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ORGANIC AGRICULTURE PRODUCTION NC II.pptx

Organic Agriculture is a production system that sustains the health of soils, ecosystems, and people. It relies on ecological processes, biodiversity and cycles adapted to local conditions, rather than the use of inputs with adverse effects.

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ORGANIC
AGRICULTURE
PRODUCTION
NC II
Basic Competencies
• Participate in workplace communication
• Work in a team environment
• Practices career professionalism
• Practice occupation health and safety
procedures
Common Competencies
• Apply safety measures in farm operations
• Use farm tools and equipment
• Perform estimation and calculation
• Develop and update industry knowledge
Core Competencies
• Raise organic chicken
• Produce organic vegetables
• Produce organic fertilizers
• Produce organic concoctions and extracts
Elective Competencies
• Raise organic hog
• Raise organic small ruminant
4 Principles of Organic Agriculture
1.Principles of Health- sustain and enhance the
health of soil, plant, animal, human and planet as one
indivisible.
2.Principle of Ecology- based on living ecological
systems and cycles, work with them, emulate them
and help sustain them.
3.Principal of Fairness- build on relationships that
ensure fairness with regard to the common
environment and life opportunities.
4.Principle of Care- managed in a precautionary and
responsible manner to protect the health and well-
being of current and future generations and the

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ORGANIC AGRICULTURE PRODUCTION NC II.pptx

  • 2. Basic Competencies • Participate in workplace communication • Work in a team environment • Practices career professionalism • Practice occupation health and safety procedures
  • 3. Common Competencies • Apply safety measures in farm operations • Use farm tools and equipment • Perform estimation and calculation • Develop and update industry knowledge
  • 4. Core Competencies • Raise organic chicken • Produce organic vegetables • Produce organic fertilizers • Produce organic concoctions and extracts
  • 5. Elective Competencies • Raise organic hog • Raise organic small ruminant
  • 6. 4 Principles of Organic Agriculture 1.Principles of Health- sustain and enhance the health of soil, plant, animal, human and planet as one indivisible. 2.Principle of Ecology- based on living ecological systems and cycles, work with them, emulate them and help sustain them. 3.Principal of Fairness- build on relationships that ensure fairness with regard to the common environment and life opportunities. 4.Principle of Care- managed in a precautionary and responsible manner to protect the health and well- being of current and future generations and the
  • 7. Philippine National Standard PNS-2016  Ra 10068 Organic Agriculture Act of 2010 “Promotes, propagate develop further and implement the practice of organic agriculture in the Philippines that will cumulatively condition and enrich the fertility of the soil, increase farm productivity, reduce pollution and destruction of the environment, prevent the depletion of natural resources, further protect the health farmers, consumers and the general public
  • 8. Organic Certification Importance of Certification • Consumer Protection • An effective Marketing tool • Adds value to the product PENALTY for Mislabelling “Organikuno” • Imprisonment - 1 month to 6 months • Fine - P50,000
  • 9. Minimum Requirements for Organic Agriculture Length of crop conversion period • For annual crops: at least twelve (12) months before the start of the production cycle; • For perennials crops: at least eighteen (18) months of management The required conversion period may be reduced for the following conditions: • Land which have been cultivated for the past three (3) years, including land used as pasture and timberland; • Areas practicing traditional agricultural practices, which fulfill the requirements of this standard; this area shall be verified through reliable means and resources. In such case, inspection shall be carried out at least six (6) months before the first harvest; • Farm practicing organic chicken agriculture for at least eighteen (18) months these areas shall be verified through reliable means and resources. On such cases, inspection shall be carried out at least six (6) months before the harvest. • No conversion period is required in the case of non-cultivated land. These areas shall not be exposed to prohibited inputs for a minimum of three (3) years.
  • 10. Prolong conversion/transition period • Lands that have been heavily treated with synthetic chemicals shall undergo conversion for a minimum of three (3) years before the start of the production cycle Conversion of animal and animal products • If animal product are to be sold as organic products, the animal must be reared according to the minimum requirements set in this standard for organic production • 1/3-2/3 policy
  • 11. Beef and Carabeef Large ruminantslikecattlecarabao shouldbe organicallyreared atleast 360 daysbefore weaning Veal Calvesto be used for meat product shouldbe organicallyreared 180 days of organic rearing Milk products Milk from lactatingbovine will onlybe considered asorganic after 90 daysorganic rearing Mutton and chevon Sheep and goat should be organicallyreared at least 180 daysbefore slaughter Milk products Milk from lactatingbovine will onlybe considered asorganic after 90 daysorganic rearing Pork Swine should be organicallyreared atleast 120 daysbefore slaughter Meat products Poultyintended for meat productsshould be organicallyreared after 21 daysform hatching
  • 12. Choice of crops and varieties • Seed and planting materials shall be of high quality and certified organic, when available. • When certified organic seed and planting materials are not available, non-organic seed and planting materials may be used provided that they have not been treated with pesticides and other inputs not permitted by this standard • Thiram – Natural Plant- based Fungicide • Materials allowed for the treatment of seeds include the substances listed in Annex A. • The use of genetically modified seeds, transgenic plants or planting • Materials is not allowed • Plant varieties should be bred to retain natural reproduction methods.
  • 13. Crops rotations and soil management practices • Organic production system are soil based and should care for the soil and surrounding ecosystems. • Run off diversions or other means must be implemented to prevent contamination of crop production areas. • Application of raw or undecomposed manure is no allowed. Manure should undergo proper decomposition methods.
  • 14. Pest, disease, and weed management • The use of synthetic pesticides (e.g. herbicides, fungicides, insecticides, moluscides, nematiscides, rodentiscides etc,) is prohibited. • The release of local and acclimatized predatory insects, such as earwig and trichogramma, and usd of microbial pest control agents, such as bacteria(e.g. Bacillus thuringiensis), virus (e.g. bassiana) are allowed. • Physical methods for pest, disease and weed management are allowed. Thermic sterilization (solarisation) of soils to combat pest, disease and weed is restricted in circumstances where a proper rotation or renewal of soil cannot take place. • Farm tools and equipment should be used exclusively in organic farms. In cases that these are not dedicated for organic production, there must be properly cleaned and free for residues from synthetic pesticides.
  • 15. Pollution control and contamination • Buffer zones should be established to minimize contamination from non- organic farms. These may include, but are not limited to, multi-purpose tree species of sufficient • Products from buffer zones must not be sold as organic.
  • 16. Animal Husbandry management • Management of the environment of the animals shall take into account the behavioral needs of the animals and provide for: a. Sufficient free movement, as applicable; b. Sufficient fresh air and natural daylight according to the needs of the animals; c. Protection against excessive sunlight , temperatures, rain and wind according to the needs of the animals; d. Enough lying and/ or resting are according to the needs of the animals. For all animals requiring bedding, natural materials shall be provided; e. Free access to fresh water and according to the needs of the animals; and f. Access to pasture
  • 17. Landless animal husbandry systems and / or complete confinement of animal systems (e.g ‘battery- type’ cage, single pen) are prohibited a. Animals about to give birth or have just give birth should be separated from other animals and should be given the necessary veterinary attention; and b. As part of biosecurity measures, sick, injured, or disabled animals should be given the necessary veterinary attention.
