Evaluating Educational Technology


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Dr. Dale McManis' slides from her presentation on evaluating early childhood educational technology from NAEYC 2013.

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Evaluating Educational Technology

  1. 1. WANT  TO  EVALUATE  EDUCATIONAL   TECHNOLOGY?  AN  INTERACTIVE  TOOL   KIT  COMES  TO  THE  RESCUE!       NAEYC  Annual  Conference                                                                                Nov.  2013-­‐Washington,  DC   Lilla  Dale  McManis,  M.Ed.,  Ph.D.    Research  Director-­‐Hatch  Early  Learning   dmcmanis@hatchearlylearning.com      LillaDaleMcManis@DrLDMcManis     Copyright  2013.  
  2. 2. Road  Map   •  What  is  educaIonal   technology?   •  What  does  the  research  say?   •  How  can  we  evaluate  it?   •  How  do  we  integrate  it  into  the   program/classroom?   •  What  would  you  like   technology  to  look  like  in  your   program?   *Disclaimer:  Photos  do  not  imply  endorsement.  
  3. 3. What  is  Educa0onal  Technology?   .  
  4. 4. From  an  Adult  Expert “ Educational technology is the study & ethical practice of facilitating learning & improving performance by creating, using & managing appropriate technological processes & resources. ” Associa'on  for  Educa'onal   Communica'ons  and  Technology,   2008   .  
  5. 5. From  a  Child  Expert “ I like computers because they teach me so much and if I had a friend who didn’t have a computer, I would tell him the cat and cow story is my favorite because it is so funny! They go to another country with the cat on the cow! ” Sebas'an,  5  years   Mudpies  Child  Development  Center   Winston-­‐Salem,  NC  
  6. 6. Groups   .  
  7. 7. How  Children  Learn  Best   •  Experiences  that  are:   –  Meaningful   –  Engaging   –  Allow  children  to  be  successful   –  Can  result  in  self-­‐efficacy   •  Belief  that  one  has  the  necessary  skills  and   competencies  to  complete  challenging  and  important   tasks  
  8. 8. What  is  Developmentally   Appropriate  Prac0ce  for   Technology? •  Accounts  for  age  &   developmental  status   •  Promotes  progress   •  Maintains  interest   NAEYC/Rogers  Center  Tech  Posi'on  Statement  2012  
  9. 9. NAEYC  /Rogers  Center  Technology   Posi0on  Statement  Guiding  Principle   EffecIve  uses  of  technology  and  media  are:   •  acIve   •  hands-­‐on   •  engaging   •  empowering     •  give  the  child  control   •  provide  adapIve  scaffolds  to  ease  task   accomplishment   •  one  of  many  opIons  to  support  children’s  learning  
  10. 10. How  Not  to  Use  Technology  with  Children  
  11. 11. Outcomes-­‐Based  Research   The  quesIon  is  no  longer   should  we  have   educaIonal  technology?     The  quesIon  now  is  how  can   we  best  use  technology   for  educaIon?  
