SlideShare a Scribd company logo
CBLM in
Producing
Organic
Fertilizer
Date Prepared:
August 2022
Document No.
Issued by:
TESDA - DN
Page 1 of 54
Prepared by:
Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1
HOW TO USE THIS COMPETENCY – BASED LEARNING MATERIAL
This learning material is designed to guide you in learning at your own
pace. To start with, talk with your trainer and agree on how you will both
organize the training for this module. He/she is there to support you and
guide you the correct way to do things. From time to time, you will be
required to practice and demonstrate the skills that you’ve learned from this
module and you will be requiring some assistance from your trainer (as
instructed in the learning material).
To proceed with the learning session, you just go through the Learning
Activity Sheet where you will follow series of learning instructions towards
attaining the learning outcome.
This procedure should be repeatedly done until you have completed all
the learning elements in this Competency – Based Learning Module or until
such time that you are ready to take the final assessment for this module.
You may skip some learning activities if you can demonstrate that you are
competent enough on the said task/s.
At the end part of this module is a Learner’s Diary. Use this diary to
record important dates, jobs undertaken and other workplace events that
may provide further details to your trainer and assessor. A Record of
Achievement will be provided to you by your trainer for you to accomplish
once you complete the module.
Upon completion of this module, study the evidence plan at the end of
the last learning element of this module then ask your instructor to assess
you. You will be given a certificate of completion as proof that you met the
standard requirements (knowledge, skills and attitude) for this module. The
assessment could be made in different methods, as prescribed in the
competency standards.
If you have questions, don’t hesitate to ask your instructor for
assistance. Your instructor will always be available to assist you during the
training.
CBLM in
Producing
Organic
Fertilizer
Date Prepared:
August 2022
Document No.
Issued by:
TESDA - DN
Page 2 of 54
Prepared by:
Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1
Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL)
You may already have some or most of the knowledge and skills covered in this
module because you have:
been working for some time
already completed training in this area
If you can demonstrate to your trainer that you are competent in
particular skill, talk to him/her about having them formally recognized so
you would not have to undergo the same training again. If you have a
qualification or Certificate of Competency from previous trainings, show it
to your trainer. If the skills you acquired are still current and relevant to
this module, they may become part of the evidence you can present for
RPL. If you are not sure about the level of your skills, discuss this with
your trainer.
Contents of this Competency-Based Learning Material:
Inside this Competency-Based Learning Material are several “Learning
Activities”. Each Learning Activity guides the learner to achieve one
learning outcome.
You must follow the “Learning Activity Sheet”. The Learning Activity
Sheets will guide you through different “Instruction Sheets” that will
assist you in performing different learning activities towards the
attainment of the learning outcome.
 Information Sheet - This will provide you with information
(concepts, principles and other relevant
information) needed in performing certain
activities.
 Operation Sheet - This will guide you in performing single task,
operation or process in a job.
 Job Sheet - To the attainment of the learning outcome. This
is designed to guide you on how to do the job
that will contribute
 Assignment Sheet - The assignment sheet is a guide used to
enhance (follow-up) what you have learned in
the information sheet, operation sheet or job
sheet.
CBLM in
Producing
Organic
Fertilizer
Date Prepared:
August 2022
Document No.
Issued by:
TESDA - DN
Page 3 of 54
Prepared by:
Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1
This module is prepared to help you achieve the required competency,
performing periodic maintenance. This will be the source of information that
will enable you to acquire the knowledge and skills in this particular trade
independently at your own pace or with minimum supervision or help from
your instructor.
- Talk to your trainer and agree on how you will both organize the
training of this unit. Read through the learning guide carefully.
It is divided into sections which cover all the skills and knowledge
you need to successfully complete this module.
- Work through all the information and complete the activities in
each section and complete the self-check. Suggested references
are included to supplement the materials provided in this
module.
- Most probably your trainer will also be your supervisor or
manager. He/she is there to support you and show you the
correct way to do things. Ask for help.
- Your trainer will tell you about the important things you need to
consider when you are completing activities and it is important
that you listen and take notes.
- Talk to more experienced work mates and ask for their guidance.
- Use the self-check questions at the end of each section to test
your own progress.
- When you are ready, ask your trainer to watch you perform the
activities outlined in the learning guide.
- As you work through the activities, ask for written feedback of
your progress from your trainer. After completing each element,
ask your trainer to mark on the report that you are ready for
assessment.
When you have completed this module (or several modules) and feel confident
that you have had sufficient practice your trainer will arrange an appointment
with you to asses you. The result of your assessment will be recorded in your
Competency Achievement Record.
CBLM in
Producing
Organic
Fertilizer
Date Prepared:
August 2022
Document No.
Issued by:
TESDA - DN
Page 4 of 54
Prepared by:
Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1
MODULE CONTENT
UNIT OF COMPETENCY : PRODUCE ORGANIC FERTILIZER
MODULE TITLE : PRODUCING ORGANIC FERTILIZER
LIST OF CORE COMPETENCIES
No. Unit of Competency Module Title Code
1 Raise Organic Chicken Raising Organic Chicken AGR612301
2 Produce organic
vegetables
Producing organic
vegetables
AGR611306
3 Produce organic
fertilizer
Producing organic
fertilizer
AGR611301
4 Produce organic
concoctions and extracts
Producing organic
concoctions and extracts
AGR611302
CBLM in
Producing
Organic
Fertilizer
Date Prepared:
August 2022
Document No.
Issued by:
TESDA - DN
Page 5 of 54
Prepared by:
Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1
MODULE CONTENT
UNIT OF COMPETENCY : PRODUCE ORGANIC FERTILIZER
MODULE TITLE : PRODUCING ORGANIC FERTILIZER
UNIT CODE : AGR611301
MODULE DESCRIPTOR:
This unit covers the knowledge, skills and attitude required to produce
organic fertilizers. It includes preparation of raw materials, composting
methods and processing of compost fertilizer.
NOMINAL DURATION : 18 hours
SUMMARY OF LEARNING OUTCOMES:
At the end of this module, the trainee/ student must be able to:
LO1. Prepare composting area and raw materials
LO2. Compost and harvest fertilizer
CBLM in
Producing
Organic
Fertilizer
Date Prepared:
August 2022
Document No.
Issued by:
TESDA - DN
Page 6 of 54
Prepared by:
Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1
COMPETENCY SUMMARY
Qualification Title : ORGANIC AGRICULTURE PRODUCTION NC II
Unit of Competency : PRODUCE ORGANIC FERTILIZER
Module Title : PRODUCING ORGANIC FERTILIZER
Module descriptor:
This unit covers the knowledge, skills and attitude required to produce
organic fertilizers. It includes preparation of raw materials, composting
methods and processing of compost fertilizer.
Learning Outcomes:
Upon completion of this module, you MUST be able to:
1. Prepare composting area and raw materials
2. Compost and harvest fertilizer
CBLM in
Producing
Organic
Fertilizer
Date Prepared:
August 2022
Document No.
Issued by:
TESDA - DN
Page 7 of 54
Prepared by:
Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1
Assessment Criteria:
1. Select site based on compost fertilizer
2. Prepare site lay-out based on location
3. Prepare bed in accordance with production requirements.
4. Gather materials based on production requirements and PNS for organic
fertilizer.
5. Prepare raw materials following enterprise procedure and PNS for organic
fertilizer.
6. Apply composting methods based on production requirements.
7. Monitor compost based on PNS indicators on fully decomposed fertilizer.
8. Check quality of harvest based on PNS indicators on fully decomposed
fertilizer.
9. Carry-out processing of compost fertilizer based on production
requirement.
10. Perform record keeping according to enterprise procedure.
CBLM in
Producing
Organic
Fertilizer
Date Prepared:
August 2022
Document No.
Issued by:
TESDA - DN
Page 8 of 54
Prepared by:
Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1
Learning outcome 1: Prepare Composting Area and Raw Materials
CONTENTS:
 Composting of Raw materials
CONDITIONS:
The students/trainees must be provided with the following:
 Area/Facility
 Materials
- Digging bar
- Shovel
- Meter stick
- Canvass
- Bolo
 PPE
- Boots
- Gloves
METHODOLOGIES:
 Lecture/Discussion
 Demonstration
ASSESSMENT METHODS:
 Direct observation with oral questioning
 Demonstration
 Written exam
CBLM in
Producing
Organic
Fertilizer
Date Prepared:
August 2022
Document No.
Issued by:
TESDA - DN
Page 9 of 54
Prepared by:
Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1
Learning Experiences
Learning outcome 1: Prepare Composting Area and Raw Materials
Learning Activities Special Instructions
1. Read Information Sheet 3.1-1
“Composting of Raw Materials”
If you have difficulty in
understanding the information, ask
your trainer for clarification.
2. Answer Self Check 3.1-1 Compare your answers with Answer
Key 3.1-1
3. Perform task sheet 3.1-1
“Prepare bed for composting”
Evaluate your performance using
performance criteria checklist for
task sheet 3.1-1
4. Perform job sheet 3.1-1
“Prepare raw materials”
Evaluate your performance using
performance criteria checklist for job
sheet 3.1-1
CBLM in
Producing
Organic
Fertilizer
Date Prepared:
August 2022
Document No.
Issued by:
TESDA - DN
Page 10 of 54
Prepared by:
Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1
INFORMATION SHEET 3.1-1
Composting of Raw Materials
Learning Objective:
After reading the information sheet, the trainee should be able:
 Select appropriate site for composting
 Recognize the Raw Materials
Composting is simply the process of turning organic matter that is ready for
disposal into something beneficial. Basically, organic materials like vegetable
matter, eggshells, coffee grinds, tea bags (anything that is not animal-based) is
placed in a suitable container or pile to decompose. Over time, these materials
turn into a rich form of soil that is absolutely chock-full of vitamins and can
help you grow amazing plants in any space.
Amazingly, compost can also have the power to
ward off harmful pests.
Anything that is organic and not animal
based is a viable candidate for composting. This
includes paper products, trimmed grasses, twigs
and/or leaves from your lawn and garden, as
well as a wide variety of food waste and debris.
In order to stay organic, be sure everything you compost is also free of toxic
chemicals.
Incorporating vitamin-rich earth from
a compost pile into the soil of a garden
can make the plants unbelievably healthy
and flavorful. Healthy fruits and
vegetables translate into healthy food on
COMPOSTING
CBLM in
Producing
Organic
Fertilizer
Date Prepared:
August 2022
Document No.
Issued by:
TESDA - DN
Page 11 of 54
Prepared by:
Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1
the dining table. And healthy food intake has been shown to go hand in hand
with healthy human beings living a happy life.
By composting, you can also help to reduce the amount of waste that is
being directed into our landfills. This means a reduction of concentrated, toxic
leachates and methane gas that is being released into the atmosphere, which
equates to a decrease in overall pollution. Composting also cuts down on the
usage of chemical fertilizers, which are harmful to our water supply.
In addition, composting can save money not only for a household, but it can
also help to balance a city's and eventually a country's budget. For example,
simply by composting, a household can trim down its budget by growing
chemical-free fruits and vegetables, while eliminating the need to spend money
on chemical fertilizers. Less garbage being sent to landfill also means a
reduction in waste management costs for your city, and eventually for the
entire country.
Composting is the degradation of organic matter by the action of
microorganisms, bacteria and fungi which work best under certain conditions.
They need moisture to be able to decompose the organic matter and also good
aeration as they need oxygen, nutrient balance, pH and temperature.
Nourish Our Earth - Composting converts a significant portion of your
household waste, up to 35%, into healthy soil. The soil produced from compost
is nothing short of a bundle of joy to the earth:
 Decrease soil erosion by enhancing soil structure
 Return a diverse number of nutrients to soil
 Reduce watering needs by improving water retention in the soil
 Suppress plant diseases
Skip the Landfill – Just like recycling, you send less material to the landfill
when you compost. Most people don’t want to create more landfills and by
composting, you send less material to the landfill which means it won’t fill up
as fast. That same landfill will remain useful for years longer. This is important
Importance of
composting
CBLM in
Producing
Organic
Fertilizer
Date Prepared:
August 2022
Document No.
Issued by:
TESDA - DN
Page 12 of 54
Prepared by:
Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1
in urban centers where landfill space is scarce but just as important across the
country.
Clear the Air – The process of composting food waste and green waste requires
oxygen and water. This process emits carbon dioxide as a result. However,
when organics decompose in a landfill where they are tightly covered up
without enough oxygen or water, methane is produced. Unfortunately, methane
traps 25 times more heat than carbon dioxide and is a much more powerful
greenhouse gas.
Use Our Resources Wisely – Organic waste can be turned into a valuable
resource to replenish the soil. Depending on the method used to compost the
green waste, gases emitted during the process can be captured to produce
renewable energy.
Site Planning
A compost site must be provided with sufficient area and condition for all
weather composting while limiting environmental risk, odor and noise.
Development for site of composting involves creating a plan for finding
acceptable location, adapting a composition method or vice versa, requires
sufficient area for operations, and implementing surface runoff and pollution
control measure as needed.
Factors to consider in composting
 Prevailing wind direction
 Land slope
 Traffic flow patterns
 Surrounding land uses
 Runoff patterns
 Bodies of water
 Activity configuration (handling of materials and processing)
CBLM in
Producing
Organic
Fertilizer
Date Prepared:
August 2022
Document No.
Issued by:
TESDA - DN
Page 13 of 54
Prepared by:
Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1
Permitting and Regulation
It is very important to understand local and state regulatory
requirements and permitting application that may affect the operation.
Furthermore, starting a composting facility will raise concerns among
neighbors and local public officials. Educating the people around is necessary
to have smooth operation.
Site Selection (Location)
The composting process will at times generate odors. To ensure that
occasional odors are not a nuisance to a surrounding community, the site
should be away from nearby sensitive receptors. Rural agricultural areas are
best suited to outdoor composting technologies. Where more sophisticated
indoor or ion-vessel is used, the facility setting standards may be modified.
Proper attention during the design phase would minimize the disturbance that
a facility brings to surrounding community.
Site Selection Criteria
Setbacks from sensitive receptors and other factors should be observed
whenever possible.
 Proximity to customers
 Proximity to transportation
corridors
 Minimum travels and
materials handling
 Firm surface to support
vehicles under varying
weather condition
 Opportunity for expansion
 Cost of space and utilities
 Buffer from neighbors
 Drainage and runoff control
 Avoid sensitive receptors such
as school and hospital
CBLM in
Producing
Organic
Fertilizer
Date Prepared:
August 2022
Document No.
Issued by:
TESDA - DN
Page 14 of 54
Prepared by:
Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1
Raw materials used for composting
Crop Residues
Crop residues are essential materials to be use as substrate for
composting. Rice straw, rice hull, and other straws of graminaceous crops with
abundant fibrous materials usually have high C:N ratio, with a low nitrogen
content but fairly high potassium and silica content. Potassium and silica help
improve the resistance of crops to disease, and lodging and fibrous materials
provide an energy source for soil microorganism as well as improve soil
physical properties. Crop residues are used as mulches to cover the surface of
the soil and help maintain favorable soil moisture and temperature as well as
prevent the accumulation of salt. This material could be combined with animal
manure to make better compost.
Food Waste
Food waste is characterized as high putrescent, rapidly degradable
feedstock with high moisture content and bulk density. The potential of food
waste to produce liquid leachate combined with its low carbon-to-nitrogen ratio
relative to ideal composting condition. Food waste is high in nitrogen and
speeds up the decomposition process of compost, adding food waste to yard
waste will reduce water needs throughout the process and increase the
nutrient content of the product.
Leguminous Plants
A leguminous crop refers to
those which have symbiotic nitrogen
fixing bacteria called root nodules.
These bacteria fix atmosphere nitrogen
into soil there by increasing the soil
nitrogen content naturally. They are
important in case of crop rotation in
order to avoid soil deterioration.
All plants are able to take up
nitrogen from the soil in the form of ammonium (NH4+) or nitrate (NO3-);
together these are known as available N. In addition to taking up available N
from the soil, legumes (clovers, medics, peas and beans) are also able to
CBLM in
Producing
Organic
Fertilizer
Date Prepared:
August 2022
Document No.
Issued by:
TESDA - DN
Page 15 of 54
Prepared by:
Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1
acquire N from the abundant supply in the atmosphere via special soil bacteria
(rhizobia) which are housed in nodules on their roots. With fully functioning
nodules, legumes can grow in soils that are deficient in available N. These
rhizobial ‘factories’ are subject to variation in establishment and performance
and so a supportive environment must be provided to maximize N2-fixation.
Leguminous crops are important because they increase the fertility of soil
by addition of nitrogen. In fact, a nitrogen fixing bacterium named Rhizobium
forms symbiotic association with the roots of leguminous crops and fixes
nitrogen. The nitrogen fixed by the bacterium is also released in the soil thus
contributing to soil fertility. Leguminous crops are frequently used in crop
rotation practises to restore the soil fertility.
Animal Manure
Composting animal manure has long been used as a soil amendment to
improve soil health. Composting has increased use as a tool to manage animal
manure in recent years for livestock producers. In addition to the soil health
benefits associated with applying animal manure compost, other advantages
include improved storage options, reduced volume of material to be transported
and spread on fields, and it is more suitable to be spread on hay and pastures
during the growing season than raw manure.
Pure manure is frequently too high in nitrogen and moisture content to
be properly composted. However, manure can be mixed with other carbon
sources such as straw, corn stover, wood residue, or leaves to balance the
carbon to nitrogen ratio and moisture content. Piles of compost are formed and
allowed to begin the composting process. During the process aerobic organisms
consume the nitrogenous and carbon compounds with oxygen and generate
organic matter, carbon dioxide and heat. As heat builds up within the pile and
oxygen is depleted a mixing or stirring process is required to release heat and
replenish oxygen within the pile.
Other Materials for Composting
 Fish and meat scraps
 Coal fire ash
 Sawdust from treated wood
 Glossy or coated paper
CBLM in
Producing
Organic
Fertilizer
Date Prepared:
August 2022
Document No.
Issued by:
TESDA - DN
Page 16 of 54
Prepared by:
Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1