  • 18. Mutilations and animal identification • Mutilations are prohibited. However, the following methods are exceptions in specific cases that these can improve the welfare, health or hygiene of the animals or for safety reasons:  a. Castration;  b. Tail cutting of lambs;  c. Tail docking of pigs;  d. Trimming of beaks;  e. De-horning;  f. Nose and limb ringing, for restraining; and  g. Cutting of teeth
  • 19. • The following methods of identification of animals are allowed;  a. Tattooing  b. Ear notching  c. Ear tagging; and  d. Wing tagging  • These practices shall not be cause suffering and comply with existing regulatory requirements of the authority. Qualified personnel should carry these practices at the most appropriate age and any suffering to the animals is reduced to a minimum.  • Keeping the animals tethered is prohibited. However, the tethering of animals is allowed of this is necessary for safety or welfare reasons, and that such tethering is for a limited time only.
  • 20.  Animal nutrition  • Giving due to consideration to the low availability of organic feed and roughage, the following proportion of feed ration based on the dry matter requirement particular to each animals are allowed:  Year  Year 1 50% non- organic feed, 50% organic feed  Year 2 30% non- organic feed, 70% organic feed  Year 3 10% non- organic feed, 90% organic feed  Year 4 100% organic feed
  • 21.  • In the formulation of organic feed, the following ingredients/ raw materials are not allowed:  a. Synthetic growth promoters or simulants;  b. Preservatives, except when used as a processing aid;  c. Artificial coloring agent;  d. Urea and other synthetic nitrogen compounds;  e. Slaughter waste and other deceased animals parts;  f. Dropping, dung or other manure;  g. Feed ingredients subjected to solvent extraction (e.g. with petroleum products);  h. Synthetic and/ or chemically isolated amino acids;  i. Genetically engineered microorganisms or products there of;  j. Synthetic antibiotics; and  k. Synthetic and/ or chemically isolated vitamins and minerals
  • 22.  Bio-security  • Mandatory biosecurity and quarantine procedures should be well implemented its spread within the farm.  • The use of antibiotics for prophylactic/ preventive purpose is not allowed; however, vaccinations are allowed.
  • 23.  Transportation  • The transport of organic animals shall be separated from conventional and shall be well organized and appropriate to the needs of the animals, taking into consideration of the following factors:  a. Stress caused to the animals;  b. Fitness of the animals;  c. Process of loading and unloading;  d. Mixing different groups animal or animals of different sex;  e. The grip of the feet on the floors and ramps;  f. Equipment used;  g. Extremes temperatures and relative humidity; and  h. Hunger and thirst  • Appropriate measures such as separate schedule of stocking during pre- slaughter and separate schedule or facility shall be implemented during slaughter to prevent commingling and contamination animals. Separate slaughter house for organic is recommended
  • 24. What is the conversion period from conventional to organic farming?  A: Annual crops (vegetables, rice and corn) – 12 months  B. Perennial crop (banana, fruits, papaya) – 18 months  **Note: for Lands heavily treated with synthetic chemicals over several years- 3 years  For new land/ virgin land –no conversion period
  • 25. I cannot find sources seed. Can I buy hybrid treated seeds from seed companies? A: No. the use of raw materials is prohibited due to the presence of pathogenic microbes, heavy metals and residues of prohibited substances. The raw manure must be decomposed properly before it can be applied to vegetable crops. My style of pasture for my livestock is nomadic. Is it allowed in organic agriculture? A: Yes. Nomadic or mobile/ roaming culture of livestock is allowed.
  • 26. My organically grown pigs will be slaughtered in a double A standard slaughter house but it is 5 hours away from our farm. Will I be allowed by the OA law?  A: Yes. Transport time to the slaughter house should not exceed 8 hours.  Our slaughter house does not have stunning facility . Can we use any hard materials like hammer, mallet or baseball bat to minimize our pigs.  A: No. stunning facility must be used and should be in good working order and should affect the deep laying parts of the brain in one (quick) act.
  • 27. Is hydroponic without (chemical pesticides) considered organic?  A: NO. the organic agriculture is based on soil- based agriculture. The concept is feeding the soil will feed the plant.  My neighbour farmers are not practicing organic farming. Can I still be certified?  Yes, as long as buffer zones are in place. Minimum of 1 meter distance from the neighbour farm. With buffer crops e.g. kakawate in the perimeter. Water source must pass through filtration pond (if shared water source).
  • 28. Can I feed my earthworm with commercially grown vegetables from the market and still use their poops as my organic fertilizer. A: Yes. However, it should properly decomposed by microorganism before feeding. The complex digestive of an earthworm allows 100% decomposition of organic matter. Based on lab test, there is no trace chemical in earthworm castings. *Is night soil allowed in an organic agriculture? It is allowed In India, China, Thailand and other countries but not in the Philippines
  • 29. Is vaccination allowed in growing organic livestock?  A: Yes. It is allowed. However, you won’t need It if you will use effective an beneficial microorganisms.
  • 30. I am a poultry grower of 45 days old broiler type chickens in a conventional poultry house but I do not give them anti- biotic and synthetic growth hormones. I do not buy commercial feeds. Will I be considered organic?  A: No. according to PNS, the area should not be < 1 meter per head and pig must be allowed to roam around mimicking their natural environment.  Inspection Tips  • All areas will be checked for traces of prohibited substances e.g. empty  • Chemical residue test is optional (case to case basis)  • Farm helpers/ neighbors will be interviewed  • Plant color will be checked  • Traces of dead insects will be checked  • Buffer zones/ buffer crops will be checked  • Receipts for acquired farm inputs will be checked  • Sprayers will be scrutinize  • Warehouse will be checked  • Presence of beneficial insects will be checked
  • 31. RAISE ORGANIC CHICKEN SUMMARY OF LEARNING OUTCOMES: Upon completion of this module, the students/trainees will be able to:  LO1. Select healthy stocks  LO2. Determine suitable chicken house requirements  LO3. Install cage/ housing equipment  LO4. Feed chicken  LO5. Grow and Harvest chicken
  • 32. Breed of chickens-native Paraokan  From Palawan and MIMAROPA region  Broiler type  Tall and slender body  Feisty often used as game fowls  Has tender and flavourful meat  Black with brown and red feathers  Strong immune system
  • 33. Darag  From Panay Island and Visayas region  Broiler type  Meat is tastier than paraokan(claimed as the most delicious chicken meat in the whole Philippines)  Have red, black orange feathers  Average size (1.5-2 kg live weight)  Strong immune system
  • 34. Banaba  From CALABARZON region  Bigger in size compared to paraokan and banaba  Broiler type  Strong immune system
  • 35. Breeds of Chickens- Imported Sasso  Brown to light brown feathers  Plump and short bodies  Rarely flies and often grounded  Tasty and tender meat  Broiler and layer type
  • 36. Chinese Chicken (Ulikba)  Broiler type  Highly expensive (P100/kl)  The Chinese believe that its meat has medicinal properties  Has white feathers but meat and bones are all black  Short and puffy bodies
  • 37. White Leghorn  Popularly known as the “45 day old” chicken  Broiler and layer type
  • 38. Rhode Island  Layer Type  Short but big bodied  Produces large sized eggs  Mostly grey, sometimes brown feathers
  • 39. Incubator The Use of Incubator  Artificial incubation is preferred over natural incubation  Uniformity of sizes of chicks  May cross breed chickens do not brood  Inexpensive  Maximizes productivity of egg-laying hens  Chicken hatches in 21 days  Temperature in the incubator ranges from 37.5-37.8 degree Celsius The Eggs needs to turn every 4 hours for equal distribution of heat
  • 40. Incubation  Candling- a method used in the incubation process to determine whether the embryo inside the egg is developing or not. This help breeder farms to measure the fertility rate of their stocks.  Candling schedule of Chicken eggs a. 7th day b. 12th day c. 18th day CANDLING MACHINE
  • 42. How to Determine the Sex of a Chicken 1. Look at their wing feathers.
