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Learning theories


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Courtesy of Dr. Ferdinand B. Pitagan
Assistant Professor
University of the Philippines Diliman

Published in: Education, Technology
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Learning theories

  1. 1. University of the Philippines College of Education Educational Technology Department EDTECH101 Learning Theories that Influence Utilization of Instructional Media ResourcesFerdinand B. Pitagan, PhD Professor of Education
  2. 2. Humanism vs. Technology High D CHumanism A B Low High Technology
  3. 3. Educational Technology: Foundations Communications Systems approach Psychology
  4. 4. Media as a channel of communication FeedbackTeacher Learner Schramm’s model – Field of Experience/ Feedback
  5. 5. Dale’s Cone of ExperienceSource: from Dale, E., Audio-Visual Methods in Teaching, 1st Edition, © 1969. Reprinted with permission of Wadsworth/Thompson Learning.
  6. 6. Systems Approach
  7. 7. 1 4 3 2 8 5 6 7 910
  8. 8. Psychology• Behaviorism• Cognitivism• Constructivism
  9. 9. Behaviorism1. Early behaviorism -- Pavlov (1849 - 1936) Focus on reflexive behavior Food Unconditioned Stimulus Unconditioned Response Salivation (natural, not learned) Bell Conditioned Stimulus Conditioned Response (to Salivation bell)
  10. 10. Behaviorism2. B.F. SkinnerFocus on voluntary behavior and reinforcement“Learning is a function of change in overt behavior.”
  11. 11. B. F. Skinner 1904 – 1990  English Major PsychologyBook, Wallden II Skinner box
  12. 12. Behaviorism“--- A person comes under the control of a stimulating environment, responds to subtle properties of that environment, and responds to it in many complex ways because of the consequences contingent upon earlier responses.---- ”(Operant Conditioning) 6) Initial behavior –7) Consequences (reinforcement/punishment) –8) Next behavior
  13. 13. Behaviorism How to shape behavior and maintain it in strength? How to design instruction? Use Contingencies of ReinforcementA certain behavior consequences of that behavior
  14. 14. Behaviorism1. Positive reinforcement3. Instant reinforcement5. Frequent reinforcement7. Multiple scheduled reinforcement
  15. 15. BehaviorismUse of Media:Teaching machineProgrammed instructionStructuredFocus on objectives
  16. 16. CognitivismFocus on Active Mental Process 1) Information Processing Model 2) Mental Development Model
  17. 17. Cognitivism 1) Information Processing Model Sensory registerShort-term memory-- Working memoryLong-term memory
  18. 18. Cognitivism 1) Information Processing Model Sensory register AttentionShort-term memory-- Working memory Remembering Not ForgettingLong-term memory
  19. 19. Cognitivism 1) Information Processing Model Attention gaining strategies: Attention Sensory register e.g. visuals, paradox Short-term memoryRemembering -- Working memory Active processing strategies: e.g. chucking/organizing content Retrieval strategies:Not forgetting e.g. relate new info. to old info. Long-term memory
  20. 20. Cognitivism 2) Mental Development Model  Swiss philosopher and psychologistJean Piaget(1896-1980)
  21. 21. Cognitivism 2) Mental Development Model Observe/listen to children Piaget: What makes the wind? Julia: The trees. P: How do you know? J: I saw them waving their arms. P: How does that make the wind? J (waving her hand in front of his face): Like this. Only they are bigger. And there are lots of trees. P: What makes the wind on the ocean? J: It blows there from the land. No. Its the waves...## Four stages of childhood development(sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational)
  22. 22. Cognitivism 2) Mental Development Model Schemata (Mental structures)Assimilation: Accommodatio n: modifyingNew info. into existing existing structure/creat structure ing new one
  23. 23. Cognitivism 2) Mental Development ModelAssimilation?? Accommodation??
  24. 24. Cognitivism 2) Mental Development Model Schemata (Mental structures)Assimilation: Accommodatio n: modifyingNew info. into existing existing structure/creat structure ing new one Useful instructional strategies Advanced Organizers Transfer Mnemonics Organization and more…..
  25. 25. ConstructivismDifferent from Objectivism such as Behaviorism/Cognitivism Objective entities/realities The correct structure
  26. 26. Constructivism Constructivistic philosophy A real world we experience Multiple perspectives
  27. 27. Constructivism“Situating” our cognitive experiences in authentic activities Real world problems emphasized
  28. 28. Constructivism• Learning: ????• Teaching: ????
  29. 29. Constructivism• Learning: based on experience/ construction of meaning/ social interaction• Instructional strategies?? - social collaboration - multiple perspectives - negotiation of meanings - situated in real cases
  30. 30. Social Constructivism Lev Vygotsky
  31. 31. Social Constructivism Lev Vygotsky1. Between people, then inside self2. Zone of Proximal Development (ZDP) - social interactions
  32. 32. Remember!! (A. Bednar, et al. ) “Instructional design and development must be based upon some theory of learning and/orcognition; effective design is possible only if thedeveloper has developed reflexive awareness of the theoretical basis underlying the design.”
  33. 33. Remember !! “ Theories of Learning and prescriptions forpractice must go hand in hand.” – (T. Duffy and D. Jonassen) Instructional Design (Prescriptions for practice) Constructivism Behaviorism Cognitivism
  34. 34. Activity1. Case 1: Japan New teachers How to serve physically challenged students1. Case 2: USA A mix of slower and faster learners; thirty 7th graders Teach existing of different cultures in Asia3. Case 3: Paris Filipino as a second language; intermediate level A mix of 10 senior citizens; 10 university students Teach them Filipino 。4. Case 4: Indonesia High school students (above average) Teach to be active, creative…
  35. 35. NEXT MEETING:Issues and trends in the use of media technology for classroom instructions