SELF CHECK 3.1-1
Enumeration:
1. Give the importance of composting.
CBLM in
Producing
Organic
Fertilizer
Date Prepared:
August 2022
Document No.
Issued by:
TESDA - DN
Page 17 of 54
Prepared by:
Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1
ANSWER KEY 3.1-1
Enumeration:
1. Give the importance of composting.
 Nourish our earth
 Decrease soil erosion by enhancing soil structure
 Return a diverse number of nutrients to soil
 Reduce watering needs by improving water retention in the
soil.
 Suppress plant diseases
 Skip the landfill
 Clear the air
 Use our resources wisely
CBLM in
Producing
Organic
Fertilizer
Date Prepared:
August 2022
Document No.
Issued by:
TESDA - DN
Page 18 of 54
Prepared by:
Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1
TASK SHEET 3.1-1
TITLE: Prepare bed for composting
PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVE: Given the necessary supplies/materials, you
should be able to prepare bed for composting.
Supplies/Materials: PPE, Module, Facility/area, bolo, lumber, spade,
carpentry tools, boots.
Steps/Procedure:
1. Use the prescribe PPE.
2. Observe safety practices.
3. Prepare needed materials.
4. Prepare bed for composting following standard protocol.
Note:
Used the prescribe template for inspection (Checklist attached)
Assessment Method: Demonstration/ Performance Criteria Checklist
CBLM in
Producing
Organic
Fertilizer
Date Prepared:
August 2022
Document No.
Issued by:
TESDA - DN
Page 19 of 54
Prepared by:
Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1
Performance Criteria Checklist for Task Sheet 3.1-1
Trainee’s Name: ________________________
Date: __________________________________
Criteria Yes No
1. Did the trainee wear the prescribed PPE?
2. Did the trainee observe safety practices?
3. Did the trainee prepare needed materials?
4. Did the trainee prepare bed for composting following
standard protocol?
Comments/Suggestions:
Name of Trainer: ______________________
Date: _______________________________
CBLM in
Producing
Organic
Fertilizer
Date Prepared:
August 2022
Document No.
Issued by:
TESDA - DN
Page 20 of 54
Prepared by:
Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1
JOB SHEET 3.1-1
TITLE: Prepare Raw Materials
PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVE: Given the necessary supplies/materials, you
should be able to prepare raw materials for composting.
Supplies/Materials: Module, Facility/area, bolo, lumber, spade, carpentry
tools, manure, shredded plants, kitchen waste.
PPE: boots, gloves.
Steps/Procedure:
1. Use the prescribe PPE.
2. Observe safety practices.
3. Collect animal manure.
4. Collect shredded plants.
5. Collect kitchen waste.
6. Prepare raw materials following standard procedure.
Note:
Used the prescribe template for inspection (Checklist attached)
Assessment Method: Demonstration/ Performance Criteria Checklist
CBLM in
Producing
Organic
Fertilizer
Date Prepared:
August 2022
Document No.
Issued by:
TESDA - DN
Page 21 of 54
Prepared by:
Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1
Performance Criteria Checklist for Job Sheet 3.1-1
Trainee’s Name: ________________________
Date: __________________________________
Criteria Yes No
1. Did the trainee wear the prescribed PPE?
2. Did the trainee observe safety practices?
3. Did the trainee collect animals manure?
4. Did the trainee collect shredded plants?
5. Did the trainee collect kitchen waste?
6. Did the trainee prepare raw materials following standard
procedure?
Comments/Suggestions:
Name of Trainer: ______________________
Date: _______________________________
CBLM in
Producing
Organic
Fertilizer
Date Prepared:
August 2022
Document No.
Issued by:
TESDA - DN
Page 22 of 54
Prepared by:
Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1
Learning outcome 2: Compost and Harvest Fertilizer
CONTENTS:
 Composting methods
 Processing of compost fertilizer
CONDITIONS:
The students/trainees must be provided with the following:
 Area/Facility
 Materials
- Digging bar
- Shovel
- Meter stick
- Composting materials
- Bolo
 PPE
- Boots
- Gloves
METHODOLOGIES:
 Lecture/discussion
 Demonstration
 Field work
ASSESSMENT METHODS:
 Direct observation with oral questioning
 Demonstration
 Written exam
CBLM in
Producing
Organic
Fertilizer
Date Prepared:
August 2022
Document No.
Issued by:
TESDA - DN
Page 23 of 54
Prepared by:
Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1
Learning Experiences
Learning outcome 2: Compost and Harvest Fertilizer
Learning Activities Special Instructions
1. Read Information Sheet 3.2-1
“Composting methods”
This Learning Outcome deals with the
development of the Institutional
Competency Evaluation Tool which
trainers use in evaluating their
trainees after finishing a competency
of the qualification.
If you have difficulty in
understanding the information, don’t
hesitate to ask your trainer for
clarification.
You are required to get all the
answers correct. If not, read the
Information sheet again to answer all
questions correctly.
Compare answers with answer key.
Your performance will be evaluated
through the Performance Criteria
Checklist.
After completing all the activities of
this Learning Outcome, you are ready
to proceed to the next Learning
Outcome.
2. Answer Self Check 3.2-1
3. Perform Task Sheet 3.2-1A
“Process rapid composting”
4. Perform Task Sheet 3.2-1B
“Perform double dug composting”
5. Read Information Sheet 3.2-2
“Processing of Compost Fertilizer”
6. Answer Self Check 3.2-2
7. Perform Task Sheet 3.2-2
“Process compost fertilizer”
8. Perform Job Sheet 3.2
“Process organic fertilizer”
CBLM in
Producing
Organic
Fertilizer
Date Prepared:
August 2022
Document No.
Issued by:
TESDA - DN
Page 24 of 54
Prepared by:
Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1
INFORMATION SHEET 3.2-1
Composting Methods
Learning Objective:
After reading the information sheet, the trainee should be able:
 Determine methods of composting
 Apply methods of composting in actual scenario
Composting
Composting is the degradation of organic matter by the action of
microorganisms, bacteria and fungi which work best under certain conditions.
They need moisture to be able to decompose the organic matter and also good
aeration as they need oxygen, nutrient balance, pH and temperature.
THE COMPOSTING PROCESS:
As described in the section on organic matter in soil processes, the
composting process happens due to the activity of micro-organisms (bacteria)
and other larger organisms
like worms and insects.
These need certain conditions
to live. These include
moisture and air. To make
the best possible compost,
the micro-organisms must be
able to work optimally.
This can be achieved if the
following four factors are
combined to the best
advantage:
 Type of organic
CBLM in
Producing
Organic
Fertilizer
Date Prepared:
August 2022
Document No.
Issued by:
TESDA - DN
Page 25 of 54
Prepared by:
Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1
material
 Air
 Moisture
 Temperature
 pH
Feedstock and Nutrient Balance
Composting, or controlled decomposition, requires a proper balance of
“green” organic materials and “brown” organic materials. “Green” organic
material includes grass clippings, food scraps, and manure, which contain
large amounts of nitrogen. “Brown” organic materials include dry leaves, wood
chips, and branches, which contain large amounts of carbon but little nitrogen.
Obtaining the right nutrient mix requires experimentation and patience. It is
part of the art and science of composting.
C: N ratio
The C stands for carbon while the N stands for nitrogen. Carbon is
essential for building blocks of life for microorganisms and also a source of
energy while nitrogen is necessary for protein, cell structure and genetic
materials (Cortesia, 2008). Decomposition of organic matter is increased when
the proper C: N ratio is made available in the compost. This can be made by
adding up different amount of carbonaceous materials, called brown material
due to their dryness and nitrogen rich material called green material since they
are fresher and has relatively higher moisture content.
Moisture content
Like C: N ratio, moisture is another key parameter that needs to be
controlled for compost. The level of moisture in the compost regulates the
activity of the microorganisms and also the condition of degradation of organic
matter. If too little water is present, the microbial activity will be limited as it is
necessary for the microorganisms. At higher levels, the degradation of organic
matter by microorganisms may occur under anaerobic conditions. This
situation arises due to the fact that spaces inside the compost will be occupied
by water mostly giving less or no spaces for air to be in pores inside the
compost thus preventing air to penetrate giving rise to absence of oxygen
causing anaerobic condition
CBLM in
Producing
Organic
Fertilizer
Date Prepared:
August 2022
Document No.
Issued by:
TESDA - DN
Page 26 of 54
Prepared by:
Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1
The ideal moisture content of compost is between 40 – 60 % (Anon,
2009). At this moisture level, the compost is like a sponge in which the water
has been squeezed out and only a film of water is covering the compost at this
point. At this level of moisture, the microorganisms work best and also there is
prevailing aerobic conditions due to present of air in pores.
Temperature
Temperature is another important factor in aerobic degradation of
organic matter that is in windrow composting. The temperature is an indication
of microbial activity taking place inside the composting pile. The temperature
rises because of degradation of organic matter by microorganisms which
produce some energy. In case the temperature is too high or too low, or there
are no nutrients or enough water, microbial activities will stop resulting in
absence of degradation of organic matter. Usually, the optimum temperature is
between 43-660C.
Importance of Temperature:
Temperature Result
Above 700C Microbes die
55 – 700C Pathogens are inactivated
50 – 600C Weed seeds are inactivated
Below 400C Slow composting rate
As can be seen above, the different conditions prevailing at different
temperatures are given showing that for temperatures between 40 to 700C, the
composting rate is relatively higher but it should also be taken in consideration
that microorganisms are destroyed beyond 700C.
Aeration
Since the decomposition of organic matter is done in presence of oxygen
by aerobic microorganisms, it is necessary to provide good aeration for the
compost windrow. The aeration not only provides oxygen to the
microorganisms but also prevent odors by preventing formation of anaerobic
CBLM in
Producing
Organic
Fertilizer
Date Prepared:
August 2022
Document No.
Issued by:
TESDA - DN
Page 27 of 54
Prepared by:
Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1
digestion at high temperatures. There are several techniques of aeration but
the most common one is turning (Anon, 2010). Turning the pile also ensure
that outside materials are put in the center while turning s as to be subject to
the high temperature.
pH
The composting process is relatively insensitive to pH, within the range found
in mixtures of organic materials, largely because of the broad spectrum of
microorganisms involved. The optimum range of pH in composting is in the
range of 5.5-9.0. The composting takes place best at a pH of neutral, which is
at pH 7.0. pH is more important when the composting material has a high
nitrogen content, this accelerates the loss of nitrogen in the form of ammonia
gas. To lower the pH so that there is minimum loss of nitrogen right balances
of material should be achieved. The role of pH in composting, the moisture of
the outer layer of a windrow should be around 60 % so that the ammonia
escaping from the center of the pile is cooled and transformed into less mobile
nitrogen compounds.
Rapid Composting
Rapid composting technology involves inoculating the plant substrates used for
composting with cultures of Trichoderma
harziamum, a cellulose decomposer fungus.
The fungus, grown in a medium of sawdust
mixed with the leaves of ipil ipil, is called
compost fungus activator (CFA). There
must be favorable conditions for the decay
process, such as adequate moisture, an
appropriate initial C:N ratio of substrates,
and aeration.
The composting period is shortened
to just four weeks. The transfer of this
technology to Filipino farmers through a
National Program is described. Constraints
in technology transfer, economic benefits
from the use of compost processed through this technology, and other benefits
Methods of
composting
CBLM in
Producing
Organic
Fertilizer
Date Prepared:
August 2022
Document No.
Issued by:
TESDA - DN
Page 28 of 54
Prepared by:
Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1
attributed to the technology are explained. Soil fertility problems in the
Philippines, and official fertilizer recommendations, are discussed, together
with how the use of compost processed through the rapid composting
technology might address these fertility problems.
Steps in Composting
Preparation of Substrates
Substrates such as rice straw, weeds and grasses should be chopped.
Chopping helps speed up decomposition by increasing the surface area
available for microbial action, and providing better aeration. If large quantities
of substrates are to be used, a forage cutter/chopper is needed. Chopping can
be dispensed with if the compost is not needed in the near future.
The Compost Mixture
Carbonaceous substrates should be mixed with nitrogenous ones at a ratio of
4:1 or less, but never lower than 1:1 (on a dry weight basis). Some possible
combinations are:
 3 parts rice straw - 1 part ipil-ipil
 4 parts rice straw - 1 part chicken manure
 4 parts grasses - 1 part legume materials + 1 part manure
 4 parts grasses - 1 part Chromolaena odorata or Mikania cordata + 1
part animal manure.
CBLM in
Producing
Organic
Fertilizer
Date Prepared:
August 2022
Document No.
Issued by:
TESDA - DN
Page 29 of 54
Prepared by:
Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1
Double Dug Composting
Double digging is a gardening technique used to increase soil drainage
and aeration. It involves the loosening of two layers of soil, and the addition of
organic matter. Double digging is typically done when cultivating soil in a new
garden, or when deep top-soil is required. Double dig the land to improve water
retention and improve the soil.
Compost Making
Build the compost pile under some shade of the tree if possible, six feet
away from the trunk. The minimum size for a pile should be 3 feet wide, and 3
feet high, by 3 feet long. But you can make it bigger.
 To start the pile, loosen the ground underneath where the pile will be. To
a depth of 12 inches.
 Next lay down twigs, small branches, maize stalks, brush and woody
material, at least 3 inches of these over the base of the pile.
 Put down a 2-inch layer of mature material like dry weeds, dry grass,
straw, hay, paper, cotton material. Anything that is dry. Even wood ash.
 Put down a 2-inch of green material like fresh weeds, green grass, green
cover crops, kitchen wastes and animal manure. Limited to cat and dog
manure.
 Cover lightly with one half inch of soil and water lightly if possible.
Leave the pile until it is completely decomposed into good soil. This may take 2
or 3 months.to quicken the decomposition, cut the materials into small pieces.
CBLM in
Producing
Organic
Fertilizer
Date Prepared:
August 2022
Document No.
Issued by:
TESDA - DN
Page 30 of 54
Prepared by:
Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1
Windrow Composting
Windrow composting is the process of placing mixed material in long
narrow piles with regular agitation to avoid anaerobic condition building up
inside the windrow and also to prevent combustion to due overheating.
Windrow composting is suited for large volumes such as that generated
by entire communities and collected by local governments, and high volume
food-processing businesses (e.g., restaurants, cafeterias, packing plants). It will
yield significant amounts of compost, which might require assistance to market
the end-product. Local governments may want to make the compost available
to residents for a low or no cost.
This type of composting involves forming organic waste into rows of long piles
called “windrows” and aerating them periodically by either manually or
mechanically turning the piles.
The ideal pile height is between four and eight feet with a width of 14 to
16 feet. This size pile is large enough to generate enough heat and maintain
temperatures. It is small enough to allow oxygen flow to the windrow's core.
Large volumes of diverse wastes such as yard trimmings, grease, liquids, and
animal byproducts (such as fish and poultry wastes) can be composted through
this method.
CBLM in
Producing
Organic
Fertilizer
Date Prepared:
August 2022
Document No.
Issued by:
TESDA - DN
Page 31 of 54
Prepared by:
Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1
In-Vessel Composting
In-vessel composting can process large amounts of waste without taking
up as much space as the windrow method and it can accommodate virtually
any type of organic waste (e.g., meat, animal manure, biosolids, food scraps).
This method involves feeding organic materials into a drum, silo, concrete-lined
trench, or similar equipment. This allows good control of the environmental
conditions such as temperature, moisture, and airflow. The material is
mechanically turned or mixed to make sure the material is aerated.
The size of the vessel can vary in size and capacity. This method
produces compost in just a few weeks. It takes a few more weeks or months
until it is ready to use because the microbial activity needs to balance and the
pile needs to cool.
CBLM in
Producing
Organic
Fertilizer
Date Prepared:
August 2022
Document No.
Issued by:
TESDA - DN
Page 32 of 54
Prepared by:
Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1
Vermicomposting/Vermiculture
Vermiculture basically is the
science of breeding and raising
earthworms. It defines the thrilling
potential for waste reduction, fertilizer
production as well as the assortment for
the possible uses for the future.
Vermicomposting is the process of
producing organic fertilizer or the
vermicompost from bio-degradable
materials with earthworms. Composting
of worms avoids the needless disposal
vegetative of food wastes and enjoys the
benefits of high quality compost. Vermicompost is the excreta of earthworms,
which is rich in humus. Earthworms eat cow dung or farm yard manure along
with other farm wastes and pass ir through their body and in the process
convert it into vermcompost.
The municipal wastes; non-toxic solid and liquid waste of the industries
and household garbage’s can also be converted into vermicompost in the same
manner. Earthworms not only convert garbage into valuable manure but keep
the environment healthy. Conversion of garbage by earthworms into compost
and multiplication of earthworms are just simple process and can be easily
handled by farmers.
Vermiculture is the process of using worms to decompose organic food
waste, turning the waste into a nutrient-rich material capable of supplying
necessary nutrients to help sustain plant growth. This method is simple,
effective, convenient, and noiseless. It saves water, energy, landfills, and helps
rebuild the soil.
Vermicompost (vermi-compost, vermiculture) is the product of
the composting process using various species of worms, usually red
wigglers, white worms, and other earthworms, to create a mixture of
decomposing vegetable or food waste, bedding materials, and vermicast.
Vermicast (also called worm castings, worm humus, worm manure, or
worm feces) is the end-product of the breakdown of organic matter by
earthworms. These castings have been shown to contain reduced levels of
CBLM in
Producing
Organic
Fertilizer
Date Prepared:
August 2022
Document No.
Issued by:
TESDA - DN
Page 33 of 54
Prepared by:
Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1
contaminants and a higher saturation of nutrients than the organic materials
before vermicomposting.
Vermicompost contains water-soluble nutrients and is an excellent,
nutrient-rich organic fertilizer and soil conditioner. It is used in farming and
small scale sustainable, organic farming.
Advantages of composting:
 It does not have adverse effect to soil, plant and environment.
 It is an eco-friendly natural fertilizer prepared from biodegradable
organic wastes, and free from chemical inputs.
 Improves soil aeration, and tilth thereby reduce soil compaction.
 Improves water retention capacity.
 Promotes better root growth and nutrient absorption.
 Improves soil nutrient status of both macro and micro-nutrients.
Precautions:
 Vermicompost pit should be protected from direct sunlight.
 Always maintain moisture level.
 Protect the worms from rats, ants and birds.
Different Earthworms Species used in Vermicomposting
 Red Wiggler
 Red Tiger
 Blue Worms
 African night Crawlers (Eudrilus euginae)
Method of Composting
Bins
The simplest form of vermicomposting involves a bin made from plastic
or untreated, non-aromatic wood. Some form of bedding, such as shredded
paper or composted animal manure or decaying leaves, fills the bin and mixes
with a few handfuls of soil to provide the worms with material through which to