  • 45. 3. Attempt vent sexing
  • 46. 4. Monitor comb development at 6 weeks
  • 47. 5. Examine the saddle feathers if the chick is between 8 and 10 weeks old
  • 48. SELECTING GOOD STOCK AND CARING Of CHICKEN  Qualities of a good stock • No deformities Bright red comb, no discoloration and deformation
  • 49. • Dry behind • No rancid odor • Agile, energetic and alert
  • 50. • Shiny feathers • Dry and clean beak Bright eyes
  • 51. Caring Chicken Day 1 to 21  1 watt per chick for heating bulbs  Better to use several bulbs 1 smaller wattages e.g. 10x10w vs. 1x100 w bulb  Monitor closely for sign stress  Brooding house space= 1sqm per 50 chicks
  • 52.  Water and Feed  Waterers and Feeders must be cleaned daily  Replace drinking water everyday  Feeding is unlimited  Feeding trays and drinking canister  must never be empty  for the 1st and 21st days. Recommended brooding temperature during the first week Day Temp (degrees celcius) 1 34 2 34 3 34 4 32 5 32 6 30 7 30
  • 53.  Ranging, Day 22 until slaughter (80 days)  • Space requirements: 3 heads: 1sqm  • Let the chicks freely range in open air,  eating fresh grass, insects and earthworms  • Maintain mixing IMO, LABS, FAA,FPJ,FFJ  in their drinking water everyday
  • 54. DETERMINE SUITABLE CHICKEN HOUSE REQUIREMENTS RangingHouse • Should be located on the highest point to prevent flooding inside.
  • 55.  • Must be safe from predators like rats, cats, dogs, ants, birds and snakes  • Provide fencing buried to the ground  • Provide light, heat and water  • Must have shaded areas  • Location should be well drained  • Lay sand, rice hull, carbonized rice hull or sawdust for absorbent flooring
  • 56.  Low-Cost Housing for Free Range Poultry • Ambient temperature – poultry have increased energy requirements to maintain normal body temperature in cold & hot ambient temperatures. Food digestion processes produce body heat, but the amount varies according to the nutrient composition of the diet.
  • 57. • Housing system – the type of housing system will influence the level of activity of the birds and therefore their energy requirements.
  • 58. BROODING REQUIREMENT • Proper Temperature o 1-7 days old -32.2- 35degC o 8-14 days old – 29.4- 32.2 o 14-21 days-26.7- 29.4 ● No Thermometer? Chicks are evenly distributed in the brooding area; Very active ● Low Temperature Chicks huddle to each other Stay together near the source of heat Produce an unusual chirping sound ●Temperature is very low Chicks pile on top of one another causing high incidence of mortality due to suffocation ● Temperature is very high They move away from the light They spread their wings,
  • 59.  Feeds Formulation  Poultry diets must be formulated to provide all of the bird’s nutrient requirements if optimum growth and production is to be achieved.  If animals are to be productive, it is important that they get suitable food in sufficient quantities. The appropriate quantity and the mix of feed items will of course depend on the type of animal. A balance diet will keep an animal healthy and productive.
  • 60. Pre- Starter feed formulation (1-21 days old) 22.5 kg rice bran or D1 grade 22.5 kg corn bran (Carbohydrates) 8 kg copra meat/meal (fats/lipids) 40 kg soya meal/fish meal/ duckweed/moringa (Protein) 2 liters FAA/FFJ/FPJ (Vitamins) 3 kg carbonized rice hull 2 kg rock salt/sea salt (minerals) 400 ml IMO 400 ml molasses (Pro-biotics) 20 liters water (no chlorine)
  • 61.  Starter feed formulation (20-30 days old)  25 kg rice bran or D1 grade  25 kg corn bran  (Carbohydrates)  8 kg copra meat/meal  (fats/lipids)  35 kg soya meal/ fish meal/ duckweed/ moringa  (protein)  2 liters FAA/FFJ/FPJ  (vitamins)  3 kg carbonized rice hull  2 kg rock salt/sea salt  (minerals)  400 ml IMO  400 ml molasses  (Pro-biotics)  20 liters water (no chlorine)
  • 62.  Finisher feed formulation (30 days old-market)  30 kg rice bran or D1 grade  30 kg corn bran  (Carbohydrates)  8 kg copra meat/meal  (fats/lipids)  25 kg soya meal/ fish meal/ duckweed/ moringa  (protein)  2 liters FAA/FFJ/FPJ  (vitamins)  3 kg carbonized rice hull  2 kg rock salt/ sea salt  (minerals)  400 ml IMO  400 ml molasses  (probiotics)  20 liters water (no chlorine)
  • 63. Days of Culture Kinds of Feeds Volume/Day/Chick Volume/Week/Chick 1-7 days Chick booster 5.57g-7 am 78g 8-14 days Chick booster 8.35g-7 am 8.35g-4 pm 117g 15-21 days Chick Booster/starter 12.57g-7am 12.57g-4pm 176g 22-28 days Chick starter 18.85-7am 18.85-4 pm 264g 29-35 days Grower mash 28.28g-7am 28.28g-4pm 396g 36-42 days Grower/finisher mash 35.35g-7 am 35.35g-4 pm 495g 43-49 days Finisher mash 38.85g-7am 38.85g-4pm 544g 50 days onwards Finisher mash 42.85g-7am 42.85-4pm 600g
  • 64. FEEDINGREDIENTS QUANTITY RiceBran(D1) 30kg HammererCorn(notGMO) 20kg ShreddedCorn 15kg SoyaMeal 10kg SeaSalt 0.5kg Limestone 0.5kg Water 10liters EM1 50ml Molasses 50ml CopraOil 1.5liters
  • 65.  Disease Prevention and Control  Disease causing germs and parasites are present almost everywhere. Like humans, animals have an immune system which is usually able to cope with these germs. And as with humans, the efficiency of the immune system will be disturbed if animals are not properly fed, cannot practise their natural behaviour, or are under social stress.  Health is a balance between disease pressure (the presence of germs and parasites) and the resistance (immune system and self-healing forces) of the animal. The farmer can influence both sides of this balance: reduce the quantity of germs by maintaining good hygiene, and strengthen the animal‘s ability to cope with germs.  Of course: if an animal gets sick it must be treated. But the farmer should also think about why the immune system of the animal was not able to fight the disease or the parasite attack. And the farmer should think of ways to improve the animals living conditions and hygiene in
  • 66.  Biosecurity  6.7.1 Mandatory biosecurity and quarantine procedures should be well implemented to prevent introduction of disease into the farm and/or to control its spread within the farm.  6.7.2 The farm should have a written protocol of biosecurity measures. Proper warning signage should be provided.  6.7.3 The implementation of biosecurity measures should be continuously monitored to assess the effectiveness of the program.  6.7.4 The farm should have the appropriate and functional lay-out and infrastructure to ensure effective implementation of the biosecurity measures.  6.7.5 Care should be observed that all “brought-in” animals shall have undergone appropriate quarantine measures/treatment.