  12. 12. Why  has  the   Ques0on  Changed?   •  30  years  of  Research   •  PosiIve  Outcomes  for   Early  Learners   •  Tools  of  the  Culture  
  13. 13. Cogni0ve  Development   Language/Literacy     Preschoolers’  language  acIvity,  measured  by  words  spoken   per  minute,  has  been  found  to  be  almost  twice  as  high  at  the   computer  than  during  other  other  acIviIes,  including   playdough,  blocks,  art,  or  games  (Muhlstein  and  Cro).       In  story  telling,  Riding  and  Tite  found  that  preschoolers  told   longer  and  more  structured  stories  when  they  saw  graphic   presentaIons  on  a  computer  than  when  they  did  not.     see  reviews  by  Penuel  et  al.  2009;  McCarrick  &  Xiaoming  2007;  Glaubke  2007;  Clements  &  Sarama  2003  
  14. 14. PBS  Content  on  iPods/Smartphones   (Chiong  &  Shuler  2010)  
  15. 15. Children  make   gains  in  math  &   reading   •  children  spend  more  Ime  engaged                   Wood,  2001   ZiVle  2004;     Swan,  Schenker  &  Kratcoski  2008  
  16. 16. 82% Ready  to  Read  &     92% School  Ready  in  Math   Children  make   gains  in  math   &  reading   McManis  et  al.,  2010  
  17. 17. Touchscreen  Computers   iStartSmart  Efficacy  Study  showed  staIsIcally  significant   literacy/language  &  math  outcomes  for  children  (2012).         Improvement    in  Standardized  Test  Scores   10   9   8   Difference  score*   7   6   5   Control  (n=70)   4   iSS  (n=55)   3   2   1   0   TOPEL   Bracken   Standardized  Test  
  18. 18. eBooks   •  PBS  study  with  parents  reading                                             ebooks    basic  and  enhanced                                                                 and  print    books  with  their    3-­‐6  year  olds     •  Looked  at  narraIve  recall  &  comprehension   •  MulImedia  features  of  enhanced  e-­‐books   grabbed  children’s  ahenIon   •  Those  same  features  also  distracted  young   readers  and  led  more  to  “non-­‐content  related   interacIons”       (Chiong  et  al  2012)                                                                                                                          (Photo  from  Cooney  Center)
  19. 19. Cogni0ve  Development   WriIng  &  Math   •  Computer-­‐based  wriIng  can  allow  for  more  fluid  ideas.  Young  children  are   freed  from  mechanical  concerns,  so  they  have  fewer  mechanical  errors  AND   less  worry  about  making  mistakes  (Bangert-­‐Drowns;  Jones  &  Pellegrini).   •  Moxley  et  al  found  3  year-­‐  olds  using  the  computer  to  write  showed  steady   improvement  in  spelling  and  story  wriIng,  including  invented  spellings,  and     at  age  4  they  outperformed  children  without  computer  based  wriIng   experiences.       •  Concrete  experience  with  3  dimensional  objects  is  a  fundamental  approach   for  teaching  math  that  shouldn’t  change,  however  Brinkley  &  Watson  found   3-­‐year-­‐olds  learned  sorIng  from  a  computer  task  as  easily  as  from  a  concrete   doll  task;  so  it  is  a  comparable  approach.     •  When  doing  these  tasks  on  computers,  children  learned  to  understand  and   apply  concepts  such  as    symmetry,  paherns  and  spaIal  order  (Wright).   see  reviews  by  Penuel  et  al.  2009;  McCarrick  &  Xiaoming  2007;  Glaubke  2007;  Clements  &  Sarama  2003      
  20. 20. IntervenIon  group  of  kindergartners  made  significant   gains  in  comparison  to  the  non-­‐intervenIon  group  in   increased  levels  of  mathemaIcal,  representaIonal  and   symbolic  development  of  fracIons.     (Goodwin     2008)  
  21. 21. Social-­‐EmoIonal   Development   •  Encouragement   •  CooperaIon   •  CollaboraIon     (see  reviews  by  Penuel  et  al.  2009;  McCarrick  &  Xiaoming  2007;  Glaubke  2007;  Clements  &  Sarama  2003   &  Sarama  2003)  
  22. 22. •  Muller  &  Perlmuher  found  that  children  at  the   computer  spent  9  Imes  as  much  Ime  talking  to  peers   than  when  they  did  puzzles.   •  Praise  and  encouragement  of  peers  is  prevalent  when   at  the  computer  (Klinzing  &  Hall).     •  Rather  than  disrupIng    ongoing  play,  the  computer   center  has  been  found  to  facilitate  posiIve  social   interacIons  such  as  cooperaIon  and  helping   behaviors  (King  &  Alloway;  Rhee  &  Chavnagri).  