burrow. The bedding also requires water to stay moist and allow the worms to
breathe. Feed the worms organic food scraps such as vegetables, fruits, tea
bags and coffee grounds. Tossing in some egg shells will add calcium for the
worms and lower the bin’s acidity level. However, never compost meat, fish, or
other fatty, oily foods; otherwise the bin will produce a foul odor.
CBLM in
Producing
Organic
Fertilizer
Date Prepared:
August 2022
Document No.
Issued by:
TESDA - DN
Page 34 of 54
Prepared by:
Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1
Windrow
Most commercial farm vermicomposting involves windrows, which are
long rows of cow manure. Farmers typically stack the manure in rows 3 feet
high and 3 feet wide, with rows often stretching more than 100 feet long.
Farmers seed the windrows with worms, making certain to keep the rows
moist. Fresh manure added to the ends of the existing rows draws the worms
forward to keep the process moving.
Troughs
Cement troughs can also host vermicomposting. Usually the troughs
hold only manure, which is aged for at least a week before being placed in the
trough. This composting method begins with only a few inches of manure
spread across the bottom of the trough. Farmers then add the worms, allowing
them to feed on the manure for a few days before adding another layer of
manure. More manure layers are added every 10 days until the worm compost
reaches the top of the trough.
Pits
Some farmers use pits for vermicomposting, digging a large hole in which
to bury the worms and organic waste material. Of course, before adding the
worms and bedding, farmers must line the pit to prevent worms from escaping
into the surrounding soil. Canvas feed bags make a good lining, preventing
worm passage yet still allowing for suitable water drainage. Farmers fill the
lined pit with organic materials, such as straw, grass clippings and manure,
and then cover it with soil. After about a week, during which time the pit is
watered to maintain its moisture, farmers add worms. The worms immediately
burrow into the pit, beginning the vermicomposting procedure.
CBLM in
Producing
Organic
Fertilizer
Date Prepared:
August 2022
Document No.
Issued by:
TESDA - DN
Page 35 of 54
Prepared by:
Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1
Harvesting
Separating worms from finished compost
Use a worm’s own nature to easily separate it from finished compost. The
best method is to place a frame of hardware cloth with narrow openings (1/4
an inch is ideal) over your bin and pile the mixture of compost and worms on
top. If the bin is completely empty, make a new habitat with fresh bedding and
food. Use a desk lamp to shine light at the pile of compost. Worms are not
attracted of light; they will dive down below the compost surface, through the
hardware cloth and back into the bin below. You may have to spread your
compost in a thin layer or remove some to make sure the worms travel all the
way down to the bin below, but when you are finished you will have worm-free
compost and a fresh worm bin ready to go.
Take your compost-worm mixture and shape it into a cone or pyramid on
top of a sheet of plastic. Shine the lamp at the pile to encourage the worms to
dive deeper. Peel off the outer layer of compost and set it aside. Allow them a
few seconds to dig deeper, then peel off another layer and set it aside. Continue
this process, constantly driving the worms further towards the center of the
pile, until you are left with nothing but a ball of worms at the absolute center.
Place those worms back in your bin and put all that great compost you just
harvested to use.
Figure of Red Wiggler Figure of African Night Crawler
CBLM in
Producing
Organic
Fertilizer
Date Prepared:
August 2022
Document No.
Issued by:
TESDA - DN
Page 36 of 54
Prepared by:
Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1
Nutrient fropile of vermicompost and farm yard manure
Nutrient t Vermicompost Yard Manure
N(%) 1.6 0.5
PO(%) 0.7 0.2
KO(%) 0.8 0.5
Ca(%) 0.5 0.9
Mg(%) 0.2 0.2
Fe(ppm) 175.0 146.5
Mn(ppm) 96.5 69.0
Zn(ppm) 24.5 14.5
Cu(ppm) 5.0 2.8
C:N ratio 15.5 31.3
CBLM in
Producing
Organic
Fertilizer
Date Prepared:
August 2022
Document No.
Issued by:
TESDA - DN
Page 37 of 54
Prepared by:
Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1
SELF CHECK 3.2-1
Multiple choices: Choose the correct answer.
1. A composting process that involves feeding organic materials into a drum
and silo.
A.) In-vessel composting B.) Windrow composting
C.) Rapid comosting D.) Substrate composting
2. Composting method that involves with cultures of Trichoderma harziamum.
A.) Rapid composting B.) Windrow composting
C.) Substrate composting D.) In-vessel composting
3. It is a gardening technique used to increase soil drainage and aeration..
A.) Double dug composting B.) In-vessel composting
C.) Rapid composting D.) Windrow composting
4. Composting process that used earthworms.
A.) Vermicomposting B.) Rapid composting
C.) Windrow composting D.) Double dug composting
5. Composting process that mixed material is place in long narrow piles.
A.) Windrow composting B.) Double dug composting
C.) Rapid composting D.) Substrate composting
CBLM in
Producing
Organic
Fertilizer
Date Prepared:
August 2022
Document No.
Issued by:
TESDA - DN
Page 38 of 54
Prepared by:
Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1
ANSWER KEY 3.2-1
Multiple choices:
1. A
2. A
3. A
4. A
5. A
CBLM in
Producing
Organic
Fertilizer
Date Prepared:
August 2022
Document No.
Issued by:
TESDA - DN
Page 39 of 54
Prepared by:
Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1
TASK SHEET 3.2-1A
TITLE: Process rapid composting
PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVE: Given the necessary supplies/materials, you
should be able to process rapid composting.
Supplies/Materials: PPE, Module, Facility/area, animal manure, Trichoderma
harziamum, plant residues, spade, rake.
Steps/Procedure:
1. Use the prescribe PPE.
2. Observe safety practices.
3. Prepare needed materials.
4. Process rapid composting properly following standard procedure.
5. Observe 5S.
Note:
Used the prescribe template for inspection (Checklist attached)
Assessment Method: Demonstration/ Performance Criteria Checklist
CBLM in
Producing
Organic
Fertilizer
Date Prepared:
August 2022
Document No.
Issued by:
TESDA - DN
Page 40 of 54
Prepared by:
Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1
Performance Criteria Checklist for Task Sheet 3.2-1A
Trainee’s Name: ________________________
Date: __________________________________
Criteria Yes No
1. Did the trainee wear the prescribed PPE?
2. Did the trainee observe safety practices?
3. Did the trainee prepare needed materials?
4. Did the trainee process rapid composting following
standard procedure?
5. Did the trainee observe 5S?
Comments/Suggestions:
Name of Trainer: ______________________
Date: _______________________________
CBLM in
Producing
Organic
Fertilizer
Date Prepared:
August 2022
Document No.
Issued by:
TESDA - DN
Page 41 of 54
Prepared by:
Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1
TASK SHEET 3.2-1B
TITLE: Perform double dug composting
PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVE: Given the necessary supplies/materials, you
should be able to perform double dug composting.
Supplies/Materials: PPE, Module, Facility/area, animal manure, plant
residues, spade, rake.
Steps/Procedure:
1. Use the prescribe PPE.
2. Observe safety practices.
3. Prepare needed materials.
4. Perform double dug composting properly.
5. Observe 5S.
Note:
Used the prescribe template for inspection (Checklist attached)
Assessment Method: Demonstration/ Performance Criteria Checklist
CBLM in
Producing
Organic
Fertilizer
Date Prepared:
August 2022
Document No.
Issued by:
TESDA - DN
Page 42 of 54
Prepared by:
Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1
Performance Criteria Checklist for Task Sheet 3.2-1B
Trainee’s Name: ________________________
Date: __________________________________
Criteria Yes No
1. Did the trainee wear the prescribed PPE?
2. Did the trainee observe safety practices?
3. Did the trainee prepare needed materials?
4. Did the trainee perform double dug composting
properly?
5. Did the trainee observe 5S?
Comments/Suggestions:
Name of Trainer: ______________________
Date: _______________________________
CBLM in
Producing
Organic
Fertilizer
Date Prepared:
August 2022
Document No.
Issued by:
TESDA - DN
Page 43 of 54
Prepared by:
Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1
INFORMATION SHEET 3.2-2
Processing of Compost Fertilizer
Learning Objective:
After reading the information sheet, the trainee should be able:
 Determine the process of compost fertilizer
 Process compost fertilizer
Processing of compost fertilizer:
Generally, the high-quality organic fertilizer granules production
technological process consists of the following stages: production of compost,
compost grinding and drying and granulation.
Pre- treatment of raw materials
Selection and store of organic raw materials: Almost all organic wastes,
except those containing high toxins, can be used as composting materials, but,
to increase the soil organic matter or make a growth media, materials with a
high C:N ratio, such as straw and husk of grains/cereals (e.g., rice and wheat),
corn stalk, bagasse, sawdust, and other materials (e.g., tree trunks and
branches), will be the main ingredient. They should be dried and stored in a
nearby place.
CBLM in
Producing
Organic
Fertilizer
Date Prepared:
August 2022
Document No.
Issued by:
TESDA - DN
Page 44 of 54
Prepared by:
Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1
Particle size reduction: To shorten the compost time, the waste is
shredded to a uniform size and then mixed in a controlled way to ensure
desired properties of the composting mixture (C/N ratio, moisture content, etc.)
The straws and green manure should be cut into lengths of 5-10 cm. The wood
and shoots of fruit trees and vines should be cut with shredders, grinders, or
chippers.
Compost Process Design
The complete process takes 4-6 weeks. Commercial composting solution
for a wide range of organic wastes
Windrow composting method: Windrow composting is the most common
composting method used in North America due to its suitability for a wide
range of feedstocks and facility capacities. Composting can be more simply
carried out in windrows. In this method waste is dumped on ground in form of
piles of 1.5m to 2.5m height. (Windrow spacing needs to account for the size
and type of the turner) Because of biological activities, temperatures can reach
55℃. Regular turning of the windrows assists with mixing of the materials and
more importantly supply the oxygen to the bacteria, and also ensures that all
parts of the windrow reach the required 55℃ essential for pathogen
destruction. Turning is required every two to three days in the first two weeks
when temperature is 55℃ or above. After this period frequent turning of the
compost windrow is not required as less heat is generated and less oxygen is
required while the compost
Finished Compost Grinding, Drying and Screening Process
Finished compost is too wet and coarse to be granulated directly without
further conditioning. Therefore, preparing the compost for granulation, there
are 3 steps needing to do first:
 Grinding to produce a finer material (finely ground compost will allow
almost all the compost to undergo the granulation process); chain
crusher is used;
 Screening to remove larger particles (e.g. fractions >10mm will be
screened out and discarded. There is no fixed rule) rocks and unwanted
debris;
 Removing moisture by artificially drying the compost.
CBLM in
Producing
Organic
Fertilizer
Date Prepared:
August 2022
Document No.
Issued by:
TESDA - DN
Page 45 of 54
Prepared by:
Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1
Mixing Compost with other Nutrients
It is necessary to boost the nutrient content of composts when targeting the
granulated fertilizer market by the addition of other organic nutrients (e.g.
humic acid) and mineral fertilizers. Humic acid is useful to improve soil
fertility. It is an ideal additive to boost bio-activity and improve the performance
of compost or composted fertilizers, an effective agent to use as a complement
to synthetic or organic fertilizers.
The addition of these organic N sources and the mineral fertilizers, such as
rock phosphate and sulphate of potash, have a significant impact on improving
the particle size distribution of the mix and the ease with which the resulting
mix could be granulated. Horizontal mixer is used.
Granulation of Compost Fertilizer
Why granulation? Granulation allows significant simplification of the
storage, transport and dosage, improving both usability and storability.
Granulating compost improves its slow-acting properties, and avoids nitrogen
starvation.
Drying
Organic fertilizers in granular form must have a certain percentage of
moisture, and water retention in fertilizer has a significant impact not only on
the quality of the final product bust also its effectiveness, therefore the drying
process is an important step in the processing of organic fertilizer.
CBLM in
Producing
Organic
Fertilizer
Date Prepared:
August 2022
Document No.
Issued by:
TESDA - DN
Page 46 of 54
Prepared by:
Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1
Rotary dryer: rotary dryer is employed to reduce or minimize the liquid
moisture content of fertilizer granules which are handled by bringing them into
direct contact with a heated gas. Organic fertilizer granules are showered
through a hot gas, ambient or conditioned air stream flowing in either a co-
current or counter-current direction to remove moisture. Rotary dryer is widely
used in the fertilizer industry.
Organic Fertilizer Granule Cooling Process
Following the drying process, organic fertilizers are also cooled to remove
the heat with a rotary cooler. The cooler machine slopes slightly so that the
discharge end is lower than the material feed end in order to convey the
fertilizer through the cooler under gravity.
Organic fertilizers to be dried enter the cooler, and as the rotary cooler
rotates, fertilizer is lifted up by a series of internal fins lining the inner wall of
the cooler. When the fertilizer gets high enough to roll back off the pins, it falls
back down to the bottom of the cooler, passing through the cold air stream as
it falls.
Screening
Before bagging or bulk loading, organic fertilizer granules should be
screened to obtain the desired particle sizes and to remove the product size
fraction. In this process, fertilizers are separated by screening into product size
ranges which are useful as fertilizers and the granules larger and smaller than
the useful range are reprocessed:
 Fines are returned to the granulation stage;
 Over-sized particles are re-crushed and recycled to the granulator along
with the undersize ones;
 Uniform particle size is desirable for bulk bagging and for sale.
Packaging
Organic fertilizers with uniform size are fed in the automatic packaging
machine transporting by belt conveyor, and bagged.
CBLM in
Producing
Organic
Fertilizer
Date Prepared:
August 2022
Document No.
Issued by:
TESDA - DN
Page 47 of 54
Prepared by:
Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1
Storage
 Store compost separate from other chemicals in dry conditions.
 Extra care needs to be given to concentrate stock solutions. Secondary
containment should be used.
 Provide pallets to keep large drums or bags off the floor. Shelves for
smaller containers should have a lip to keep the containers from sliding
off easily. Steel shelves are easier to clean than wood if a spill occurs.
 If you plan to store large bulk tanks, provide a containment area large
enough to confine 125 percent of the contents of the largest bulk
container.
 Keep the storage area locked and clearly labeled as a fertilizer storage
area. Preventing unauthorized use of fertilizers reduces the chance of
accidental spills or theft. Labels on the windows and doors of the
building give fire fighter information about fertilizers and other products
present during an emergency response to a fire or a spill.
 Provide adequate road access for deliveries and use, and in making the
storage area secure, also make it accessible, to allow getting fertilizers
and other chemicals out in a hurry.
Storing fertilizers separate from other chemicals in dry conditions can minimize
these risks. Extra care needs to be given to concentrate stock solutions.
Secondary containment should always be used.
CBLM in
Producing
Organic
Fertilizer
Date Prepared:
August 2022
Document No.
Issued by:
TESDA - DN
Page 48 of 54
Prepared by:
Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1
SELF CHECK 3.2-2
Enumeration:
1. Enumerate the process of composting.
CBLM in
Producing
Organic
Fertilizer
Date Prepared:
August 2022
Document No.
Issued by:
TESDA - DN
Page 49 of 54
Prepared by:
Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1
ANSWER KEY 3.2-2
Enumeration:
1. Enumerate the process of composting.
 Pre- treatment of raw materials
 Mixing Compost with other Nutrients
 Granulation of Compost Fertilizer
 Drying
 Screening
 Packaging
 Storing
CBLM in
Producing
Organic
Fertilizer
Date Prepared:
August 2022
Document No.
Issued by:
TESDA - DN
Page 50 of 54
Prepared by:
Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1
TASK SHEET 3.2-2
TITLE: Process compost fertilizer
PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVE: Given the necessary supplies/materials,
you should be able to process compost fertilizer.
Supplies/Materials: PPE, Module, Facility/Area, shovel, sacks, rake,
screen, dryer area, storage.
Steps/Procedure:
1. Use the prescribe PPE.
2. Observe safety practices.
3. Observe sanitation.
4. Prepare needed materials.
5. Perform compost collection.
6. Perform screening
7. Perform drying of compost fertilizer.
8. Store compost fertilizer properly.
Note:
Used the prescribe template for inspection (Checklist attached)
Assessment Method: Demonstration/ Performance Criteria Checklist
CBLM in
Producing
Organic
Fertilizer
Date Prepared:
August 2022
Document No.
Issued by:
TESDA - DN
Page 51 of 54
Prepared by:
Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1
Performance Criteria Checklist for Task Sheet 3.2-2
Trainee’s Name: ________________________
Date: __________________________________
Criteria Yes No
1. Did the trainee wear the prescribed PPE?
2. Did the trainee observe safety practices?
3. Did the trainee observe sanitation?
4. Did the trainee perform compost collection?
5. Did the trainee perform screening?
6. Did the trainee perform frying of compost fertilizer?
7. Did the trainee store compost fertilizer properly?
Comments/Suggestions:
Name of Trainer: ______________________
Date: _______________________________
CBLM in
Producing
Organic
Fertilizer
Date Prepared:
August 2022
Document No.
Issued by:
TESDA - DN
Page 52 of 54
Prepared by:
Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1
JOB SHEET 3.2-2
Title: Process organic fertilizer
Performance objective:
Given the necessary tools and materials you should be able to process
organic fertilizer.
Materials: facility/area, module, carpentry tools, shovel, rake, sacks, plant
debris, animal manure, earthworms.
PPE: Boots, Scrub suit
Steps/Procedures:
1. Use the prescribed PPE
2. Observe safety practices.
3. Prepare needed raw materials.
4. Observe composting protocol.
5. Collect composted materials.
6. Store fertilizer following enterprise procedure.
Note:
Evaluate your work using performance criteria checklist (Job checklist
attached)
Assessment method:
Demonstration using performance criteria checklist
CBLM in
Producing
Organic
Fertilizer
Date Prepared:
August 2022
Document No.
Issued by:
TESDA - DN
Page 53 of 54
Prepared by:
Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1
Performance Criteria Checklist for Job Sheet 3.2-2
Trainee’s Name: ________________________
Date: __________________________________
Criteria Yes No
 Did the trainee wear the prescribed PPE?
 Did the trainee observe occupational health and safety
practices?
 Did the trainee prepare needed raw materials?
 Did the trainee observe composting protocol?
 Did the trainee collect composted materials?
 Did the trainee store fertilizer following enterprise
procedure?
Comments/Suggestions:
Name of Trainer: ______________________
Date: _______________________________
CBLM in
Producing
Organic
Fertilizer
Date Prepared:
August 2022
Document No.
Issued by:
TESDA - DN
Page 54 of 54
Prepared by:
Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1
References:
Organic Agriculture Philippine National Standard PNS/BAFS 07:2016
msuextension.org/publications/AgandNaturalResources/MT201206AG.pdf
https://www1.agric.gov.ab.ca/$department/deptdocs.nsf/all/agdex8875
https://www.nys-soilandwater.org/aem/forms/AEMInfoManFertStorage.pdf
https://www.ag.ndsu.edu/manure/documents/nm1478.pdf
https://www.oregonmetro.gov/tools-living/yard.../composting/composting-methods
www.suzannesministries.co.uk/../doubledigging/Composting%20and%20Double%20...pdf
https://www.usbg.gov/sites/default/files/images/compost_science_page.pdf
https://www.tipperarycoco.ie/sites/default/files/Publications/Home%20composting.pdf
www.cre.ie/Themed%20meetings/Munoo_Prasad_site_selection.pdf