  • 67.  PHILIPPINE NATIONAL STANDARD PNS/BAFS 07:2016  Organic Agriculture 16  - when an endemic disease is known or expected to be a problem in the region where the farm is located and where the disease cannot be controlled by other management techniques; or - when a vaccination is legally required
  • 68.  .9 Transport and slaughter  6.9.1 The organic integrity of animals must be maintained throughout the entire process of transport and slaughter. Each animal or group of animals shall be identifiable at each step in the transport and slaughter process.  6.9.2 Animals shall be transported using a licensed transport carrier (DA-AO 8 Series of 2004) and accompanied by a duly licensed animal handler (DA- AO 8 Series of 2004) responsible for the well-being of the animals in accordance with the provisions of the Animal Welfare Act (RA 8485) with appropriate shipping permit.
  • 69.  Herbal Treatment for Colds  Note: Separate the chicks/ chickens with colds  Prepare herbal ingredients:  ½ cup fresh oregano leaves  ½ cup fresh lagundi leaves  ½ fresh bamboo leaves  ½ cup hot chilli  2 cups water  Culling is the removal of unprofitable/ unproductive chickens (sick, non-laying and poor producer).
  • 70.  In case of disease outbreak  • Isolate/ quarantine affected birds  • Implement biosecurity measures  • Review medication program  • Consult organic expert  Record Keeping and Traceability  Productions records determine the efficiency of  • Chickens  • Management practice  • Accurate farm records will provide the basic data in planning  • Tool in measuring the farm business  Kinds of Records  • Strain and source of chicks  • Feed Consumption  • Medications  • Productions  • Financial record  • Mortality Record  • Inventory
  • 71. PRODUCE ORGANIC VEGETABLES  SUMMARY OF LEARNING OUTCOMES:  Upon completion of this module, the students/trainees will be able to:  LO1. Establish Nursery  LO2. Plant Seedlings  LO3. Perform Plant Care Activities ( and management)  LO4. Perform Harvest and Post-Harvest Activities
  • 72. LO1 ESTABLISH NURSERY  PREPARING A VEGETABLE SEEDLINGS NURSERY  A nursery is a specially prepared portion of land put aside for raising seedlings. It acts as a  temporary home for young plants until they are eventually planted in a permanent garden.  Seeds which need extra care should be grown in a nursery. It is also cheaper to grow your own  vegetable seedlings than buying from commercial nurseries.
  • 73.  Vegetables such as Cabbage, Onion, Tomato and Eggplants are best raised in the nursery bed.  Advantages of establishing a nursery include:  § Makes planting, watering and maintaining seedlings easier because everything you need  is in one place.  § Provides seedlings with protection from hot sun, hard rains, strong winds and animal  disturbances.  § Allows seedlings to grow healthier, because there is enough healthy soil and nutrients  available and they get enough water.  § Easy to control pests, diseases and weeds.
  • 74.  Site selection  The nursery should:  • Be located near the planting site so that the transplants are taken to the main garden to  reduce damages that may occur where distances are long.  • Be located near a water source because watering will be necessary.  • Be protected from strong winds.  • Should not be located on a slope unless it is terraced since this may lead to erosion of  fertile top soil but also the plants as well.  • Should not to be located in a water-logged area
  • 75.  Preparation of the Nursery  Dig the nursery area deeply (at least 15cm) and wait for weeds to dry.  After the weeds have dried, spread one wheelbarrow of compost/farmyard manure every  3 meters (about 7cm layer) and dig it into the soil.  The nursery bed should be about 1m wide, this makes tending the seedlings easy as it is  possible to reach all parts easily.  The length of the beds will vary depending on amount of seed to be planted (but 3-10m is  common).  Leave a space of 30 - 40 cm between two beds. This walking area is important and help  in weeding, nursery care against diseases and insect pest and also for draining out the  excess rain water from the nursery beds.  Raise the beds 15-20 cm high from the ground (particularly in high rainfall areas) to  prevent water logging.  Remove all the clots, stones and weeds from the bed and level it.  Water the bed
  • 76.  LO2 PLANT SEEDLINGS  Use good quality certified seeds.  Plant the seeds in rows (some seeds such Spinach should be soaked in cold water for 24  hours before sowing).  Make the lines at a spacing of 15 cm apart (use a string to make straight lines).  Make shallow furrows not more than 2 cm deep along the marked lines.  Spread the seeds thinly along the rows and cover with a thin layer of soil.  Mulch the bed with dry grass, then water. The mulch will help to maintain soil moisture  and temperature for better seed germination, suppress weeds, protect bed from direct  sunlight and raindrops, and protect seed against bird damage.  To prevent seeds and seedlings losses in nursery bed, drench nursery with a mixture of a  fungicide (such as TRINITY GOLD, PEARL EXTRA) and an insecticide (such as  LOYALTY, ACCENT) immediately after sowing
  • 77.  Germination  The seeds will start germinating after 5 – 7 days  Remove the grass and then put a shade over the nursery bed  The bed shade should be 1m high, with grass on top but let some sun light go through LO3. PERFORM PLANT CARE AND MANAGEMENT Watering  Water the bed whenever it is necessary.  Do not over-water the bed. This can create environment for diseases and the leaching  (washing away) of nutrients from the soil.  Under watering will slow growth and wilting of
  • 78.  Thinning  This is the process of removing weak, unhealthy, diseased, insect pests damaged and  dense plants from the nursery beds. It aims to have seedlings spaced about 0.5 - 1.0 cm  from plant to plant.  Thinning facilitates light and air to reach all seedlings. It also makes it easy to monitor  for diseased and insect pest attacked seedlings.  Thinned weak but otherwise healthy seedlings can be planted in another bed.  Diseases caused by fungus  Seed decay before germination  Seedling rot  Stem rot at the base  Weed control  Timely weeding in nursery is very important to get healthy seedling. If there are some  weeds in the seed bed, remove them manually by hand.
  • 79.  Mulching  To reduce maintenance of your landscaping, add mulch above the ground level to every tree, shrub or evergreen in their yard. A tree is not really planted until its mulched. When a tree or shrub is planted, it should be covered with dirt to the original depth that it was in the nursery. Then, three to four inches of mulch should be added over this. Mulch will do many things. It will hold soil moisture so that watering can be reduced.
  • 80.  Hardening Seedlings before Transplanting  Hardening is the process in which seedlings are given some artificial shocks 7-10 days before  up-rooting and transplanting them. This makes them better withstand the more harsh conditions  of the field. Hardening is done gradually over several days and involves:  Exposure to the full sunlight by removal of the shading.  Reducing watering gradually.  Trans-planting  Seedlings will be ready for trans-planting 21 –30 days after sowing.  To reduce stress to seedlings, transplant early in the morning or late in the evening.  Just before transplanting (2 hours before transplanting) water the nursery fully so that you  will be able to remove each seedlings easily.  Take out the seedlings with a ball of soil.
