principals.  Technology has brought many wonderful possibilities to learning
  19. 19. SUMMARY CONTD…  The behaviourist software tools are easy to implement and use while the objectives are usually predetermined by the teacher.  The cognitive software tools are eye catching (stimulates memory) and aim to leave a lasting impression  The constructivist software tools encourage learning by discovery, collaboration and discussion among learners
  20. 20. REFERENCES  http://www.outsource2india.com/LearningSolutio ns/articles/learning-theories.asp - definitions of learning theories  http://infed.org/mobi/learning-theory-models- product-and-process/ - founders of the theories  http://www.learning-theories.com/ - Overview of the learning theories  http://etec.ctlt.ubc.ca/510wiki/EducationalSoftwa re - Behaviourism in the digital age  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitivism - Cognitivism
  21. 21. REFERENCES CONTD….  http://www.usask.ca/education/coursework/8 02papers/Skaalid/tools.html - constructivism in the digital age  http://elearningindustry.com/23-microsoft- free-teaching-tools-for-educators-education - open source Microsoft educational software  http://www.slideshare.net/laurangee/team5- cognitivelearningtheory - cognitivism software examples