More Related Content

What's hot

Organic Fertilizer 2 | Fermented Fruit Juice (FFJ)
Organic Fertilizer 2  | Fermented Fruit Juice (FFJ)Organic Fertilizer 2  | Fermented Fruit Juice (FFJ)
Organic Fertilizer 2 | Fermented Fruit Juice (FFJ)
Kirk Go
 
Agricultural Nursery Establishment and Management
Agricultural Nursery Establishment and ManagementAgricultural Nursery Establishment and Management
Agricultural Nursery Establishment and Management
Jupite Mark Banayag
 
Nursery production-Seedling Handling
Nursery production-Seedling HandlingNursery production-Seedling Handling
Nursery production-Seedling Handling
Carlos Holder
 
Agriculture Crop Production (ACP)
Agriculture Crop Production (ACP)Agriculture Crop Production (ACP)
Agriculture Crop Production (ACP)
Niña Mae Sabillo
 
Organic Chicken
Organic ChickenOrganic Chicken
Organic Chicken
Julie Fe De Alca
 
agri-crop-dll.docx
agri-crop-dll.docxagri-crop-dll.docx
agri-crop-dll.docx
SABINABACALSO
 
Agri-Crop Production - Lesson 2 perform estimation and basic calculation
Agri-Crop Production - Lesson 2 perform estimation and basic calculationAgri-Crop Production - Lesson 2 perform estimation and basic calculation
Agri-Crop Production - Lesson 2 perform estimation and basic calculation
Je-Jireh Silva
 
personal protective equipment for agriculture
personal protective equipment for agriculturepersonal protective equipment for agriculture
personal protective equipment for agriculture
Cielotolentino1
 
Agri-Crop Production - Lesson 1 use farm tools and equipment
Agri-Crop Production - Lesson 1 use farm tools and equipmentAgri-Crop Production - Lesson 1 use farm tools and equipment
Agri-Crop Production - Lesson 1 use farm tools and equipment
Je-Jireh Silva
 
UC9 - Practice Entrepreneurial Skills in the Workplace Driving.docx
UC9 - Practice Entrepreneurial Skills in the Workplace  Driving.docxUC9 - Practice Entrepreneurial Skills in the Workplace  Driving.docx
UC9 - Practice Entrepreneurial Skills in the Workplace Driving.docx
RomallyAntonetteTagn
 
Safety on the farm
Safety on the farmSafety on the farm
Safety on the farm
kathryngraham
 
3. brood and grow chicks cblm
3. brood and grow chicks  cblm3. brood and grow chicks  cblm
3. brood and grow chicks cblm
ameerxian114
 
Organic Concoctions and Extracts
Organic Concoctions and ExtractsOrganic Concoctions and Extracts
Organic Concoctions and Extracts
Jupite Mark Banayag
 
Planting-Systems.pptx
Planting-Systems.pptxPlanting-Systems.pptx
Planting-Systems.pptx
EuniceEstabillo2
 
APPLYING BASAL FERTILIZER.pptx
APPLYING BASAL FERTILIZER.pptxAPPLYING BASAL FERTILIZER.pptx
APPLYING BASAL FERTILIZER.pptx
ComputerChromu
 
K to 12 crop production teaching guides
K to 12 crop production teaching guidesK to 12 crop production teaching guides
K to 12 crop production teaching guides
Noel Tan
 
AGRI-CROP PRODUCTION- LO1-LO3 (2).pdf
AGRI-CROP PRODUCTION- LO1-LO3 (2).pdfAGRI-CROP PRODUCTION- LO1-LO3 (2).pdf
AGRI-CROP PRODUCTION- LO1-LO3 (2).pdf
LotLotVillamonte
 
DLL in TLE CROP PRODUCTION G8-7.doc
DLL in TLE CROP PRODUCTION G8-7.docDLL in TLE CROP PRODUCTION G8-7.doc
DLL in TLE CROP PRODUCTION G8-7.doc
HersalFaePrado
 
MAINTAIN NURSERY FACILITIES.pptx
MAINTAIN NURSERY FACILITIES.pptxMAINTAIN NURSERY FACILITIES.pptx
MAINTAIN NURSERY FACILITIES.pptx
JocelynMirasol1
 
Agri-Crop Production: Lesson 4 occupational safety and health
Agri-Crop Production: Lesson 4 occupational safety and health Agri-Crop Production: Lesson 4 occupational safety and health
Agri-Crop Production: Lesson 4 occupational safety and health
Je-Jireh Silva
 

What's hot (20)

Organic Fertilizer 2 | Fermented Fruit Juice (FFJ)
Organic Fertilizer 2  | Fermented Fruit Juice (FFJ)Organic Fertilizer 2  | Fermented Fruit Juice (FFJ)
Organic Fertilizer 2 | Fermented Fruit Juice (FFJ)
 
Agricultural Nursery Establishment and Management
Agricultural Nursery Establishment and ManagementAgricultural Nursery Establishment and Management
Agricultural Nursery Establishment and Management
 
Nursery production-Seedling Handling
Nursery production-Seedling HandlingNursery production-Seedling Handling
Nursery production-Seedling Handling
 
Agriculture Crop Production (ACP)
Agriculture Crop Production (ACP)Agriculture Crop Production (ACP)
Agriculture Crop Production (ACP)
 
Organic Chicken
Organic ChickenOrganic Chicken
Organic Chicken
 
agri-crop-dll.docx
agri-crop-dll.docxagri-crop-dll.docx
agri-crop-dll.docx
 
Agri-Crop Production - Lesson 2 perform estimation and basic calculation
Agri-Crop Production - Lesson 2 perform estimation and basic calculationAgri-Crop Production - Lesson 2 perform estimation and basic calculation
Agri-Crop Production - Lesson 2 perform estimation and basic calculation
 
personal protective equipment for agriculture
personal protective equipment for agriculturepersonal protective equipment for agriculture
personal protective equipment for agriculture
 
Agri-Crop Production - Lesson 1 use farm tools and equipment
Agri-Crop Production - Lesson 1 use farm tools and equipmentAgri-Crop Production - Lesson 1 use farm tools and equipment
Agri-Crop Production - Lesson 1 use farm tools and equipment
 
UC9 - Practice Entrepreneurial Skills in the Workplace Driving.docx
UC9 - Practice Entrepreneurial Skills in the Workplace  Driving.docxUC9 - Practice Entrepreneurial Skills in the Workplace  Driving.docx
UC9 - Practice Entrepreneurial Skills in the Workplace Driving.docx
 
Safety on the farm
Safety on the farmSafety on the farm
Safety on the farm
 
3. brood and grow chicks cblm
3. brood and grow chicks  cblm3. brood and grow chicks  cblm
3. brood and grow chicks cblm
 
Organic Concoctions and Extracts
Organic Concoctions and ExtractsOrganic Concoctions and Extracts
Organic Concoctions and Extracts
 
Planting-Systems.pptx
Planting-Systems.pptxPlanting-Systems.pptx
Planting-Systems.pptx
 
APPLYING BASAL FERTILIZER.pptx
APPLYING BASAL FERTILIZER.pptxAPPLYING BASAL FERTILIZER.pptx
APPLYING BASAL FERTILIZER.pptx
 
K to 12 crop production teaching guides
K to 12 crop production teaching guidesK to 12 crop production teaching guides
K to 12 crop production teaching guides
 
AGRI-CROP PRODUCTION- LO1-LO3 (2).pdf
AGRI-CROP PRODUCTION- LO1-LO3 (2).pdfAGRI-CROP PRODUCTION- LO1-LO3 (2).pdf
AGRI-CROP PRODUCTION- LO1-LO3 (2).pdf
 
DLL in TLE CROP PRODUCTION G8-7.doc
DLL in TLE CROP PRODUCTION G8-7.docDLL in TLE CROP PRODUCTION G8-7.doc
DLL in TLE CROP PRODUCTION G8-7.doc
 
MAINTAIN NURSERY FACILITIES.pptx
MAINTAIN NURSERY FACILITIES.pptxMAINTAIN NURSERY FACILITIES.pptx
MAINTAIN NURSERY FACILITIES.pptx
 
Agri-Crop Production: Lesson 4 occupational safety and health
Agri-Crop Production: Lesson 4 occupational safety and health Agri-Crop Production: Lesson 4 occupational safety and health
Agri-Crop Production: Lesson 4 occupational safety and health
 

Similar to UC3 CORE CBLM (Organic Fertilizer).docx

BREAD AND PASTRY PRODUCTION - CBLM
BREAD AND PASTRY PRODUCTION - CBLMBREAD AND PASTRY PRODUCTION - CBLM
BREAD AND PASTRY PRODUCTION - CBLM
Eric Talamisan
 
UC8-Exercise-efficient-and-effective-Sustainable-practices-in-the-Workplace-P...
UC8-Exercise-efficient-and-effective-Sustainable-practices-in-the-Workplace-P...UC8-Exercise-efficient-and-effective-Sustainable-practices-in-the-Workplace-P...
UC8-Exercise-efficient-and-effective-Sustainable-practices-in-the-Workplace-P...
RomallyAntonetteTagn
 
UC6- Present relevant information DRiving.docx
UC6- Present relevant information DRiving.docxUC6- Present relevant information DRiving.docx
UC6- Present relevant information DRiving.docx
RomallyAntonetteTagn
 
UC2-Work-in-A-Team-Environment-PTC Final (1).docx
UC2-Work-in-A-Team-Environment-PTC Final (1).docxUC2-Work-in-A-Team-Environment-PTC Final (1).docx
UC2-Work-in-A-Team-Environment-PTC Final (1).docx
RomallyAntonetteTagn
 
Acp10 week 3 4 edited
Acp10 week 3 4 editedAcp10 week 3 4 edited
Acp10 week 3 4 edited
NelsonNelson56
 
PLUMBING NC II - CBLM
PLUMBING NC II - CBLMPLUMBING NC II - CBLM
PLUMBING NC II - CBLM
Eric Talamisan
 
TLE10_ACP-NC-II_G10_Q1_mod2_Determine-defective-tools-and-equipment-according...
TLE10_ACP-NC-II_G10_Q1_mod2_Determine-defective-tools-and-equipment-according...TLE10_ACP-NC-II_G10_Q1_mod2_Determine-defective-tools-and-equipment-according...
TLE10_ACP-NC-II_G10_Q1_mod2_Determine-defective-tools-and-equipment-according...
Elvie Dejello
 
Four Levels of Learning Evaluation
Four Levels of Learning EvaluationFour Levels of Learning Evaluation
Four Levels of Learning Evaluation
Mavict Obar
 
Module 6 action planning and using program materials
Module 6   action planning  and using program materialsModule 6   action planning  and using program materials
Module 6 action planning and using program materials
The Windsdor Consulting Group, Inc.
 