  23. 23. Interac0ve  Whiteboards   Children   collaborated   more  &  spent   more  Ime   engaged   Wood  2001  
  24. 24. •  McManis  &  Gunnewig  (2012)  found  preschool   children  exhibited  high  levels  of  cooperaIve   and  collaboraIve  play  when  using  mulI-­‐touch   table  with  acIviIes  designed  to  teach  and   support  these  behaviors  
  25. 25. WPS  Hatch  Study,  2012  
  26. 26. Advanced   Skills   •  MoIvaIon   •  Higher-­‐Order   Thinking   •  Meta-­‐CogniIon   (see  reviews  by  Penuel  et  al.  2009;  McCarrick  &  Xiaoming  2007;   Glaubke  2007;  Clements  &  Sarama  2003  
  27. 27.   •  One  skill  is  being  able  to  stay  interested  in  a  task  long  enough  to   learn  it  which  Shade  found  when  children  used  the  computer   together.     •  When  children  are  in  control  (which  is  key  for  these  outcomes)   there  is  increased:     • creaIvity  (Escobedo)     • problem-­‐solving  skills   • decision-­‐making  ability  (Nastasi  et  al.)     • understanding  of  cause  and  effect  (Goodwin,  Goodwin,  &  Garel)   • longer  ahenIon  span  (Haugland)  
  28. 28. Special   Needs   •  •  •  •  •  •  Social-­‐EmoIonal   Fine  Motor   Gross  Motor   CommunicaIon   CogniIon   Self-­‐Help   Hu'nger  &  Johanson  2000    
  29. 29.   •  HunInger  and  Johanson  found  that  special  needs  preschool   children  in  a  computer  based  program  made  progress  in  all   developmental  areas,  including  social-­‐emoIonal,  fine  and   gross  motor,  communicaIon,  cogniIon,  and  self-­‐help.     •  When  they  joined  the  program,  the  children  were  only   making  an  average  gain  of  ½    month  per  month.  However,   while  parIcipaIng  in  the  program  they  were  making  on   average,  gains  of  1.8  months  per  month;  the  results  indicated   that  the  computer  made  a  unique  contribuIon.   •  AddiIonally,  looking  across  11  common  classroom  acIviIes,   result  showed  that  computer  use  was  most  oen  followed  by   desirable  behaviors  such  as  sharing,  communicaIng,  taking   turns,  and  focusing  and  least  likely  to  be  followed  by   aggression      
  30. 30. ELL/Dual  Language  Learners   •  PosiIve  astudes  toward  learning   •  MoIvates  learners  to  develop                                                   strategies  for  successful  learning   •  Results  in  improved  sentence                                                         structure  and  breadth  of  content     •  Strengthens  the  development  of                                               auditory  skills           Waxman  &  Tellez  2002  
  31. 31. •  With  100  million  first-­‐grade-­‐aged  children  worldwide   having  no  access  to  schooling,  the   One  Laptop  Per  Child  organizaIon  did  something   unique  in  two  remote  Ethiopian  villages—dropping   off  tablets  with  preloaded  programs.   •  Children  were  sIll  heavily  engaged                                                               in  using  the  tablets  aer  several  months.     •  Observed  reciIng  the  “alphabet  song,”                                         and  spelling  words.  One  boy,  exposed  to                         literacy  games  with  animal  pictures,                                                 used  a  paint  program  and  wrote  the  word  “Lion.”      (hhp://mashable.com/2012/10/29/tablets-­‐ethiopian-­‐children/)  
  32. 32. Where  are  we  going?  
  33. 33. Affordances   •  •  •  •  Touch  responsive   InteracIvity   CustomizaIon   Child-­‐friendly  
  34. 34. Types  of  Interac0ve  Technology  
  35. 35. Survey  Says….   NaIonal  survey  of  almost  500  teacher  and   administrator  respondents…   •   Almost  all  have  desktops/laptops   •   Half  have  IWBs   •   A  third  have  tablets     •  Learn  more  @Simon,  F.,  Nemeth,  K.,  &  McManis,  D.  (2013).  Technology  in   ECE  classrooms:  Results  of  a  new  survey  and  implicaIons  for  the  field.   Exchange  Magazine,  213,  68-­‐75.   hhp://hatchearlylearning.com/ece-­‐tech-­‐survey-­‐2012/    
  36. 36. Mobile  Technologies   •  Children  learn   to  use  them   quickly   •  Encourages   independence   •  Explore  more     complex  and   abstract   concepts   Michael  Cohen  Group  &  USDOE  2011;   Couse  &  Chen  2010;  Shuler  2009  
  37. 37. •  Enhances   mastery  of   concepts     •  Vocabulary   •  Phonological   awareness   Chiong  &  Shuler  2010;  Horowitz,   Sosenko  &  Hoffman  2006;   Bebell,  Dorris  &  Muir  2012   .  