  • 81. LO4 :PERFORM HARVEST AND POST HARVEST ACTIVITIES Post harvest can be defined as methods and techniques applied to increase the shelf life of the products. It includes harvesting, handling , storage, processing, packaging ,transportation and marketing. Main elements of the post-harvest system Harvesting. The time of harvesting is determined by the degree of maturity. With cereals and pulses, a distinction should be made between maturity of stalks (straw), ears or seedpods and seeds, for all that affects successive operations, particularly storage and preservation. Pre-harvest drying, mainly for cereals and pulses. Extended pre- harvest field drying ensures good preservation but also heightens the risk of loss due to attack (birds, rodents, insects) and moulds encouraged by weather conditions, not to mention theft. On the other hand, harvesting before maturity entails the risk of loss through moulds and the decay of some of the seeds. Transport. Much care is needed in transporting a really mature harvest, in order to prevent detached grain from falling on the road before reaching the storage or threshing place. Collection and initial transport of the harvest thus depend on the place and conditions where it is to be stored, especially with a view to threshing.
  • 82.  Post-harvest drying. The length of time needed for full drying of ears and grains depends considerably on weather and atmospheric conditions. In structures for lengthy drying such as cribs, or even unroofed threshing floors or terraces, the harvest is exposed to wandering livestock and the depredations of birds, rodents or small ruminants. Apart from the actual wastage, the droppings left by these marauders often result in higher losses than what they actually eat. On the other hand, if grain is not dry enough, it is vulnerable to mould and can rot during storage.  Moreover, if grain is too dry it becomes brittle and can crack after threshing, during hulling or milling. This applies especially to rice if milling takes place a long time (two to three months) after the grain has matured, when it can cause heavy losses. During winnowing, broken grain can be removed with the husks and is also more susceptible to certain insects (e.g. flour beetles and weevils). Lastly, if grain is too dry, this means a loss of weight and hence a loss of money at the time of sale.  Threshing. If a harvest is threshed before it is dry enough, this operation will most probably be incomplete. Furthermore, if grain is threshed when it is too damp and then immediately heaped up or stored (in a granary or bags), it will be much more susceptible to attack from micro-organisms, thus limiting its preservation
  • 83.  Storage. Facilities, hygiene and monitoring must all be adequate for effective, long-term storage. In closed structures (granaries, warehouses, hermetic bins), control of cleanliness, temperature and humidity is particularly important. Damage caused by pests (insects, rodents) and moulds can lead to deterioration of facilities (e.g. mites in wooden posts) and result in losses in quality and food value as well as quantity.  Processing. Excessive hulling or threshing can also result in grain losses, particularly in the case of rice (hulling) which can suffer cracks and lesions. The grain is then not only worth less, but also becomes vulnerable to insects such as the rice moth (Corcyra cephalonica).  Marketing. Marketing is the final and decisive element in the post-harvest system, although it can occur at various points in the agro-food chain, particularly at some stage in processing. Moreover, it cannot be separated from transport, which is an essential link in the system
  • 84. PRODUCE ORGANIC FERTILIZER  Organic fertilizers rejuvenate and improve soil properties for better crop production. They contain beneficial microorganisms and humus which, when applied, will improve the soil’s physical, chemical, and biological properties. Producing organic fertilizers at the farm will ensure the addition of humus to the soil for more efficient crop production. Thus, farmers need to know about the proper production of organic fertilizers.
  • 85.  Organic Fertilizer is any product—in solid or liquid form—of plant (except byproducts from petroleum industries) or animal origin that has undergone substantial decomposition. It can supply available nutrients to plants with a total nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) of 5-7%. This may be enriched by microbial inoculants and naturally occurring minerals but no chemical or inorganic fertilizer material has been added to the finished product to affect the nutrient content, according to the Philippine National Standards (PNS) for Organic Fertilizer, 2013.
  • 86.  Compost/Soil Conditioner is any product, in solid or liquid form, of plant (except byproducts from petroleum industries) or animal origin that has undergone substantial decomposition that can supply available nutrients to plants with a total N, P, and K of 2.5% to less than 5%. This may be enriched by microbial inoculants and naturally occurring minerals, but no chemical or inorganic fertilizer material has been added to the finished product to affect the nutrient content. Compost and soil conditioner are used interchangeably in the PNS.
  • 87.  Biofertilizers are fertilizer material that contain beneficial microorganisms and humus. They improve the soil’s physical, chemical, and biological properties which are essential to crop production The following are important elements for rapid and efficient composting:  1. Moisture – Microorganisms require a particular moisture level to thrive. The ideal moisture level for microorganisms is between 40 and 60%. At this moisture level, compost materials feel wet but no water can be squeezed out. Keep the compost pile moist but not soggy. If the raw materials are too wet, the pile becomes compact and airflow through the pile is restricted. Wet raw materials make the pile anaerobic; thus, the decomposition process slows and foul odor is generated. If too much water has been added, turn over the pile frequently to dry it. Fibrous materials such as sawdust can also be added.  2. Aeration – Microorganisms need oxygen during the decomposition to break down organic materials more efficiently. Therefore, it is important that the compost pile is properly a
  • 88.  . Temperature – The temperature of the pile should be maintained between 40O and 60O C for 3 weeks. The heat in the pile is generated by microorganisms digesting the materials during the decomposition process. Adjust the carbon/nitrogen (C:N) ratio, moisture, and oxygen until the bacteria have the ideal living conditions to maintain the heat needed. When temperatures become higher than 60O C, turn over the pile to release excess heat so that beneficial microorganisms will not die.  4. Particle size of compost materials – Reduce the size of raw materials to 1-2 inches to speed up the decomposition process. This ensures that a greater surface area is available for microbial activities.
  • 89.  What are the benefits of using organic fertilizer?  Organic fertilizer offers many benefits to the environment. It improves soil tilth and structure; increases soil’s ability to hold water and nutrients; supports living soil organisms; helps dissolve mineral forms of nutrients; buffers soil from chemical imbalances; provides biological control of certain soil pests; and helps return organic materials to the soil.
  • 90.  What are the facilities and equipment requirements in producing organic fertilizer?  – Composting shed using locally available materials  – Shredder  – Drums for water storage  – Flat and pointed shovels  – Hoe  – Wheelbarrow  – Sieve  – Water hose
  • 91.  What is the best location for an organic fertilizer production facility?  Build the composting shed and set up the composting pile in places that are not flooded and far from potable water sources. This is to prevent water contamination caused by leachate produced during the decomposition of organic materials.  What are the raw materials needed in the production of organic fertilizer?  The basic rule in composting is that anything that was once a plant can be composted
  • 92.  Consider the following in selecting raw materials for composting:  Greens” as nitrogen sources – These are good sources of nitrogen with a low C:N ratio; generally have high moisture content; and decompose quickly. A C:N ratio of less than 30:1 considered low. Examples of greens are green leaves and fresh plant residues.  • “Browns” as carbon sources – These are materials high in carbon in relation to nitrogen and generally have a high C:N ratio; are dry, and brownish; and decompose slowly. A C:N ratio of more than 30:1 is considered high. Examples of browns include rice straw, chipped branches, manure, and sawdust.  • In composting, a C:N ratio between 20 and 30 is ideal. Green, fresh materials have a higher nitrogen content than dry materials. Fresh grasses have a C:N ratio of 19:1. Leaves have a C:N ratio ranging from 35:1 to 85:1; peat moss – 58:1; corn stalks – 6-:1; straw – 80-:1; farm manure – 90:1; and
  • 93.  What are the steps in producing organic fertilizer  1. Collect raw materials  a. Dried chicken manure. It is preferred as a component in organic fertilizer production over fresh chicken manure because fresh chicken manure contains contaminants and harmful microorganisms, and emits a foul odor.  B.Sawdust or coco sawdust. This is a waste material generated by the lumber industry. However, only sawdust from lumber that is not chemically treated is recommended. Sawdust is an excellent source of recalcitrant carbon in organic fertilizer and is readily available. Recalcitrant carbon has been found to be stable in soil; thus, it aids in maintaining good soil structure.