HOUSEKEEPING NC III - CBLM
HOUSEKEEPING NC III - CBLM HOUSEKEEPING NC III - CBLM
HOUSEKEEPING NC III - CBLM
Eric Talamisan
 
SLAUGHTER OPERATIONS NC II - CBLM
SLAUGHTER OPERATIONS NC II - CBLMSLAUGHTER OPERATIONS NC II - CBLM
SLAUGHTER OPERATIONS NC II - CBLM
Eric Talamisan
 
shareworkshop-mod5slides.pptx
shareworkshop-mod5slides.pptxshareworkshop-mod5slides.pptx
shareworkshop-mod5slides.pptx
ERMIYASTARIKU2
 
para himo bado TLE
para himo bado TLEpara himo bado TLE
para himo bado TLE
Keith Borgonia Manatad
 
shareworkshop-mod5slides.ppt
shareworkshop-mod5slides.pptshareworkshop-mod5slides.ppt
shareworkshop-mod5slides.ppt
NWRailwaysJaipur
 
shareworkshop-mod5slides.ppt
shareworkshop-mod5slides.pptshareworkshop-mod5slides.ppt
shareworkshop-mod5slides.ppt
ArindamMitra52
 
CARPENTRY NC II - CBLM
CARPENTRY NC II - CBLMCARPENTRY NC II - CBLM
CARPENTRY NC II - CBLM
Eric Talamisan
 
Dressmakingtailoringlm 131005180801-phpapp01 (2)
Dressmakingtailoringlm 131005180801-phpapp01 (2)Dressmakingtailoringlm 131005180801-phpapp01 (2)
Dressmakingtailoringlm 131005180801-phpapp01 (2)
jen Saludar
 
dressmaking
dressmakingdressmaking
dressmaking
laridz
 
Dressmakingtailoringlm 131005180801-phpapp01
Dressmakingtailoringlm 131005180801-phpapp01Dressmakingtailoringlm 131005180801-phpapp01
Dressmakingtailoringlm 131005180801-phpapp01
jen Saludar
 
Dressmakingtailoringlm 131005180801-phpapp01 (1)
Dressmakingtailoringlm 131005180801-phpapp01 (1)Dressmakingtailoringlm 131005180801-phpapp01 (1)
Dressmakingtailoringlm 131005180801-phpapp01 (1)
jen Saludar
 

Similar to UC3 CORE CBLM (Organic Fertilizer).docx (20)

BREAD AND PASTRY PRODUCTION - CBLM
BREAD AND PASTRY PRODUCTION - CBLMBREAD AND PASTRY PRODUCTION - CBLM
BREAD AND PASTRY PRODUCTION - CBLM
 
UC8-Exercise-efficient-and-effective-Sustainable-practices-in-the-Workplace-P...
UC8-Exercise-efficient-and-effective-Sustainable-practices-in-the-Workplace-P...UC8-Exercise-efficient-and-effective-Sustainable-practices-in-the-Workplace-P...
UC8-Exercise-efficient-and-effective-Sustainable-practices-in-the-Workplace-P...
 
UC6- Present relevant information DRiving.docx
UC6- Present relevant information DRiving.docxUC6- Present relevant information DRiving.docx
UC6- Present relevant information DRiving.docx
 
UC2-Work-in-A-Team-Environment-PTC Final (1).docx
UC2-Work-in-A-Team-Environment-PTC Final (1).docxUC2-Work-in-A-Team-Environment-PTC Final (1).docx
UC2-Work-in-A-Team-Environment-PTC Final (1).docx
 
Acp10 week 3 4 edited
Acp10 week 3 4 editedAcp10 week 3 4 edited
Acp10 week 3 4 edited
 
PLUMBING NC II - CBLM
PLUMBING NC II - CBLMPLUMBING NC II - CBLM
PLUMBING NC II - CBLM
 
TLE10_ACP-NC-II_G10_Q1_mod2_Determine-defective-tools-and-equipment-according...
TLE10_ACP-NC-II_G10_Q1_mod2_Determine-defective-tools-and-equipment-according...TLE10_ACP-NC-II_G10_Q1_mod2_Determine-defective-tools-and-equipment-according...
TLE10_ACP-NC-II_G10_Q1_mod2_Determine-defective-tools-and-equipment-according...
 
Four Levels of Learning Evaluation
Four Levels of Learning EvaluationFour Levels of Learning Evaluation
Four Levels of Learning Evaluation
 
Module 6 action planning and using program materials
Module 6   action planning  and using program materialsModule 6   action planning  and using program materials
Module 6 action planning and using program materials
 
HOUSEKEEPING NC III - CBLM
HOUSEKEEPING NC III - CBLM HOUSEKEEPING NC III - CBLM
HOUSEKEEPING NC III - CBLM
 
SLAUGHTER OPERATIONS NC II - CBLM
SLAUGHTER OPERATIONS NC II - CBLMSLAUGHTER OPERATIONS NC II - CBLM
SLAUGHTER OPERATIONS NC II - CBLM
 
shareworkshop-mod5slides.pptx
shareworkshop-mod5slides.pptxshareworkshop-mod5slides.pptx
shareworkshop-mod5slides.pptx
 
para himo bado TLE
para himo bado TLEpara himo bado TLE
para himo bado TLE
 
shareworkshop-mod5slides.ppt
shareworkshop-mod5slides.pptshareworkshop-mod5slides.ppt
shareworkshop-mod5slides.ppt
 
shareworkshop-mod5slides.ppt
shareworkshop-mod5slides.pptshareworkshop-mod5slides.ppt
shareworkshop-mod5slides.ppt
 
CARPENTRY NC II - CBLM
CARPENTRY NC II - CBLMCARPENTRY NC II - CBLM
CARPENTRY NC II - CBLM
 
Dressmakingtailoringlm 131005180801-phpapp01 (2)
Dressmakingtailoringlm 131005180801-phpapp01 (2)Dressmakingtailoringlm 131005180801-phpapp01 (2)
Dressmakingtailoringlm 131005180801-phpapp01 (2)
 
dressmaking
dressmakingdressmaking
dressmaking
 
Dressmakingtailoringlm 131005180801-phpapp01
Dressmakingtailoringlm 131005180801-phpapp01Dressmakingtailoringlm 131005180801-phpapp01
Dressmakingtailoringlm 131005180801-phpapp01
 
Dressmakingtailoringlm 131005180801-phpapp01 (1)
Dressmakingtailoringlm 131005180801-phpapp01 (1)Dressmakingtailoringlm 131005180801-phpapp01 (1)
Dressmakingtailoringlm 131005180801-phpapp01 (1)
 

Recently uploaded

1All New Mahindra Thar SUV - Price, Specifications & Colors
1All New Mahindra Thar SUV - Price, Specifications & Colors1All New Mahindra Thar SUV - Price, Specifications & Colors
1All New Mahindra Thar SUV - Price, Specifications & Colors
nainasharma6nov #v08
 
Gregory-Cook_COP28-and-the-Just-Energy-Transition Webinar June 2024 PIX.pptx
Gregory-Cook_COP28-and-the-Just-Energy-Transition Webinar June 2024 PIX.pptxGregory-Cook_COP28-and-the-Just-Energy-Transition Webinar June 2024 PIX.pptx
Gregory-Cook_COP28-and-the-Just-Energy-Transition Webinar June 2024 PIX.pptx
gregcook62
 
10Machine threshing - IRRI Rice Knowledge Bank Thresher, Threshing machine - ...
10Machine threshing - IRRI Rice Knowledge Bank Thresher, Threshing machine - ...10Machine threshing - IRRI Rice Knowledge Bank Thresher, Threshing machine - ...
10Machine threshing - IRRI Rice Knowledge Bank Thresher, Threshing machine - ...
nishantkumar0312
 
Emergency response preparedness for Monsoon in humanitarian response.
Emergency response preparedness for Monsoon in humanitarian response.Emergency response preparedness for Monsoon in humanitarian response.
Emergency response preparedness for Monsoon in humanitarian response.
Mohammed Nizam
 
The Bank of Punjab: The Official Website
The Bank of Punjab: The Official WebsiteThe Bank of Punjab: The Official Website
The Bank of Punjab: The Official Website
reema kushawaha
 
Enviromenntal Biology Notes by BioTechTrek
Enviromenntal Biology Notes by BioTechTrekEnviromenntal Biology Notes by BioTechTrek
Enviromenntal Biology Notes by BioTechTrek
dhruvjain420952
 
VIP Girls Call Delhi 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in ...
VIP Girls Call Delhi 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in ...VIP Girls Call Delhi 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in ...
VIP Girls Call Delhi 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in ...
janvikumar4133
 
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS ASSESSMENT FOR NATURE
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS ASSESSMENT FOR NATUREENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS ASSESSMENT FOR NATURE
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS ASSESSMENT FOR NATURE
saloniswain225
 
Desertification-A Project by Gurnaaz.pptx
Desertification-A Project by Gurnaaz.pptxDesertification-A Project by Gurnaaz.pptx
Desertification-A Project by Gurnaaz.pptx
jasmeekdhillon
 
TEMPORARY SCHEDULE WASTE COLLECTION BIN.pptx
TEMPORARY SCHEDULE WASTE COLLECTION BIN.pptxTEMPORARY SCHEDULE WASTE COLLECTION BIN.pptx
TEMPORARY SCHEDULE WASTE COLLECTION BIN.pptx
fosineru
 
estudios fitoquimicos de plantas africanas
estudios fitoquimicos de plantas africanasestudios fitoquimicos de plantas africanas
estudios fitoquimicos de plantas africanas
JuanEnriqueTacoronte1
 
Girls Call Hyderabad 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Service And No1
Girls Call Hyderabad 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Service And No1Girls Call Hyderabad 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Service And No1
Girls Call Hyderabad 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Service And No1
solankikamal004
 
Relation between tourism and environment in development
Relation between tourism and environment in developmentRelation between tourism and environment in development
Relation between tourism and environment in development
bikramkunwar2020d
 
Lank National_Policy_on_Waste_Management_English 2000.pdf
Lank National_Policy_on_Waste_Management_English 2000.pdfLank National_Policy_on_Waste_Management_English 2000.pdf
Lank National_Policy_on_Waste_Management_English 2000.pdf
brianpwj
 
the basics of microsoft azure is covered here
the basics of microsoft azure  is covered herethe basics of microsoft azure  is covered here
the basics of microsoft azure is covered here
ChetanLunthi
 
Dating Girls Call Delhi 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...
Dating Girls Call Delhi 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...Dating Girls Call Delhi 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...
Dating Girls Call Delhi 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...
sonamrawat5631
 
Beautiful Girls Call Mumbai 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And ...
Beautiful Girls Call Mumbai 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And ...Beautiful Girls Call Mumbai 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And ...
Beautiful Girls Call Mumbai 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And ...
44annissa
 
The Niger Delta Environmental Advocacy Strategy in the Drive for Internationa...
The Niger Delta Environmental Advocacy Strategy in the Drive for Internationa...The Niger Delta Environmental Advocacy Strategy in the Drive for Internationa...
The Niger Delta Environmental Advocacy Strategy in the Drive for Internationa...
SAMASI ANDERSON
 
Girls Call Delhi 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
Girls Call Delhi 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in CityGirls Call Delhi 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
Girls Call Delhi 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
janvikumar4133
 
total suspended solids, very important topic from wastewatr treatment
total suspended solids, very important topic from wastewatr treatmenttotal suspended solids, very important topic from wastewatr treatment
total suspended solids, very important topic from wastewatr treatment
jyotisharma201910
 

Recently uploaded (20)

1All New Mahindra Thar SUV - Price, Specifications & Colors
1All New Mahindra Thar SUV - Price, Specifications & Colors1All New Mahindra Thar SUV - Price, Specifications & Colors
1All New Mahindra Thar SUV - Price, Specifications & Colors
 
Gregory-Cook_COP28-and-the-Just-Energy-Transition Webinar June 2024 PIX.pptx
Gregory-Cook_COP28-and-the-Just-Energy-Transition Webinar June 2024 PIX.pptxGregory-Cook_COP28-and-the-Just-Energy-Transition Webinar June 2024 PIX.pptx
Gregory-Cook_COP28-and-the-Just-Energy-Transition Webinar June 2024 PIX.pptx
 
10Machine threshing - IRRI Rice Knowledge Bank Thresher, Threshing machine - ...
10Machine threshing - IRRI Rice Knowledge Bank Thresher, Threshing machine - ...10Machine threshing - IRRI Rice Knowledge Bank Thresher, Threshing machine - ...
10Machine threshing - IRRI Rice Knowledge Bank Thresher, Threshing machine - ...
 
Emergency response preparedness for Monsoon in humanitarian response.
Emergency response preparedness for Monsoon in humanitarian response.Emergency response preparedness for Monsoon in humanitarian response.
Emergency response preparedness for Monsoon in humanitarian response.
 
The Bank of Punjab: The Official Website
The Bank of Punjab: The Official WebsiteThe Bank of Punjab: The Official Website
The Bank of Punjab: The Official Website
 
Enviromenntal Biology Notes by BioTechTrek
Enviromenntal Biology Notes by BioTechTrekEnviromenntal Biology Notes by BioTechTrek
Enviromenntal Biology Notes by BioTechTrek
 
VIP Girls Call Delhi 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in ...
VIP Girls Call Delhi 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in ...VIP Girls Call Delhi 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in ...
VIP Girls Call Delhi 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in ...
 
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS ASSESSMENT FOR NATURE
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS ASSESSMENT FOR NATUREENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS ASSESSMENT FOR NATURE
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS ASSESSMENT FOR NATURE
 
Desertification-A Project by Gurnaaz.pptx
Desertification-A Project by Gurnaaz.pptxDesertification-A Project by Gurnaaz.pptx
Desertification-A Project by Gurnaaz.pptx
 
TEMPORARY SCHEDULE WASTE COLLECTION BIN.pptx
TEMPORARY SCHEDULE WASTE COLLECTION BIN.pptxTEMPORARY SCHEDULE WASTE COLLECTION BIN.pptx
TEMPORARY SCHEDULE WASTE COLLECTION BIN.pptx
 
estudios fitoquimicos de plantas africanas
estudios fitoquimicos de plantas africanasestudios fitoquimicos de plantas africanas
estudios fitoquimicos de plantas africanas
 
Girls Call Hyderabad 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Service And No1
Girls Call Hyderabad 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Service And No1Girls Call Hyderabad 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Service And No1
Girls Call Hyderabad 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Service And No1
 
Relation between tourism and environment in development
Relation between tourism and environment in developmentRelation between tourism and environment in development
Relation between tourism and environment in development
 
Lank National_Policy_on_Waste_Management_English 2000.pdf
Lank National_Policy_on_Waste_Management_English 2000.pdfLank National_Policy_on_Waste_Management_English 2000.pdf
Lank National_Policy_on_Waste_Management_English 2000.pdf
 
the basics of microsoft azure is covered here
the basics of microsoft azure  is covered herethe basics of microsoft azure  is covered here
the basics of microsoft azure is covered here
 
Dating Girls Call Delhi 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...
Dating Girls Call Delhi 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...Dating Girls Call Delhi 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...
Dating Girls Call Delhi 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...
 
Beautiful Girls Call Mumbai 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And ...
Beautiful Girls Call Mumbai 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And ...Beautiful Girls Call Mumbai 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And ...
Beautiful Girls Call Mumbai 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And ...
 
The Niger Delta Environmental Advocacy Strategy in the Drive for Internationa...
The Niger Delta Environmental Advocacy Strategy in the Drive for Internationa...The Niger Delta Environmental Advocacy Strategy in the Drive for Internationa...
The Niger Delta Environmental Advocacy Strategy in the Drive for Internationa...
 
Girls Call Delhi 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
Girls Call Delhi 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in CityGirls Call Delhi 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
Girls Call Delhi 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
 
total suspended solids, very important topic from wastewatr treatment
total suspended solids, very important topic from wastewatr treatmenttotal suspended solids, very important topic from wastewatr treatment
total suspended solids, very important topic from wastewatr treatment
 