  38. 38. Mul0-­‐touch  Tables   •  •  •  •  Can  handle  a  large  number  of  touches  simultaneously   Offers  a  360°  birds-­‐eye  view   Promotes  cooperaIve/collaboraIve  learning   Most  of  the  research  is  with  older  children.  If  there  are  not   enough  ‘assets’,  this  can  hurt  cooperaIve  and  collaboraIve   learning  just  as  it  does  in  any  non-­‐tech  sesng.  
  39. 39. SelecIng   Appropriate   EducaIonal   Technology   •  Goals   •  Technology   •  Content  
  40. 40. Food  for  Thought   “ Just spending money on computers without a plan will have a low probability of increasing achievement… ” Clements  &  Sarama,  2003  
  41. 41. Building  Blocks  for  Good  Educa0onal   Technology  for  Early  Learners   •  Based  on  theory   –  Child  development   –  Learning   –  Teaching   •  Based  on  good  design  principles   –  Child-­‐friendly   –  Promotes  progress   –  Supports  teaching   •  Based  on  meaningful  and  relevant  outcomes   –  Knowledge   –  Skills   –  Self-­‐efficacy    
  42. 42. Driving  Theory   •  Piaget—Cogni0ve  Developmental  Theory:   Children  acIvely  construct  knowledge.   •  Vygotsky—Sociocultural  Theory:  Modeling  &   language  essenIal  for  children’s  learning.   •  Skinner—Behaviorism:  Children  learn  based     on  environmental  acIons  and  reacIons.     •  Bandura—Social  Learning  Theory:  Children’s   learning  occurs  socially  through  observaIon,   imitaIon,  and  modeling.    
  43. 43. Key  Steps  to  Evalua0ng  Ed  Tech   1.  Establish  learning  goals  for  the  children   2.  IndenIfy  the  hardware  or  device(s)  you  have   or  would  like  to  have   3.  Analyze  features  and  content  of  the  soware   in  meeIng  learning  goals   4.  Plan  how  the  educaIonal  technology                       will  be  integrated  into  the  curriculum    
  44. 44. Learning  Goals   •  Approaches  to   Learning   •  CogniIve   •  Social-­‐EmoIonal  
  45. 45. Hardware/Devices     Much  wider  variety  of  types  of  technology  and   content  available:   –  Desktops/laptops   –  InteracIve  whiteboards   –  Tablets   –  Tables   –  eReaders,  smartpens,     iPod  touch,  digital  cameras   (Rideout  2011;  Gutnik  et  al.  2010)  
  46. 46. EducaIonal   •  Focus   •  Standards   •  Feedback   #  
  47. 47. Is  this  content  learning  versus   winning?   •  Valuable  instrucIonal   Ime  is  not  used  for   “gaming  entertainment”.     •  Rather  game-­‐like  with   specific  and  appropriate   learning  goals.    
  48. 48. Research  &  Standards  Based   Ensure  that  the  skills  the   soware  is  designed  to   teach  or  enhance  are   deemed  necessary  by   research  (and/or  the   curriculum,  framework  and/ or  standards  of  your   program).    
  49. 49. Teaching  &  Feedback   •  Correct  developmental  course   •  EffecIve  teaching  paths   •  Learning  sequence  obvious,  process-­‐ oriented,  and  correct.   •  Teaching  component  before  responses.     •  For  example,  the  names  of  the  lehers  are   taught  before  asking  children  to  idenIfy   them.      