  • 94.  C. Wild sunflower. It is known to be rich in nitrogen. Adding it to the pile increases the nitrogen content of organic fertilizer. It is found everywhere in the area and is available almost all year-round. It is useful because it also adds to the organic matter content of the organic fertilizer.  D. Trichoderma. This is a fungus found to be an efficient decomposer because it enhances the composting process. It is isolated from soil, decaying organic wood, and other forms of plant organic material [Barak and Chet (1986); Chet (1987); Harman and Bjorkman (1987); and Howell (2003)]. They are free-living and are highly interactive in roots, soil, and foliar environments. For many years, they have been known for producing a wide range of antibiotic substances. They parasitize other fungi (Harman et al., 2004). They have been acclaimed to be effective, eco-friendly, and cheap, nullifying the undesirable effects of agricultural chemicals (Chaudari et al., 2011), particularly organochlorines, organophosphates, and carbamates (Singh, 2010).
  • 95.  2. Shed the raw materials. Shredding is done to physically reduce the size of raw materials for faster decomposition. Materials should be shredded to 1- inch diameters or smaller to enhance the process of decomposition, specifically of tough and fibrous plant tissues. Wild sunflower stems can be shredded up to 2-3 cm to provide a greater surface area for decomposition.
  • 96.  3. Pile the shredded raw materials. Do this layer by layer. Prepare a maximum of six layers of materials. Each layer is about 1 foot thick. The ratio of raw materials is 50% chicken manure, 25% sawdust or coco sawdust, and 25% wild sunflower. (Rough estimates: a layer of materials consists of two parts manure, one part sawdust or coco sawdust, and one part wild sunflower, which are spread on top of each other.) Trichoderma is usually spread as a thin layer. tack the layers until the pile reaches 1.5 meters (m) high. Apply water to each layer until it is sufficiently moist. There is no need to put ash/lime or bamboo breathers.  Monitor the temperature of the pile with a thermometer (0O-200OC, with a long probe). Maintain the temperature between 40O and 60OC for 3 weeks. (a) chicken manure, (b) sawdust or coco sawdust, (c) wild sunflower, and (d) This can be done by regularly mixing the p
  • 97. 4.Water the pile. Water each layer of raw materials after piling. Thereafter, water the pile regularly, at least 2-3 times a week.  The materials must be moist. But keep it from becoming soggy or compacted. Moisture content is best between 40% and 60%.  Avoid adding too much water to the pile to prevent anaerobic decomposition. Foul odors result from anaerobic activity and indicate lack of oxygen. If the pile becomes too wet, increase turning frequency and/or add fibrous materials to the pile in order to reduce the moisture content and increase oxygen.
  • 98.  5. Mix the compost pile. Turn the compost pile from top to bottom after 2 weeks from piling. Repeat this every week thereafter until the pile has fully decomposed. Mix the pile to help break down tough and fibrous plant materials efficiently. By doing this, moisture and organisms that help break down the raw materials are distributed evenly in the composting materials.  If a fungus activator such as Trichoderma is applied, the pile takes 1-2 months to decompose. The decomposition process without a fungus activator takes 2-3 months.
  • 99.  6. Cover with polyethylene plastic. Cover the pile with black polyethylene plastic sheets to control the temperature and maintain the required heat.  7. Add carbonized rice hulls. Add about 2 kg carbonized rice hull to 48 kg organic fertilizer to prevent the occurrence and proliferation of harmful fungi in the organic fertilizer.  8. Air-dry the organic fertilizer. The standard moisture content of organic fertilizer for the market is 30%. Thus, air-drying is necessary to attain this desired moisture.
  • 100.  9. Sieve/refine the organic fertilizer. When lumps have formed during composting, pulverize them through the same shredder used in cutting raw materials. Use a 2-millimeter (mm) mesh sieve to produce uniformly sized and finer organic fertilizer.  10. Bag the organic fertilizer. Pack the sieved/refined organic fertilizer in 1 kg, 35 kg, and 50 kg plastic bags or sacks.
  • 101. How is organic fertilizer applied to vegetable crops?  Organic fertilizer can be applied per crop as follows:  First application: before planting  • 2.5 tons per hectare (t/ha) organic fertilizer  • 20 ml fermented liquid organic fertilizer/liter of water  Second application: 10 days after planting  • 2.5 t/ha organic fertilizer  • 20-60 ml fermented liquid organic fertilizer/liter of water
  • 102.  Third application: 30 days after planting  • 2.5-5 t/ha organic fertilizer  • 20-60 ml fermented liquid organic fertilizer/liter of water  Basally apply a uniform amount of organic fertilizer either in furrows or in hills before planting. Thoroughly mix the fertilizer with the soil.  After 10 days, apply another amount of organic fertilizer per furrow/hill near or around the base of the crop, then cover with soil. As organic fertilizer is a slow-release fertilizer, a second application at this stage is necessary to continuously provide the essential nutrients needed by the crop.
  • 103.  Thirty days after planting, apply organic fertilizer during hilling up. Spread equal amounts of the remaining organic fertilizer requirements near or around the plants then cover with soil.  What are the nutrients that organic fertilizer can provide to plants?  Organic fertilizer provides complete nutrients to plants. It contains the entire macro- and micro- nutrients essential to plant growth and development. It also contains high amounts of organic matter necessary for improving the soil structure and provides the carbon for soil microorganisms.
  • 104.  How much time is needed for the production of organic fertilizer?  One cycle of organic fertilizer production takes 30-45 days. In one year, eight production cycles are possible.  At the end of the eighth cycle, a net income of P37,600–P57,600 can be realized. In other areas, good quality organic fertilizer can be sold from P300 to P400/bag.
  • 105. Raise Organic Hogs  Major Considerations in Organic Hog Raising  Traits/Types of Various Breeders  Meat type  Piglet production  Meat & Piglet production, etc.  Characteristics of Healthy Piglet for Organic Hog Raising  No deformities  Alert, active, agile  Good body balance  Good feeding habits  Resistant to pests & diseases
  • 106.  Common Traits of a Hog for Organic Raising  The same body size from front to rear  Good legs and feet  Skin & hair are shiny/downy & straight  Plump loin and hump, etc.  Housing Requirements for Growing Organic Hog  Good beddings  Shaded (protection from extreme weather conditions)  Complete watering & feeding troughs  Good ventilation/air circulation  Good drainage system, etc
  • 107.  Basic Materials for Hog House Beddings  Rice hull  Carbonized Rice Hull  Sawdust  Soil  Salt  Preventive Measures to Protect Stock from Diseases  Use Personal Protective Equipment (PPE).  Use OHN as deodorizer and sanitizer.  Proper feeding/nutrition.
  • 108.  Raise Piglet to Market Age (120 days old after weaning for slaughtering).  Elements that Make Hog Organic  All it eats are organic.  Raised in a natural way.  Hogs are treated as human, etc.