UC3 CORE CBLM (Organic Fertilizer).docx

  • 1. CBLM in Producing Organic Fertilizer Date Prepared: August 2022 Document No. Issued by: TESDA - DN Page 1 of 54 Prepared by: Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1 HOW TO USE THIS COMPETENCY – BASED LEARNING MATERIAL This learning material is designed to guide you in learning at your own pace. To start with, talk with your trainer and agree on how you will both organize the training for this module. He/she is there to support you and guide you the correct way to do things. From time to time, you will be required to practice and demonstrate the skills that you’ve learned from this module and you will be requiring some assistance from your trainer (as instructed in the learning material). To proceed with the learning session, you just go through the Learning Activity Sheet where you will follow series of learning instructions towards attaining the learning outcome. This procedure should be repeatedly done until you have completed all the learning elements in this Competency – Based Learning Module or until such time that you are ready to take the final assessment for this module. You may skip some learning activities if you can demonstrate that you are competent enough on the said task/s. At the end part of this module is a Learner’s Diary. Use this diary to record important dates, jobs undertaken and other workplace events that may provide further details to your trainer and assessor. A Record of Achievement will be provided to you by your trainer for you to accomplish once you complete the module. Upon completion of this module, study the evidence plan at the end of the last learning element of this module then ask your instructor to assess you. You will be given a certificate of completion as proof that you met the standard requirements (knowledge, skills and attitude) for this module. The assessment could be made in different methods, as prescribed in the competency standards. If you have questions, don’t hesitate to ask your instructor for assistance. Your instructor will always be available to assist you during the training.
  • 2. CBLM in Producing Organic Fertilizer Date Prepared: August 2022 Document No. Issued by: TESDA - DN Page 2 of 54 Prepared by: Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1 Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) You may already have some or most of the knowledge and skills covered in this module because you have: been working for some time already completed training in this area If you can demonstrate to your trainer that you are competent in particular skill, talk to him/her about having them formally recognized so you would not have to undergo the same training again. If you have a qualification or Certificate of Competency from previous trainings, show it to your trainer. If the skills you acquired are still current and relevant to this module, they may become part of the evidence you can present for RPL. If you are not sure about the level of your skills, discuss this with your trainer. Contents of this Competency-Based Learning Material: Inside this Competency-Based Learning Material are several “Learning Activities”. Each Learning Activity guides the learner to achieve one learning outcome. You must follow the “Learning Activity Sheet”. The Learning Activity Sheets will guide you through different “Instruction Sheets” that will assist you in performing different learning activities towards the attainment of the learning outcome.  Information Sheet - This will provide you with information (concepts, principles and other relevant information) needed in performing certain activities.  Operation Sheet - This will guide you in performing single task, operation or process in a job.  Job Sheet - To the attainment of the learning outcome. This is designed to guide you on how to do the job that will contribute  Assignment Sheet - The assignment sheet is a guide used to enhance (follow-up) what you have learned in the information sheet, operation sheet or job sheet.
  • 3. CBLM in Producing Organic Fertilizer Date Prepared: August 2022 Document No. Issued by: TESDA - DN Page 3 of 54 Prepared by: Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1 This module is prepared to help you achieve the required competency, performing periodic maintenance. This will be the source of information that will enable you to acquire the knowledge and skills in this particular trade independently at your own pace or with minimum supervision or help from your instructor. - Talk to your trainer and agree on how you will both organize the training of this unit. Read through the learning guide carefully. It is divided into sections which cover all the skills and knowledge you need to successfully complete this module. - Work through all the information and complete the activities in each section and complete the self-check. Suggested references are included to supplement the materials provided in this module. - Most probably your trainer will also be your supervisor or manager. He/she is there to support you and show you the correct way to do things. Ask for help. - Your trainer will tell you about the important things you need to consider when you are completing activities and it is important that you listen and take notes. - Talk to more experienced work mates and ask for their guidance. - Use the self-check questions at the end of each section to test your own progress. - When you are ready, ask your trainer to watch you perform the activities outlined in the learning guide. - As you work through the activities, ask for written feedback of your progress from your trainer. After completing each element, ask your trainer to mark on the report that you are ready for assessment. When you have completed this module (or several modules) and feel confident that you have had sufficient practice your trainer will arrange an appointment with you to asses you. The result of your assessment will be recorded in your Competency Achievement Record.
  • 4. CBLM in Producing Organic Fertilizer Date Prepared: August 2022 Document No. Issued by: TESDA - DN Page 4 of 54 Prepared by: Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1 MODULE CONTENT UNIT OF COMPETENCY : PRODUCE ORGANIC FERTILIZER MODULE TITLE : PRODUCING ORGANIC FERTILIZER LIST OF CORE COMPETENCIES No. Unit of Competency Module Title Code 1 Raise Organic Chicken Raising Organic Chicken AGR612301 2 Produce organic vegetables Producing organic vegetables AGR611306 3 Produce organic fertilizer Producing organic fertilizer AGR611301 4 Produce organic concoctions and extracts Producing organic concoctions and extracts AGR611302
  • 5. CBLM in Producing Organic Fertilizer Date Prepared: August 2022 Document No. Issued by: TESDA - DN Page 5 of 54 Prepared by: Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1 MODULE CONTENT UNIT OF COMPETENCY : PRODUCE ORGANIC FERTILIZER MODULE TITLE : PRODUCING ORGANIC FERTILIZER UNIT CODE : AGR611301 MODULE DESCRIPTOR: This unit covers the knowledge, skills and attitude required to produce organic fertilizers. It includes preparation of raw materials, composting methods and processing of compost fertilizer. NOMINAL DURATION : 18 hours SUMMARY OF LEARNING OUTCOMES: At the end of this module, the trainee/ student must be able to: LO1. Prepare composting area and raw materials LO2. Compost and harvest fertilizer
  • 6. CBLM in Producing Organic Fertilizer Date Prepared: August 2022 Document No. Issued by: TESDA - DN Page 6 of 54 Prepared by: Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1 COMPETENCY SUMMARY Qualification Title : ORGANIC AGRICULTURE PRODUCTION NC II Unit of Competency : PRODUCE ORGANIC FERTILIZER Module Title : PRODUCING ORGANIC FERTILIZER Module descriptor: This unit covers the knowledge, skills and attitude required to produce organic fertilizers. It includes preparation of raw materials, composting methods and processing of compost fertilizer. Learning Outcomes: Upon completion of this module, you MUST be able to: 1. Prepare composting area and raw materials 2. Compost and harvest fertilizer
  • 7. CBLM in Producing Organic Fertilizer Date Prepared: August 2022 Document No. Issued by: TESDA - DN Page 7 of 54 Prepared by: Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1 Assessment Criteria: 1. Select site based on compost fertilizer 2. Prepare site lay-out based on location 3. Prepare bed in accordance with production requirements. 4. Gather materials based on production requirements and PNS for organic fertilizer. 5. Prepare raw materials following enterprise procedure and PNS for organic fertilizer. 6. Apply composting methods based on production requirements. 7. Monitor compost based on PNS indicators on fully decomposed fertilizer. 8. Check quality of harvest based on PNS indicators on fully decomposed fertilizer. 9. Carry-out processing of compost fertilizer based on production requirement. 10. Perform record keeping according to enterprise procedure.
  • 8. CBLM in Producing Organic Fertilizer Date Prepared: August 2022 Document No. Issued by: TESDA - DN Page 8 of 54 Prepared by: Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1 Learning outcome 1: Prepare Composting Area and Raw Materials CONTENTS:  Composting of Raw materials CONDITIONS: The students/trainees must be provided with the following:  Area/Facility  Materials - Digging bar - Shovel - Meter stick - Canvass - Bolo  PPE - Boots - Gloves METHODOLOGIES:  Lecture/Discussion  Demonstration ASSESSMENT METHODS:  Direct observation with oral questioning  Demonstration  Written exam
  • 9. CBLM in Producing Organic Fertilizer Date Prepared: August 2022 Document No. Issued by: TESDA - DN Page 9 of 54 Prepared by: Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1 Learning Experiences Learning outcome 1: Prepare Composting Area and Raw Materials Learning Activities Special Instructions 1. Read Information Sheet 3.1-1 “Composting of Raw Materials” If you have difficulty in understanding the information, ask your trainer for clarification. 2. Answer Self Check 3.1-1 Compare your answers with Answer Key 3.1-1 3. Perform task sheet 3.1-1 “Prepare bed for composting” Evaluate your performance using performance criteria checklist for task sheet 3.1-1 4. Perform job sheet 3.1-1 “Prepare raw materials” Evaluate your performance using performance criteria checklist for job sheet 3.1-1
  • 10. CBLM in Producing Organic Fertilizer Date Prepared: August 2022 Document No. Issued by: TESDA - DN Page 10 of 54 Prepared by: Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1 INFORMATION SHEET 3.1-1 Composting of Raw Materials Learning Objective: After reading the information sheet, the trainee should be able:  Select appropriate site for composting  Recognize the Raw Materials Composting is simply the process of turning organic matter that is ready for disposal into something beneficial. Basically, organic materials like vegetable matter, eggshells, coffee grinds, tea bags (anything that is not animal-based) is placed in a suitable container or pile to decompose. Over time, these materials turn into a rich form of soil that is absolutely chock-full of vitamins and can help you grow amazing plants in any space. Amazingly, compost can also have the power to ward off harmful pests. Anything that is organic and not animal based is a viable candidate for composting. This includes paper products, trimmed grasses, twigs and/or leaves from your lawn and garden, as well as a wide variety of food waste and debris. In order to stay organic, be sure everything you compost is also free of toxic chemicals. Incorporating vitamin-rich earth from a compost pile into the soil of a garden can make the plants unbelievably healthy and flavorful. Healthy fruits and vegetables translate into healthy food on COMPOSTING
  • 11. CBLM in Producing Organic Fertilizer Date Prepared: August 2022 Document No. Issued by: TESDA - DN Page 11 of 54 Prepared by: Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1 the dining table. And healthy food intake has been shown to go hand in hand with healthy human beings living a happy life. By composting, you can also help to reduce the amount of waste that is being directed into our landfills. This means a reduction of concentrated, toxic leachates and methane gas that is being released into the atmosphere, which equates to a decrease in overall pollution. Composting also cuts down on the usage of chemical fertilizers, which are harmful to our water supply. In addition, composting can save money not only for a household, but it can also help to balance a city's and eventually a country's budget. For example, simply by composting, a household can trim down its budget by growing chemical-free fruits and vegetables, while eliminating the need to spend money on chemical fertilizers. Less garbage being sent to landfill also means a reduction in waste management costs for your city, and eventually for the entire country. Composting is the degradation of organic matter by the action of microorganisms, bacteria and fungi which work best under certain conditions. They need moisture to be able to decompose the organic matter and also good aeration as they need oxygen, nutrient balance, pH and temperature. Nourish Our Earth - Composting converts a significant portion of your household waste, up to 35%, into healthy soil. The soil produced from compost is nothing short of a bundle of joy to the earth:  Decrease soil erosion by enhancing soil structure  Return a diverse number of nutrients to soil  Reduce watering needs by improving water retention in the soil  Suppress plant diseases Skip the Landfill – Just like recycling, you send less material to the landfill when you compost. Most people don’t want to create more landfills and by composting, you send less material to the landfill which means it won’t fill up as fast. That same landfill will remain useful for years longer. This is important Importance of composting
  • 12. CBLM in Producing Organic Fertilizer Date Prepared: August 2022 Document No. Issued by: TESDA - DN Page 12 of 54 Prepared by: Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1 in urban centers where landfill space is scarce but just as important across the country. Clear the Air – The process of composting food waste and green waste requires oxygen and water. This process emits carbon dioxide as a result. However, when organics decompose in a landfill where they are tightly covered up without enough oxygen or water, methane is produced. Unfortunately, methane traps 25 times more heat than carbon dioxide and is a much more powerful greenhouse gas. Use Our Resources Wisely – Organic waste can be turned into a valuable resource to replenish the soil. Depending on the method used to compost the green waste, gases emitted during the process can be captured to produce renewable energy. Site Planning A compost site must be provided with sufficient area and condition for all weather composting while limiting environmental risk, odor and noise. Development for site of composting involves creating a plan for finding acceptable location, adapting a composition method or vice versa, requires sufficient area for operations, and implementing surface runoff and pollution control measure as needed. Factors to consider in composting  Prevailing wind direction  Land slope  Traffic flow patterns  Surrounding land uses  Runoff patterns  Bodies of water  Activity configuration (handling of materials and processing)
  • 13. CBLM in Producing Organic Fertilizer Date Prepared: August 2022 Document No. Issued by: TESDA - DN Page 13 of 54 Prepared by: Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1 Permitting and Regulation It is very important to understand local and state regulatory requirements and permitting application that may affect the operation. Furthermore, starting a composting facility will raise concerns among neighbors and local public officials. Educating the people around is necessary to have smooth operation. Site Selection (Location) The composting process will at times generate odors. To ensure that occasional odors are not a nuisance to a surrounding community, the site should be away from nearby sensitive receptors. Rural agricultural areas are best suited to outdoor composting technologies. Where more sophisticated indoor or ion-vessel is used, the facility setting standards may be modified. Proper attention during the design phase would minimize the disturbance that a facility brings to surrounding community. Site Selection Criteria Setbacks from sensitive receptors and other factors should be observed whenever possible.  Proximity to customers  Proximity to transportation corridors  Minimum travels and materials handling  Firm surface to support vehicles under varying weather condition  Opportunity for expansion  Cost of space and utilities  Buffer from neighbors  Drainage and runoff control  Avoid sensitive receptors such as school and hospital
  • 14. CBLM in Producing Organic Fertilizer Date Prepared: August 2022 Document No. Issued by: TESDA - DN Page 14 of 54 Prepared by: Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1 Raw materials used for composting Crop Residues Crop residues are essential materials to be use as substrate for composting. Rice straw, rice hull, and other straws of graminaceous crops with abundant fibrous materials usually have high C:N ratio, with a low nitrogen content but fairly high potassium and silica content. Potassium and silica help improve the resistance of crops to disease, and lodging and fibrous materials provide an energy source for soil microorganism as well as improve soil physical properties. Crop residues are used as mulches to cover the surface of the soil and help maintain favorable soil moisture and temperature as well as prevent the accumulation of salt. This material could be combined with animal manure to make better compost. Food Waste Food waste is characterized as high putrescent, rapidly degradable feedstock with high moisture content and bulk density. The potential of food waste to produce liquid leachate combined with its low carbon-to-nitrogen ratio relative to ideal composting condition. Food waste is high in nitrogen and speeds up the decomposition process of compost, adding food waste to yard waste will reduce water needs throughout the process and increase the nutrient content of the product. Leguminous Plants A leguminous crop refers to those which have symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacteria called root nodules. These bacteria fix atmosphere nitrogen into soil there by increasing the soil nitrogen content naturally. They are important in case of crop rotation in order to avoid soil deterioration. All plants are able to take up nitrogen from the soil in the form of ammonium (NH4+) or nitrate (NO3-); together these are known as available N. In addition to taking up available N from the soil, legumes (clovers, medics, peas and beans) are also able to
  • 15. CBLM in Producing Organic Fertilizer Date Prepared: August 2022 Document No. Issued by: TESDA - DN Page 15 of 54 Prepared by: Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1 acquire N from the abundant supply in the atmosphere via special soil bacteria (rhizobia) which are housed in nodules on their roots. With fully functioning nodules, legumes can grow in soils that are deficient in available N. These rhizobial ‘factories’ are subject to variation in establishment and performance and so a supportive environment must be provided to maximize N2-fixation. Leguminous crops are important because they increase the fertility of soil by addition of nitrogen. In fact, a nitrogen fixing bacterium named Rhizobium forms symbiotic association with the roots of leguminous crops and fixes nitrogen. The nitrogen fixed by the bacterium is also released in the soil thus contributing to soil fertility. Leguminous crops are frequently used in crop rotation practises to restore the soil fertility. Animal Manure Composting animal manure has long been used as a soil amendment to improve soil health. Composting has increased use as a tool to manage animal manure in recent years for livestock producers. In addition to the soil health benefits associated with applying animal manure compost, other advantages include improved storage options, reduced volume of material to be transported and spread on fields, and it is more suitable to be spread on hay and pastures during the growing season than raw manure. Pure manure is frequently too high in nitrogen and moisture content to be properly composted. However, manure can be mixed with other carbon sources such as straw, corn stover, wood residue, or leaves to balance the carbon to nitrogen ratio and moisture content. Piles of compost are formed and allowed to begin the composting process. During the process aerobic organisms consume the nitrogenous and carbon compounds with oxygen and generate organic matter, carbon dioxide and heat. As heat builds up within the pile and oxygen is depleted a mixing or stirring process is required to release heat and replenish oxygen within the pile. Other Materials for Composting  Fish and meat scraps  Coal fire ash  Sawdust from treated wood  Glossy or coated paper
  • 16. CBLM in Producing Organic Fertilizer Date Prepared: August 2022 Document No. Issued by: TESDA - DN Page 16 of 54 Prepared by: Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1 SELF CHECK 3.1-1 Enumeration: 1. Give the importance of composting.