  50. 50. Age   Appropriate   •  •  •  •  •  Subject  Maher   Skill  Level   Interest  &  Appeal   Pre-­‐readers   Free  of  Bias  
  51. 51. Subject  Ma[er  &  Skill  Level   Meets  developmental  needs     f  children  using  it.     o •  •  For  example,  soware  should  introduce  counIng  before   addiIon;  or  the  names  of  emoIons  before  asking  children  to   apply  to  situaIons.     •  Consider  too  if  soware  will  be  used  by  children  older  or   younger  than  intended  range  and  how  they  may  react-­‐from   frustraIon  to  boredom.      
  52. 52. Interest  &  Appeal    
  53. 53. Survey  Says!  Teacher  or  Child  Led?   We  asked  teachers  to  consider  a  typical  week  for  a  child   in  their  classroom  and  describe  their  use  of  technology.     •  A  third  indicate  a  balance  of  half  teacher-­‐directed/ guided  and  half  child-­‐iniIated                              learning   acIviIes     •  About  equal  numbers  of  a  quarter  each  indicate  they   fall  on  the  side  of  mostly  child-­‐iniIated,  with  some   Ime  for  teacher-­‐directed/guided  learning  acIviIes   •  or  the  side  of  mostly  teacher-­‐directed/guided,  with   some  Ime  for  child-­‐iniIated  learning  acIviIes  
  54. 54. Child   Friendly   •  Clear  &  Simple   Choices     •  OpportuniIes   for  Success     •  Independent   Learning  
  55. 55. Enjoyable  &   Engaging   •  •  •  •  Variety   Rewards   Graphics   Audio  
  56. 56. Assessment  &  Progress  Monitoring   Most  valuable  role  to  inform   instrucIon  at  individual  child   level.       To  become  a  part  of  the   instrucIonal  cycle  means   progress  monitoring-­‐assessment   feature  must  be  easy  to   interpret.       Ability  to  share  with  parents  can   moIvate  and  support  them  in   increasing  engagement  with   children  at  home.    
  57. 57. Digital   Porzolios   sIll  VERY   appropriate!  
  58. 58. Detailed  reports  help  teachers  keep   children  well  on  track            
  59. 59. Updates  &  Alerts   Feature  that  gives   teachers  and   administrators   reminders  and   reports  at  a  high   level.  
  60. 60. Survey  Says!  Tech  for  Progress  Monitoring   •  Eighty  percent  of  teachers  report  using   technology  for  progress  monitoring/child   assessment   •  Followed  closely  by  three  quarters  of   administrators  reporIng  technology  used  for   this  purpose  
  61. 61. AddiIonal   Features   •  CustomizaIon   •  Create  AcIviIes  
  62. 62. Your  turn  to   Evaluate!  
  63. 63. Let’s  Use  the  Toolkit  Together!  
  64. 64. Your  Assignment!   •   Find  a  soware  program/content  you  are   familiar  with  being  used  by  young  children.   • Complete  the  EvaluaIon  Tool.     • What  score  did  it  receive?     • Did  it  rate  as  you  expected?     • Differently?  
  65. 65. Educator   Support   Sufficient   InteracIon   Time   Integra0on   is  Essen0al   Sustained  Staff   Development  
  66. 66. “Training  must  be  ongoing  and  systemaIc  if   teachers  are  to  properly  complete  the   ‘learning  cycle’  of  technology-­‐related   professional  development”  (Kinneman)   Takes  Ime  to   fully  support   children’s   learning   Sheingold  &  Hadley,  1990  
  67. 67. Summary   •  Research  supports  young  children  can  benefit   from  using  educaIonal  technology   •  But  it  must  be  of  high  quality  and   developmentally  appropriate   •  There  are  key  aspects  that  must  be  considered   •  EvaluaIng  in  a  thoughzul,  intenIonal,  and   regular  manner  will  help  pracIIoners  make   the  best  decisions  for  early  learners  