  • 109.  Feeding Guidelines  Supplement the sow with good ration if the milk supply is inadequate  to feed her piglets. There are many available brands (organic origin if  possible) to choose from.  When the pigs are about 1 week of age, start feeding them with a  good pre-starter ration.  Different rations are given at different stages of growth but a shift in  ration should be done gradually so as not to upset the pigs’ normal  feeding behaviour. Always allow transition period of at least 1 week  before making changes.  A starter ration is next given to pigs when they are 30 to 35 kgs. or  two months old until they are about 15-20 weeks old.  Finisher ration is given when pigs reach 60 kgs or are about 20  weeks old.  When formulating a simplified ration, always remember that it should  always contain sufficient PROTEIN, ADEQUATE AMOUNTS OF  VITAMINS AND MINERALS.
  • 110.  Discard from slaughterhouses as well as cassava, sweet potato,  corn and corn by-products which are abundant in some areas of the  Philippines may be used, provided they are properly cooked and  dried.  In commercial operations due to economy in labor and in feeding  equipment, dry feeding is practiced.  Clean drinking water must be provided at all times.
  • 111. Raise Organic Small Ruminants (Goat)  Breeds of Goats  Anglo Nubians = 70-90 kgs (and 1-2 liters of milk daily)  Boer = 80-90 kgs ave. (1.5-2 liters of milk daily)  Saanen = 60-70 kgs (1.8 liters of milk daily)  Toggenburg = 50-60 kgs (1.5 liters of milk daily)  Alpine = 50-60 kgs (1.5 liters of milk daily)  Philippine Goat or Common Goat = 20-30 kgs (milk is just enough  for its kids) Didiangas Goat = 40-50 kgs (ave. of 1 li. of milk daily)
  • 112.  ADVANTAGES OF RAISING GOATS  Goats require smaller capital investment than cattle.  Goats multiply faster than cattle or carabaos. Before a goat is three  years old, she can give birth to as many as five kids.  Although a goat is small, she can produce as much four liters of  milk everyday if she is pure- bred and is given a ration to meet all  of nutritional requirements.  Goats require less feds than cows and carabaos. About ten  native goats can be feed on the feedstuffs sufficient for one cow.  And about 6-7 purebred dairy goats can be fed on the feedstuff  sufficient for one dairy cow.
  • 113.  Goats are usually docile and can be raised by anyone. Where  cows or carabaos may be too large for women or children to  handle, the goats is just right size of animals for them to raise.  ~ Goats are friendly and intelligent.  ~ Goats are clean animals. They do not thrive in filthy places.  Also, they do not eat rotten or spoiled feeds.  ~ A few can be tethered along farm fences and boundaries or  along roads and can be even be confined in pins and given  yard clippings and branches or tree and shrubs. A herd can be  raised easily on open lands.  ~ Under orchards and coconut plantation, goats are good  clippers of weeds.  ~ Goats provide manure for fishponds, farms and gardens.  ~ Farmers, in some cases, can use goats “insurance” against the  failure of their crops.  ~ A family milk goat can provide just the right amount of milk for  the farm family at very economical price
  • 114.  Desirable Characteristics of Ruminants for Organic  Production  Good teeth.  Good legs and feet.  Good skin and shiny hair.  Normal reproductive parts.  System of Raising Ruminants  Grazing System.  Cut and Carry System (confined).  Goat (or sheep)-Sloping Agricultural Land Technology (SALT)  Integration System (SALT 2).
  • 115.  Nutrients Needed in Ruminants’ Feed  Energy. Most energy required is supplied by carbohydrates and  fats found in forage and grain.  Protein. This nutrient is essential for growth, repair of old tissues,  milk production, and development of unborn kid.  Minerals. These are essential for growth and reproduction. These  are mostly calcium and phosphorus, which are found chiefly in the  skeleton.  ~ Vitamins. These are feed nutrients which are needed in very small  quantities but which are essential to life.  ~ Water. The animal body is 56-70 percent water. Water helps liquefy  the nutrients fermented in the digestive process.
  • 116.  Classification of Common Feed Ingredients for Ruminants  ~ Roughages. These are feeds containing relatively large amounts of  fiber or digestible material (legumes, ipil-ipil, napier, etc.).  ~ Concentrates. These are feeds which have a comparatively high  digestibility (rice bran, corn bran, bone meal, molasses, etc.).  ~ Feed Additives. These are chemical compounds that are included  in animal rations but do not supply nutrients to the animals (natural  antibacterial/antimicrobial, etc.).  ~ Mineral Supplements. The function of mineral elements in goats  is to provide structural support for the body (salt, oyster shell, wood  ash, CRH, mineral supplements).  ~ Vitamins’ Supplements. The dietary vitamin requirements of
  • 117.  Some Local Ingredients for Ruminant Feed  ~ Corn. This is the most popular grain used for feeds. High in total  digestible nutrients, low in fiber, and higher in fat.  ~ Corn bran. A by-product of corn milling industry. It consist of broken  grains of corn and bran, rich in protein.  ~ Rice bran. Called “tiki-tiki”, the good quality fine rice bran contains  an adequate amount of fat. First class bran contains approximately  11% crude protein.  ~ Sorghum. This is very similar to corn in feed value except that is  lower in fat.  ~ Copra meal. This is what is left of the coconut meat after the oil has  been removed or extracted.  ~ Soybean oil meal. This is a by-product after extracting the soybean  oil. It contains about 44% crude protein and is also a good source  of energy.  ~ Mungo. This legume is a human food, it can also be given to goats  in place of oil meal.  ~ Molass
  • 118.  Pasture and Forage Crops for Ruminants  ~ Grasses  ~ Star grass (6.05% crude protein (CP)  ~ Napier grass (1.57% crude protein)  ~ Para grass (3.00% crude protein)  Legumes  ~ Ipil-ipil (8.0% crude protein)  ~ Calliandra (9.42% crude protein)  ~ Kakawate (6.5% crude protein)  ~ Kadios (5.37% CP)  ~ Flemingia (6.0% CP)  ~ Sesbania (5.65% CP)  ~ Other local species
  • 119. Feed Formulation for Organic Ruminants Component Source Percent Weig ht Protein Fish (whole internal organ, gills, shells Soybeans, Mungbean, Madre de agua (dried or fresh)) 22 2.2 kgs Lipids/Fats Coconut meat, Vegetable oil, fish oil 8 0.8 kg (800 gms) Carbohydrates Rice bran, corn bran, cassava, banana, camote tubers 65 6.5 kgs Vitamins FFJ, FPJ, OHN, LABS, etc 2 0.2 (200 gms) Minerals Salt, Carbonized rice hull, charcoal, dried soil, etc. 3 0.3 kgs (300
  • 120. FEED FORMULATION TABLE (HOG GROWER) COMPONENT SOURCE PERCE NT (%) WEIGHT (KG,gm) Protein Fish (whole internal organ, gills, shells) Soybeans, Mungbean, Madre 22 2.2kgs Lipids/Fats Coconut meat, Vegetable oil, Fish oil 8 800 gms Carbohydrate s Rice bran, corn bran, cassava, banana, camote tubers 65 6.5kg Vitamins FFJ, FPJ, OHN, LABS 2 0.2 kgs (200gms ) Minerals Salt, carbonized rice hull, egg/bone calcium, dried soil, charcoa 3 0.3 kgs (300gms ) Total 100 10kgs
  • 121. PIG FEED FORMULATION (GROWER ) Materials Description QTY(kgs) Cost (PhP) % of mixture rice bran (D1) Fine 100 960 61.35 Corn Bran 50 500 15.34 Soya meal 15 126 09.20 ACES-FS Protein meal* – optional 10 310 06.14 Copra Meal 10 90 06.14 Banana Meal 7 56 Salt 2 12 01.22 Additives - ACES Nutri-balancer* - optional - ACES Multi-vitamins* - optional - Refine Coco Charcoal 5g 200g 1kg 250.00 50.00 15.00 Total Weight 200 2,369.00 100%
  • 122. Concoctions - FPJ - FFJ - FAA - OHN - LABS Total 2 Liters 2 liters 2 liters 100 ml 250 ml 6.350liters 200 Labor 2 Man Days 500 Total Cost 375.00/bag 3,069.00 (15.35/kg)
  • 123.  Recommended Feeding Ration  Weaning: 42 days  Days of culture: Number of days after weaning (43 days)  Frequency: one or two  Ration: the total feeds for the day
  • 124.  ORGANIC HOG BEDDINGS  80% Rice Hull /Sawdust (8 bags rice hull/sawdust)  10% Soil (1 bag soil)  10% Sand (1 bag sand)  1 Kg salt  Note: Soil is the ideal habitat for microbes to multiply, the role of  salt is to control ants/centipedes & other insects.  Always sanitize the pen first before placing the beddings, you may  use dried coconut leaves by placing on the pen and burning it,  spray LABS & IMO then leave for 10 minutes
  • 125.  Signs/Characteristics of an In-Heat Hog (Sow/Gilt)  Pinkish or reddish vulva  Swelling of vulva  Mucus discharge from vulva  Restlessness  Frequent urination  Mounting other pigs or allows other to mount her  Fertility Period of Trained Boar = 6-8 months
  • 126.  Care of Pregnant Sow  Provide separate pen for pregnant sow.  Provide with 14% crude protein.  Bath the animal during hot weather.  Avoid the animal from stress.  Avoid noise in the whole animal pens.