  • 17. CBLM in Producing Organic Fertilizer Date Prepared: August 2022 Document No. Issued by: TESDA - DN Page 17 of 54 Prepared by: Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1 ANSWER KEY 3.1-1 Enumeration: 1. Give the importance of composting.  Nourish our earth  Decrease soil erosion by enhancing soil structure  Return a diverse number of nutrients to soil  Reduce watering needs by improving water retention in the soil.  Suppress plant diseases  Skip the landfill  Clear the air  Use our resources wisely
  • 18. CBLM in Producing Organic Fertilizer Date Prepared: August 2022 Document No. Issued by: TESDA - DN Page 18 of 54 Prepared by: Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1 TASK SHEET 3.1-1 TITLE: Prepare bed for composting PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVE: Given the necessary supplies/materials, you should be able to prepare bed for composting. Supplies/Materials: PPE, Module, Facility/area, bolo, lumber, spade, carpentry tools, boots. Steps/Procedure: 1. Use the prescribe PPE. 2. Observe safety practices. 3. Prepare needed materials. 4. Prepare bed for composting following standard protocol. Note: Used the prescribe template for inspection (Checklist attached) Assessment Method: Demonstration/ Performance Criteria Checklist
  • 19. CBLM in Producing Organic Fertilizer Date Prepared: August 2022 Document No. Issued by: TESDA - DN Page 19 of 54 Prepared by: Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1 Performance Criteria Checklist for Task Sheet 3.1-1 Trainee’s Name: ________________________ Date: __________________________________ Criteria Yes No 1. Did the trainee wear the prescribed PPE? 2. Did the trainee observe safety practices? 3. Did the trainee prepare needed materials? 4. Did the trainee prepare bed for composting following standard protocol? Comments/Suggestions: Name of Trainer: ______________________ Date: _______________________________
  • 20. CBLM in Producing Organic Fertilizer Date Prepared: August 2022 Document No. Issued by: TESDA - DN Page 20 of 54 Prepared by: Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1 JOB SHEET 3.1-1 TITLE: Prepare Raw Materials PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVE: Given the necessary supplies/materials, you should be able to prepare raw materials for composting. Supplies/Materials: Module, Facility/area, bolo, lumber, spade, carpentry tools, manure, shredded plants, kitchen waste. PPE: boots, gloves. Steps/Procedure: 1. Use the prescribe PPE. 2. Observe safety practices. 3. Collect animal manure. 4. Collect shredded plants. 5. Collect kitchen waste. 6. Prepare raw materials following standard procedure. Note: Used the prescribe template for inspection (Checklist attached) Assessment Method: Demonstration/ Performance Criteria Checklist
  • 21. CBLM in Producing Organic Fertilizer Date Prepared: August 2022 Document No. Issued by: TESDA - DN Page 21 of 54 Prepared by: Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1 Performance Criteria Checklist for Job Sheet 3.1-1 Trainee’s Name: ________________________ Date: __________________________________ Criteria Yes No 1. Did the trainee wear the prescribed PPE? 2. Did the trainee observe safety practices? 3. Did the trainee collect animals manure? 4. Did the trainee collect shredded plants? 5. Did the trainee collect kitchen waste? 6. Did the trainee prepare raw materials following standard procedure? Comments/Suggestions: Name of Trainer: ______________________ Date: _______________________________
  • 22. CBLM in Producing Organic Fertilizer Date Prepared: August 2022 Document No. Issued by: TESDA - DN Page 22 of 54 Prepared by: Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1 Learning outcome 2: Compost and Harvest Fertilizer CONTENTS:  Composting methods  Processing of compost fertilizer CONDITIONS: The students/trainees must be provided with the following:  Area/Facility  Materials - Digging bar - Shovel - Meter stick - Composting materials - Bolo  PPE - Boots - Gloves METHODOLOGIES:  Lecture/discussion  Demonstration  Field work ASSESSMENT METHODS:  Direct observation with oral questioning  Demonstration  Written exam
  • 23. CBLM in Producing Organic Fertilizer Date Prepared: August 2022 Document No. Issued by: TESDA - DN Page 23 of 54 Prepared by: Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1 Learning Experiences Learning outcome 2: Compost and Harvest Fertilizer Learning Activities Special Instructions 1. Read Information Sheet 3.2-1 “Composting methods” This Learning Outcome deals with the development of the Institutional Competency Evaluation Tool which trainers use in evaluating their trainees after finishing a competency of the qualification. If you have difficulty in understanding the information, don’t hesitate to ask your trainer for clarification. You are required to get all the answers correct. If not, read the Information sheet again to answer all questions correctly. Compare answers with answer key. Your performance will be evaluated through the Performance Criteria Checklist. After completing all the activities of this Learning Outcome, you are ready to proceed to the next Learning Outcome. 2. Answer Self Check 3.2-1 3. Perform Task Sheet 3.2-1A “Process rapid composting” 4. Perform Task Sheet 3.2-1B “Perform double dug composting” 5. Read Information Sheet 3.2-2 “Processing of Compost Fertilizer” 6. Answer Self Check 3.2-2 7. Perform Task Sheet 3.2-2 “Process compost fertilizer” 8. Perform Job Sheet 3.2 “Process organic fertilizer”
  • 24. CBLM in Producing Organic Fertilizer Date Prepared: August 2022 Document No. Issued by: TESDA - DN Page 24 of 54 Prepared by: Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1 INFORMATION SHEET 3.2-1 Composting Methods Learning Objective: After reading the information sheet, the trainee should be able:  Determine methods of composting  Apply methods of composting in actual scenario Composting Composting is the degradation of organic matter by the action of microorganisms, bacteria and fungi which work best under certain conditions. They need moisture to be able to decompose the organic matter and also good aeration as they need oxygen, nutrient balance, pH and temperature. THE COMPOSTING PROCESS: As described in the section on organic matter in soil processes, the composting process happens due to the activity of micro-organisms (bacteria) and other larger organisms like worms and insects. These need certain conditions to live. These include moisture and air. To make the best possible compost, the micro-organisms must be able to work optimally. This can be achieved if the following four factors are combined to the best advantage:  Type of organic
  • 25. CBLM in Producing Organic Fertilizer Date Prepared: August 2022 Document No. Issued by: TESDA - DN Page 25 of 54 Prepared by: Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1 material  Air  Moisture  Temperature  pH Feedstock and Nutrient Balance Composting, or controlled decomposition, requires a proper balance of “green” organic materials and “brown” organic materials. “Green” organic material includes grass clippings, food scraps, and manure, which contain large amounts of nitrogen. “Brown” organic materials include dry leaves, wood chips, and branches, which contain large amounts of carbon but little nitrogen. Obtaining the right nutrient mix requires experimentation and patience. It is part of the art and science of composting. C: N ratio The C stands for carbon while the N stands for nitrogen. Carbon is essential for building blocks of life for microorganisms and also a source of energy while nitrogen is necessary for protein, cell structure and genetic materials (Cortesia, 2008). Decomposition of organic matter is increased when the proper C: N ratio is made available in the compost. This can be made by adding up different amount of carbonaceous materials, called brown material due to their dryness and nitrogen rich material called green material since they are fresher and has relatively higher moisture content. Moisture content Like C: N ratio, moisture is another key parameter that needs to be controlled for compost. The level of moisture in the compost regulates the activity of the microorganisms and also the condition of degradation of organic matter. If too little water is present, the microbial activity will be limited as it is necessary for the microorganisms. At higher levels, the degradation of organic matter by microorganisms may occur under anaerobic conditions. This situation arises due to the fact that spaces inside the compost will be occupied by water mostly giving less or no spaces for air to be in pores inside the compost thus preventing air to penetrate giving rise to absence of oxygen causing anaerobic condition
  • 26. CBLM in Producing Organic Fertilizer Date Prepared: August 2022 Document No. Issued by: TESDA - DN Page 26 of 54 Prepared by: Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1 The ideal moisture content of compost is between 40 – 60 % (Anon, 2009). At this moisture level, the compost is like a sponge in which the water has been squeezed out and only a film of water is covering the compost at this point. At this level of moisture, the microorganisms work best and also there is prevailing aerobic conditions due to present of air in pores. Temperature Temperature is another important factor in aerobic degradation of organic matter that is in windrow composting. The temperature is an indication of microbial activity taking place inside the composting pile. The temperature rises because of degradation of organic matter by microorganisms which produce some energy. In case the temperature is too high or too low, or there are no nutrients or enough water, microbial activities will stop resulting in absence of degradation of organic matter. Usually, the optimum temperature is between 43-660C. Importance of Temperature: Temperature Result Above 700C Microbes die 55 – 700C Pathogens are inactivated 50 – 600C Weed seeds are inactivated Below 400C Slow composting rate As can be seen above, the different conditions prevailing at different temperatures are given showing that for temperatures between 40 to 700C, the composting rate is relatively higher but it should also be taken in consideration that microorganisms are destroyed beyond 700C. Aeration Since the decomposition of organic matter is done in presence of oxygen by aerobic microorganisms, it is necessary to provide good aeration for the compost windrow. The aeration not only provides oxygen to the microorganisms but also prevent odors by preventing formation of anaerobic
  • 27. CBLM in Producing Organic Fertilizer Date Prepared: August 2022 Document No. Issued by: TESDA - DN Page 27 of 54 Prepared by: Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1 digestion at high temperatures. There are several techniques of aeration but the most common one is turning (Anon, 2010). Turning the pile also ensure that outside materials are put in the center while turning s as to be subject to the high temperature. pH The composting process is relatively insensitive to pH, within the range found in mixtures of organic materials, largely because of the broad spectrum of microorganisms involved. The optimum range of pH in composting is in the range of 5.5-9.0. The composting takes place best at a pH of neutral, which is at pH 7.0. pH is more important when the composting material has a high nitrogen content, this accelerates the loss of nitrogen in the form of ammonia gas. To lower the pH so that there is minimum loss of nitrogen right balances of material should be achieved. The role of pH in composting, the moisture of the outer layer of a windrow should be around 60 % so that the ammonia escaping from the center of the pile is cooled and transformed into less mobile nitrogen compounds. Rapid Composting Rapid composting technology involves inoculating the plant substrates used for composting with cultures of Trichoderma harziamum, a cellulose decomposer fungus. The fungus, grown in a medium of sawdust mixed with the leaves of ipil ipil, is called compost fungus activator (CFA). There must be favorable conditions for the decay process, such as adequate moisture, an appropriate initial C:N ratio of substrates, and aeration. The composting period is shortened to just four weeks. The transfer of this technology to Filipino farmers through a National Program is described. Constraints in technology transfer, economic benefits from the use of compost processed through this technology, and other benefits Methods of composting
  • 28. CBLM in Producing Organic Fertilizer Date Prepared: August 2022 Document No. Issued by: TESDA - DN Page 28 of 54 Prepared by: Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1 attributed to the technology are explained. Soil fertility problems in the Philippines, and official fertilizer recommendations, are discussed, together with how the use of compost processed through the rapid composting technology might address these fertility problems. Steps in Composting Preparation of Substrates Substrates such as rice straw, weeds and grasses should be chopped. Chopping helps speed up decomposition by increasing the surface area available for microbial action, and providing better aeration. If large quantities of substrates are to be used, a forage cutter/chopper is needed. Chopping can be dispensed with if the compost is not needed in the near future. The Compost Mixture Carbonaceous substrates should be mixed with nitrogenous ones at a ratio of 4:1 or less, but never lower than 1:1 (on a dry weight basis). Some possible combinations are:  3 parts rice straw - 1 part ipil-ipil  4 parts rice straw - 1 part chicken manure  4 parts grasses - 1 part legume materials + 1 part manure  4 parts grasses - 1 part Chromolaena odorata or Mikania cordata + 1 part animal manure.
  • 29. CBLM in Producing Organic Fertilizer Date Prepared: August 2022 Document No. Issued by: TESDA - DN Page 29 of 54 Prepared by: Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1 Double Dug Composting Double digging is a gardening technique used to increase soil drainage and aeration. It involves the loosening of two layers of soil, and the addition of organic matter. Double digging is typically done when cultivating soil in a new garden, or when deep top-soil is required. Double dig the land to improve water retention and improve the soil. Compost Making Build the compost pile under some shade of the tree if possible, six feet away from the trunk. The minimum size for a pile should be 3 feet wide, and 3 feet high, by 3 feet long. But you can make it bigger.  To start the pile, loosen the ground underneath where the pile will be. To a depth of 12 inches.  Next lay down twigs, small branches, maize stalks, brush and woody material, at least 3 inches of these over the base of the pile.  Put down a 2-inch layer of mature material like dry weeds, dry grass, straw, hay, paper, cotton material. Anything that is dry. Even wood ash.  Put down a 2-inch of green material like fresh weeds, green grass, green cover crops, kitchen wastes and animal manure. Limited to cat and dog manure.  Cover lightly with one half inch of soil and water lightly if possible. Leave the pile until it is completely decomposed into good soil. This may take 2 or 3 months.to quicken the decomposition, cut the materials into small pieces.
  • 30. CBLM in Producing Organic Fertilizer Date Prepared: August 2022 Document No. Issued by: TESDA - DN Page 30 of 54 Prepared by: Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1 Windrow Composting Windrow composting is the process of placing mixed material in long narrow piles with regular agitation to avoid anaerobic condition building up inside the windrow and also to prevent combustion to due overheating. Windrow composting is suited for large volumes such as that generated by entire communities and collected by local governments, and high volume food-processing businesses (e.g., restaurants, cafeterias, packing plants). It will yield significant amounts of compost, which might require assistance to market the end-product. Local governments may want to make the compost available to residents for a low or no cost. This type of composting involves forming organic waste into rows of long piles called “windrows” and aerating them periodically by either manually or mechanically turning the piles. The ideal pile height is between four and eight feet with a width of 14 to 16 feet. This size pile is large enough to generate enough heat and maintain temperatures. It is small enough to allow oxygen flow to the windrow's core. Large volumes of diverse wastes such as yard trimmings, grease, liquids, and animal byproducts (such as fish and poultry wastes) can be composted through this method.
  • 31. CBLM in Producing Organic Fertilizer Date Prepared: August 2022 Document No. Issued by: TESDA - DN Page 31 of 54 Prepared by: Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1 In-Vessel Composting In-vessel composting can process large amounts of waste without taking up as much space as the windrow method and it can accommodate virtually any type of organic waste (e.g., meat, animal manure, biosolids, food scraps). This method involves feeding organic materials into a drum, silo, concrete-lined trench, or similar equipment. This allows good control of the environmental conditions such as temperature, moisture, and airflow. The material is mechanically turned or mixed to make sure the material is aerated. The size of the vessel can vary in size and capacity. This method produces compost in just a few weeks. It takes a few more weeks or months until it is ready to use because the microbial activity needs to balance and the pile needs to cool.
  • 32. CBLM in Producing Organic Fertilizer Date Prepared: August 2022 Document No. Issued by: TESDA - DN Page 32 of 54 Prepared by: Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1 Vermicomposting/Vermiculture Vermiculture basically is the science of breeding and raising earthworms. It defines the thrilling potential for waste reduction, fertilizer production as well as the assortment for the possible uses for the future. Vermicomposting is the process of producing organic fertilizer or the vermicompost from bio-degradable materials with earthworms. Composting of worms avoids the needless disposal vegetative of food wastes and enjoys the benefits of high quality compost. Vermicompost is the excreta of earthworms, which is rich in humus. Earthworms eat cow dung or farm yard manure along with other farm wastes and pass ir through their body and in the process convert it into vermcompost. The municipal wastes; non-toxic solid and liquid waste of the industries and household garbage’s can also be converted into vermicompost in the same manner. Earthworms not only convert garbage into valuable manure but keep the environment healthy. Conversion of garbage by earthworms into compost and multiplication of earthworms are just simple process and can be easily handled by farmers. Vermiculture is the process of using worms to decompose organic food waste, turning the waste into a nutrient-rich material capable of supplying necessary nutrients to help sustain plant growth. This method is simple, effective, convenient, and noiseless. It saves water, energy, landfills, and helps rebuild the soil. Vermicompost (vermi-compost, vermiculture) is the product of the composting process using various species of worms, usually red wigglers, white worms, and other earthworms, to create a mixture of decomposing vegetable or food waste, bedding materials, and vermicast. Vermicast (also called worm castings, worm humus, worm manure, or worm feces) is the end-product of the breakdown of organic matter by earthworms. These castings have been shown to contain reduced levels of
  • 33. CBLM in Producing Organic Fertilizer Date Prepared: August 2022 Document No. Issued by: TESDA - DN Page 33 of 54 Prepared by: Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1 contaminants and a higher saturation of nutrients than the organic materials before vermicomposting. Vermicompost contains water-soluble nutrients and is an excellent, nutrient-rich organic fertilizer and soil conditioner. It is used in farming and small scale sustainable, organic farming. Advantages of composting:  It does not have adverse effect to soil, plant and environment.  It is an eco-friendly natural fertilizer prepared from biodegradable organic wastes, and free from chemical inputs.  Improves soil aeration, and tilth thereby reduce soil compaction.  Improves water retention capacity.  Promotes better root growth and nutrient absorption.  Improves soil nutrient status of both macro and micro-nutrients. Precautions:  Vermicompost pit should be protected from direct sunlight.  Always maintain moisture level.  Protect the worms from rats, ants and birds. Different Earthworms Species used in Vermicomposting  Red Wiggler  Red Tiger  Blue Worms  African night Crawlers (Eudrilus euginae) Method of Composting Bins The simplest form of vermicomposting involves a bin made from plastic or untreated, non-aromatic wood. Some form of bedding, such as shredded paper or composted animal manure or decaying leaves, fills the bin and mixes with a few handfuls of soil to provide the worms with material through which to burrow. The bedding also requires water to stay moist and allow the worms to breathe. Feed the worms organic food scraps such as vegetables, fruits, tea bags and coffee grounds. Tossing in some egg shells will add calcium for the worms and lower the bin’s acidity level. However, never compost meat, fish, or other fatty, oily foods; otherwise the bin will produce a foul odor.