  68. 68. Q  &  A  
  69. 69. Evalua0ng  Educa0onal   eBook  with  Tool  Technology   &     •  References,  Webinar  &     Journal  arIcle   h[p:// www.hatchearlychildhood.com   /pages/evalua0ng-­‐technology-­‐ for-­‐early-­‐learners       h[p:// www.hatchearlychildhood.com /pages/webinar-­‐sept-­‐2011-­‐ evalua0ng-­‐early-­‐learning-­‐ technology     h[p://www.naeyc.org/yc/ ar0cle/finding-­‐educa0on-­‐in-­‐ educa0onal-­‐technology    
  70. 70. Good  places  for  connec0ons   •  LinkedIn:  Early  Childhood  Technology  Network   •  Twi[er:  #ecetechchat   •  ISTE:  Early  Learning  &  Technology  SIG   hhp://www.iste.org/connect/special-­‐interest-­‐groups/sigelt   •  NAEYC:    Technology  and  Young  Children  Interest  Forum   hhp://www.naeyc.org/yc/files/yc/file/201211/OnOurMinds1112.pdf   •  MeeIng  of  The  Technology  and  Young  Children  Interest  Forum   welcomes  new  and  returning  members  to  our  annual  meeIng.  Join  us   as  we  explore  technology  innovaIons,  share  research,  collaborate  on   new  project  ideas,  and  plan  technology  and  young  children  Annual   Conference  sessions  for  next  year.  For  more  informaIon,  contact   Lynn  Hartle  at  lhartle@hotmail.com.   Thursday  6:00-­‐7:30  p.m.   Washington  Conven0on  Center,  Room  153    
  71. 71. Main  Sources   •  •  •  •  •  •    InternaIonal  Society  for  Technology  in  EducaIon.  (2008).  Na'onal  Educa'onal   Technology  Standards  for  Teachers.   hVp://www.iste.org/standards/nets-­‐for-­‐teachers/nets-­‐for-­‐teachers-­‐2008.aspx   McCarrick,  K.,  &  Xiaoming,  L.  (2007).  Buried  treasure:  The  impact  of  computer  use  on   young  children’s  social,    cogniIve,  language  development  and  moIvaIon.  AACE   Journal,  15  (1),  73-­‐95.   McManis,  L.D.,  &  Gunnewig,  S.  (2012).  Finding  the  EducaIon  in  EducaIonal  Technology   with  Early  Learners.  Young  Children,  67  (3),  14-­‐24.   hhp://www.naeyc.org/yc/arIcle/finding-­‐educaIon-­‐in-­‐educaIonal-­‐technology    NAEYC  &  FRC.  (2012).  Technology  Tools  and  Interac've  Media  in  Early  Childhood   Programs  Serving  Children  from  Birth  through  Age  8.”   hhp://www.naeyc.org/content/technology-­‐and-­‐young-­‐children   Public  BroadcasIng  Service  and  Grunwald  Associates.  (2011).  Deepening  Connec'ons:   Teachers  Increasingly  Rely  on  Media  and  Technology.  Report  of  the  Public  BroadcasIng   Service.  Arlington,  VA:  Public  BroadcasIng  Service.   www.pbs.org/teachers/grunwald/pbs-­‐grunwald-­‐2010.pdf   Simon,  F.,  Nemeth,  K.,  &  McManis,  D.  (2013).  Technology  in  ECE  classrooms:  Results  of   a  new  survey  and  implicaIons  for  the  field.  Exchange  Magazine,  213,  68-­‐75.   hhp://hatchearlylearning.com/ece-­‐tech-­‐survey-­‐2012/  
  72. 72.   Slides  will  be  posted  via  our  blog  @  hhp://hatchearlylearning.com/resources/blog/   Where  we  will  be  next…..   We’d  like  to   stay  in   touch…..   •  NaIonal  Head  Start  AssociaIon  Conference  April   18  in  Nashville   –  Using  Technology  to  Support  Social-­‐EmoIonal   Development  in  Young  Children   Dale   C Twi[er:     •  McCormick  Center  for  Early  on  hildhood  Leadership   Lilla  Dale  McManis@DrLDMcManis     ConnecIons  Conference  May  10-­‐12  in  Chicago   –  EvaluaIng  EducaIonal  Technology  in  Early  Childhood   •  InternaIonal  Society  for  Technology  in  EducaIon   (ISTE)  Conference  June  25  in  San  Diego   –  School  Readiness:  Outcomes  and  Approaches