  • 127.  Breeding Techniques & their Advantages  Up-grading (low quality to a better/high quality breed).  Cross-breeding (breeding of two different breeds to maintain the  good characteristics of each breed, and improve or attain best  quality).  In-breeding (to maintain the quality of the existing breed/same  breed from a closely related breed but not the same blood line).
  • 128. PRODUCE VARIOUS CONCOCTIONS AND EXTRACTS  SUMMARY OF LEARNING OUTCOMES:  Upon completion of this module, the students/trainees will be able to:  LO1. Prepare for the production of various concoctions and extracts  LO2. Process concoctions and extracts  LO3. Package concoctions and extracts
  • 129.  1. IMO – Indigenous Micro-organisms. These are micro-organisms that are found in our environment which are beneficial to our farmers. These micro-organisms have their role to play in farming. 2. FPJ – (Fermented Plant Juice). These are juices produces from selected plant parts. Fermented plant juice (FPJ) or Bless Green Soup or Tenkei Ryokujyu is made by fermenting plant parts in brown sugar. Sprouts and baby fruits with high hormone concentration, full grown fruits, flower abundant in honey, and any plant with strong vigor are good ingredients. It is an ingredient in bokashi production and can also be used by applying directly to soil and plants.  2. FPJ is produced by the fermentation of plant leaves, grasses, thinned crop plants, auxillary buds and/or young fruits and flowers (Jensen et al, 2006). It contains plant growth hormones and micronutrients that stimulate the growth of beneficial microorganisms. The common materials being used in the Philippines are kangkong ( Ipomoea aquatica), sweet potato ( Ipomoea batatas) and kakawate leaves ( Gliricidia sepium).
  • 130.  3. . FFJ- (Fermented Fruit Juice). It is used as a foliar spray to enhance fruit quality, as a feed supplement for animals, and as a food supplement for humans. In general, FFJ is generally used more during the flowering and fruiting stage.  4. . FAA – (Fish Amino Acid). Utilizes the fish trash like gills small fishes and even whole body parts of fish. Fish amino acids are a good source of nitrogen for crop plants and may be used to supplement compost and manures in coastal regions which have a good supply of inexpensive fish by products. Some local government units (LGUs) such as Bayawan City in Negros Oriental is collecting fish trashes from the market for free and process this into FAA.
  • 131.  5. . LABS – (Lactic Acid Bacteria Serum). It converts waste into organic matter and basic minerals. LABS thrive and feed on the ammonia released in the decomposition normally associated with the foul odor.  6. . OHN – (Oriental Herbal Nutrients). Natural Pest repellant. It is use throughout the early, vegetative and change over and fruiting stages.  7. . CaPO4 – (Calcium Phosphate) induce flowering, prevent overgrowth, increase calcium factor in roots and leaves.
  • 132. COLUMN A COLUMN B 1.Fermented Fruit Juice(FFJ) a.inducedflowering,prevent overgrowth, increase ,calciumfactorinrootsadleaves 2.CalciumPhosphate(CaPo4) b.usedmore duringthefloweringandfruiting Stage 3.Organic Herbal Nutrients(OHN1and2)c.it isuse throughout theearly, vegetative and change over andfruitingstage 4.Lactic Bacteria Serum( LABS) d.utilizesthefishtrashlike gillssmall fishesand evenwhole bodypartsoffish 5.Fish Amino Acid( FAA) e.it convertswaste intoorganic matterandbasic minerals
  • 133.  USES/BENEFITS OF VARIOUS CONCOCTIONS  1. Indigenous Micro-organism (IMO)  a) As soil conditioner  b) Aid in nutrient digestions  c) Composting.  d) Can induce flowering among plants  e) Induce longer shelf life of fruits  f) Give added resistance to plants against pests and harmful insects
  • 134.  2. Fermented Plant Juice (FPJ)  a) Growth promotants (Bionutrients)  b) Nitrogen provider  c) Phyllosphere nutrients processor  d) Human nutrition  BENEFITS OF FPJ:  a) Helps maintain vigor in plants and resistance against pests.  b) Can be used for livestock bedding sprays (pig pens and poultry houses) to produce more colony of microorganisms.  c) Can also promote resistance against illnesses for human.
  • 135.  BENEFITS  1. A good source of nitrogen  2. Serves as “growth hormone” for plant growth and development  3. Used as foliar spray  4. Food of microorganisms  4. CALCIUM PHOSPHATE (CAPO4)  a) Cell structure (Bone) strengthening  b) Phosphorus provider  5. FERMENTED FRUIT JUICE (FFJ)  a) For ornamental and fruit flowering  b) For fruit sweetening  c) Potassium provider  d) For human nutrition  BENEFITS:  1. A good source of potassium which can speed up plants Absorption and results to sweeter tasting fruits.  2. Helps maintain vigour in plants and resistance against pests.  3. Adds to soil fertility and the advent of good colonies of microorganisms.
  • 136.  6. ORIENTAL HERBAL NUTRITION (OHN)  a. Plant Vitality enhancer  b. Downy and Powdery mildew control  8.LACTIC BACTERIA SERUM (LABS)  BENEFITS  a) Serve as insecticide and fungicide at the same time.  b) Provide more vigour and vitality to the plant.  c) Use to treat skin diseases of hogs and other animals  USE:  a) Use as energy drink for humans.