  • 34. CBLM in Producing Organic Fertilizer Date Prepared: August 2022 Document No. Issued by: TESDA - DN Page 34 of 54 Prepared by: Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1 Windrow Most commercial farm vermicomposting involves windrows, which are long rows of cow manure. Farmers typically stack the manure in rows 3 feet high and 3 feet wide, with rows often stretching more than 100 feet long. Farmers seed the windrows with worms, making certain to keep the rows moist. Fresh manure added to the ends of the existing rows draws the worms forward to keep the process moving. Troughs Cement troughs can also host vermicomposting. Usually the troughs hold only manure, which is aged for at least a week before being placed in the trough. This composting method begins with only a few inches of manure spread across the bottom of the trough. Farmers then add the worms, allowing them to feed on the manure for a few days before adding another layer of manure. More manure layers are added every 10 days until the worm compost reaches the top of the trough. Pits Some farmers use pits for vermicomposting, digging a large hole in which to bury the worms and organic waste material. Of course, before adding the worms and bedding, farmers must line the pit to prevent worms from escaping into the surrounding soil. Canvas feed bags make a good lining, preventing worm passage yet still allowing for suitable water drainage. Farmers fill the lined pit with organic materials, such as straw, grass clippings and manure, and then cover it with soil. After about a week, during which time the pit is watered to maintain its moisture, farmers add worms. The worms immediately burrow into the pit, beginning the vermicomposting procedure.
  • 35. CBLM in Producing Organic Fertilizer Date Prepared: August 2022 Document No. Issued by: TESDA - DN Page 35 of 54 Prepared by: Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1 Harvesting Separating worms from finished compost Use a worm’s own nature to easily separate it from finished compost. The best method is to place a frame of hardware cloth with narrow openings (1/4 an inch is ideal) over your bin and pile the mixture of compost and worms on top. If the bin is completely empty, make a new habitat with fresh bedding and food. Use a desk lamp to shine light at the pile of compost. Worms are not attracted of light; they will dive down below the compost surface, through the hardware cloth and back into the bin below. You may have to spread your compost in a thin layer or remove some to make sure the worms travel all the way down to the bin below, but when you are finished you will have worm-free compost and a fresh worm bin ready to go. Take your compost-worm mixture and shape it into a cone or pyramid on top of a sheet of plastic. Shine the lamp at the pile to encourage the worms to dive deeper. Peel off the outer layer of compost and set it aside. Allow them a few seconds to dig deeper, then peel off another layer and set it aside. Continue this process, constantly driving the worms further towards the center of the pile, until you are left with nothing but a ball of worms at the absolute center. Place those worms back in your bin and put all that great compost you just harvested to use. Figure of Red Wiggler Figure of African Night Crawler
  • 36. CBLM in Producing Organic Fertilizer Date Prepared: August 2022 Document No. Issued by: TESDA - DN Page 36 of 54 Prepared by: Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1 Nutrient fropile of vermicompost and farm yard manure Nutrient t Vermicompost Yard Manure N(%) 1.6 0.5 PO(%) 0.7 0.2 KO(%) 0.8 0.5 Ca(%) 0.5 0.9 Mg(%) 0.2 0.2 Fe(ppm) 175.0 146.5 Mn(ppm) 96.5 69.0 Zn(ppm) 24.5 14.5 Cu(ppm) 5.0 2.8 C:N ratio 15.5 31.3
  • 37. CBLM in Producing Organic Fertilizer Date Prepared: August 2022 Document No. Issued by: TESDA - DN Page 37 of 54 Prepared by: Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1 SELF CHECK 3.2-1 Multiple choices: Choose the correct answer. 1. A composting process that involves feeding organic materials into a drum and silo. A.) In-vessel composting B.) Windrow composting C.) Rapid comosting D.) Substrate composting 2. Composting method that involves with cultures of Trichoderma harziamum. A.) Rapid composting B.) Windrow composting C.) Substrate composting D.) In-vessel composting 3. It is a gardening technique used to increase soil drainage and aeration.. A.) Double dug composting B.) In-vessel composting C.) Rapid composting D.) Windrow composting 4. Composting process that used earthworms. A.) Vermicomposting B.) Rapid composting C.) Windrow composting D.) Double dug composting 5. Composting process that mixed material is place in long narrow piles. A.) Windrow composting B.) Double dug composting C.) Rapid composting D.) Substrate composting
  • 38. CBLM in Producing Organic Fertilizer Date Prepared: August 2022 Document No. Issued by: TESDA - DN Page 38 of 54 Prepared by: Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1 ANSWER KEY 3.2-1 Multiple choices: 1. A 2. A 3. A 4. A 5. A
  • 39. CBLM in Producing Organic Fertilizer Date Prepared: August 2022 Document No. Issued by: TESDA - DN Page 39 of 54 Prepared by: Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1 TASK SHEET 3.2-1A TITLE: Process rapid composting PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVE: Given the necessary supplies/materials, you should be able to process rapid composting. Supplies/Materials: PPE, Module, Facility/area, animal manure, Trichoderma harziamum, plant residues, spade, rake. Steps/Procedure: 1. Use the prescribe PPE. 2. Observe safety practices. 3. Prepare needed materials. 4. Process rapid composting properly following standard procedure. 5. Observe 5S. Note: Used the prescribe template for inspection (Checklist attached) Assessment Method: Demonstration/ Performance Criteria Checklist
  • 40. CBLM in Producing Organic Fertilizer Date Prepared: August 2022 Document No. Issued by: TESDA - DN Page 40 of 54 Prepared by: Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1 Performance Criteria Checklist for Task Sheet 3.2-1A Trainee’s Name: ________________________ Date: __________________________________ Criteria Yes No 1. Did the trainee wear the prescribed PPE? 2. Did the trainee observe safety practices? 3. Did the trainee prepare needed materials? 4. Did the trainee process rapid composting following standard procedure? 5. Did the trainee observe 5S? Comments/Suggestions: Name of Trainer: ______________________ Date: _______________________________
  • 41. CBLM in Producing Organic Fertilizer Date Prepared: August 2022 Document No. Issued by: TESDA - DN Page 41 of 54 Prepared by: Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1 TASK SHEET 3.2-1B TITLE: Perform double dug composting PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVE: Given the necessary supplies/materials, you should be able to perform double dug composting. Supplies/Materials: PPE, Module, Facility/area, animal manure, plant residues, spade, rake. Steps/Procedure: 1. Use the prescribe PPE. 2. Observe safety practices. 3. Prepare needed materials. 4. Perform double dug composting properly. 5. Observe 5S. Note: Used the prescribe template for inspection (Checklist attached) Assessment Method: Demonstration/ Performance Criteria Checklist
  • 42. CBLM in Producing Organic Fertilizer Date Prepared: August 2022 Document No. Issued by: TESDA - DN Page 42 of 54 Prepared by: Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1 Performance Criteria Checklist for Task Sheet 3.2-1B Trainee’s Name: ________________________ Date: __________________________________ Criteria Yes No 1. Did the trainee wear the prescribed PPE? 2. Did the trainee observe safety practices? 3. Did the trainee prepare needed materials? 4. Did the trainee perform double dug composting properly? 5. Did the trainee observe 5S? Comments/Suggestions: Name of Trainer: ______________________ Date: _______________________________
  • 43. CBLM in Producing Organic Fertilizer Date Prepared: August 2022 Document No. Issued by: TESDA - DN Page 43 of 54 Prepared by: Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1 INFORMATION SHEET 3.2-2 Processing of Compost Fertilizer Learning Objective: After reading the information sheet, the trainee should be able:  Determine the process of compost fertilizer  Process compost fertilizer Processing of compost fertilizer: Generally, the high-quality organic fertilizer granules production technological process consists of the following stages: production of compost, compost grinding and drying and granulation. Pre- treatment of raw materials Selection and store of organic raw materials: Almost all organic wastes, except those containing high toxins, can be used as composting materials, but, to increase the soil organic matter or make a growth media, materials with a high C:N ratio, such as straw and husk of grains/cereals (e.g., rice and wheat), corn stalk, bagasse, sawdust, and other materials (e.g., tree trunks and branches), will be the main ingredient. They should be dried and stored in a nearby place.
  • 44. CBLM in Producing Organic Fertilizer Date Prepared: August 2022 Document No. Issued by: TESDA - DN Page 44 of 54 Prepared by: Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1 Particle size reduction: To shorten the compost time, the waste is shredded to a uniform size and then mixed in a controlled way to ensure desired properties of the composting mixture (C/N ratio, moisture content, etc.) The straws and green manure should be cut into lengths of 5-10 cm. The wood and shoots of fruit trees and vines should be cut with shredders, grinders, or chippers. Compost Process Design The complete process takes 4-6 weeks. Commercial composting solution for a wide range of organic wastes Windrow composting method: Windrow composting is the most common composting method used in North America due to its suitability for a wide range of feedstocks and facility capacities. Composting can be more simply carried out in windrows. In this method waste is dumped on ground in form of piles of 1.5m to 2.5m height. (Windrow spacing needs to account for the size and type of the turner) Because of biological activities, temperatures can reach 55℃. Regular turning of the windrows assists with mixing of the materials and more importantly supply the oxygen to the bacteria, and also ensures that all parts of the windrow reach the required 55℃ essential for pathogen destruction. Turning is required every two to three days in the first two weeks when temperature is 55℃ or above. After this period frequent turning of the compost windrow is not required as less heat is generated and less oxygen is required while the compost Finished Compost Grinding, Drying and Screening Process Finished compost is too wet and coarse to be granulated directly without further conditioning. Therefore, preparing the compost for granulation, there are 3 steps needing to do first:  Grinding to produce a finer material (finely ground compost will allow almost all the compost to undergo the granulation process); chain crusher is used;  Screening to remove larger particles (e.g. fractions >10mm will be screened out and discarded. There is no fixed rule) rocks and unwanted debris;  Removing moisture by artificially drying the compost.
  • 45. CBLM in Producing Organic Fertilizer Date Prepared: August 2022 Document No. Issued by: TESDA - DN Page 45 of 54 Prepared by: Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1 Mixing Compost with other Nutrients It is necessary to boost the nutrient content of composts when targeting the granulated fertilizer market by the addition of other organic nutrients (e.g. humic acid) and mineral fertilizers. Humic acid is useful to improve soil fertility. It is an ideal additive to boost bio-activity and improve the performance of compost or composted fertilizers, an effective agent to use as a complement to synthetic or organic fertilizers. The addition of these organic N sources and the mineral fertilizers, such as rock phosphate and sulphate of potash, have a significant impact on improving the particle size distribution of the mix and the ease with which the resulting mix could be granulated. Horizontal mixer is used. Granulation of Compost Fertilizer Why granulation? Granulation allows significant simplification of the storage, transport and dosage, improving both usability and storability. Granulating compost improves its slow-acting properties, and avoids nitrogen starvation. Drying Organic fertilizers in granular form must have a certain percentage of moisture, and water retention in fertilizer has a significant impact not only on the quality of the final product bust also its effectiveness, therefore the drying process is an important step in the processing of organic fertilizer.
  • 46. CBLM in Producing Organic Fertilizer Date Prepared: August 2022 Document No. Issued by: TESDA - DN Page 46 of 54 Prepared by: Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1 Rotary dryer: rotary dryer is employed to reduce or minimize the liquid moisture content of fertilizer granules which are handled by bringing them into direct contact with a heated gas. Organic fertilizer granules are showered through a hot gas, ambient or conditioned air stream flowing in either a co- current or counter-current direction to remove moisture. Rotary dryer is widely used in the fertilizer industry. Organic Fertilizer Granule Cooling Process Following the drying process, organic fertilizers are also cooled to remove the heat with a rotary cooler. The cooler machine slopes slightly so that the discharge end is lower than the material feed end in order to convey the fertilizer through the cooler under gravity. Organic fertilizers to be dried enter the cooler, and as the rotary cooler rotates, fertilizer is lifted up by a series of internal fins lining the inner wall of the cooler. When the fertilizer gets high enough to roll back off the pins, it falls back down to the bottom of the cooler, passing through the cold air stream as it falls. Screening Before bagging or bulk loading, organic fertilizer granules should be screened to obtain the desired particle sizes and to remove the product size fraction. In this process, fertilizers are separated by screening into product size ranges which are useful as fertilizers and the granules larger and smaller than the useful range are reprocessed:  Fines are returned to the granulation stage;  Over-sized particles are re-crushed and recycled to the granulator along with the undersize ones;  Uniform particle size is desirable for bulk bagging and for sale. Packaging Organic fertilizers with uniform size are fed in the automatic packaging machine transporting by belt conveyor, and bagged.
  • 47. CBLM in Producing Organic Fertilizer Date Prepared: August 2022 Document No. Issued by: TESDA - DN Page 47 of 54 Prepared by: Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1 Storage  Store compost separate from other chemicals in dry conditions.  Extra care needs to be given to concentrate stock solutions. Secondary containment should be used.  Provide pallets to keep large drums or bags off the floor. Shelves for smaller containers should have a lip to keep the containers from sliding off easily. Steel shelves are easier to clean than wood if a spill occurs.  If you plan to store large bulk tanks, provide a containment area large enough to confine 125 percent of the contents of the largest bulk container.  Keep the storage area locked and clearly labeled as a fertilizer storage area. Preventing unauthorized use of fertilizers reduces the chance of accidental spills or theft. Labels on the windows and doors of the building give fire fighter information about fertilizers and other products present during an emergency response to a fire or a spill.  Provide adequate road access for deliveries and use, and in making the storage area secure, also make it accessible, to allow getting fertilizers and other chemicals out in a hurry. Storing fertilizers separate from other chemicals in dry conditions can minimize these risks. Extra care needs to be given to concentrate stock solutions. Secondary containment should always be used.
  • 48. CBLM in Producing Organic Fertilizer Date Prepared: August 2022 Document No. Issued by: TESDA - DN Page 48 of 54 Prepared by: Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1 SELF CHECK 3.2-2 Enumeration: 1. Enumerate the process of composting.
  • 49. CBLM in Producing Organic Fertilizer Date Prepared: August 2022 Document No. Issued by: TESDA - DN Page 49 of 54 Prepared by: Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1 ANSWER KEY 3.2-2 Enumeration: 1. Enumerate the process of composting.  Pre- treatment of raw materials  Mixing Compost with other Nutrients  Granulation of Compost Fertilizer  Drying  Screening  Packaging  Storing
  • 50. CBLM in Producing Organic Fertilizer Date Prepared: August 2022 Document No. Issued by: TESDA - DN Page 50 of 54 Prepared by: Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1 TASK SHEET 3.2-2 TITLE: Process compost fertilizer PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVE: Given the necessary supplies/materials, you should be able to process compost fertilizer. Supplies/Materials: PPE, Module, Facility/Area, shovel, sacks, rake, screen, dryer area, storage. Steps/Procedure: 1. Use the prescribe PPE. 2. Observe safety practices. 3. Observe sanitation. 4. Prepare needed materials. 5. Perform compost collection. 6. Perform screening 7. Perform drying of compost fertilizer. 8. Store compost fertilizer properly. Note: Used the prescribe template for inspection (Checklist attached) Assessment Method: Demonstration/ Performance Criteria Checklist
  • 51. CBLM in Producing Organic Fertilizer Date Prepared: August 2022 Document No. Issued by: TESDA - DN Page 51 of 54 Prepared by: Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1 Performance Criteria Checklist for Task Sheet 3.2-2 Trainee’s Name: ________________________ Date: __________________________________ Criteria Yes No 1. Did the trainee wear the prescribed PPE? 2. Did the trainee observe safety practices? 3. Did the trainee observe sanitation? 4. Did the trainee perform compost collection? 5. Did the trainee perform screening? 6. Did the trainee perform frying of compost fertilizer? 7. Did the trainee store compost fertilizer properly? Comments/Suggestions: Name of Trainer: ______________________ Date: _______________________________
  • 52. CBLM in Producing Organic Fertilizer Date Prepared: August 2022 Document No. Issued by: TESDA - DN Page 52 of 54 Prepared by: Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1 JOB SHEET 3.2-2 Title: Process organic fertilizer Performance objective: Given the necessary tools and materials you should be able to process organic fertilizer. Materials: facility/area, module, carpentry tools, shovel, rake, sacks, plant debris, animal manure, earthworms. PPE: Boots, Scrub suit Steps/Procedures: 1. Use the prescribed PPE 2. Observe safety practices. 3. Prepare needed raw materials. 4. Observe composting protocol. 5. Collect composted materials. 6. Store fertilizer following enterprise procedure. Note: Evaluate your work using performance criteria checklist (Job checklist attached) Assessment method: Demonstration using performance criteria checklist
  • 53. CBLM in Producing Organic Fertilizer Date Prepared: August 2022 Document No. Issued by: TESDA - DN Page 53 of 54 Prepared by: Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1 Performance Criteria Checklist for Job Sheet 3.2-2 Trainee’s Name: ________________________ Date: __________________________________ Criteria Yes No  Did the trainee wear the prescribed PPE?  Did the trainee observe occupational health and safety practices?  Did the trainee prepare needed raw materials?  Did the trainee observe composting protocol?  Did the trainee collect composted materials?  Did the trainee store fertilizer following enterprise procedure? Comments/Suggestions: Name of Trainer: ______________________ Date: _______________________________
  • 54. CBLM in Producing Organic Fertilizer Date Prepared: August 2022 Document No. Issued by: TESDA - DN Page 54 of 54 Prepared by: Ronaldo C. Manching Revision 1 References: Organic Agriculture Philippine National Standard PNS/BAFS 07:2016 msuextension.org/publications/AgandNaturalResources/MT201206AG.pdf https://www1.agric.gov.ab.ca/$department/deptdocs.nsf/all/agdex8875 https://www.nys-soilandwater.org/aem/forms/AEMInfoManFertStorage.pdf https://www.ag.ndsu.edu/manure/documents/nm1478.pdf https://www.oregonmetro.gov/tools-living/yard.../composting/composting-methods www.suzannesministries.co.uk/../doubledigging/Composting%20and%20Double%20...pdf https://www.usbg.gov/sites/default/files/images/compost_science_page.pdf https://www.tipperarycoco.ie/sites/default/files/Publications/Home%20composting.pdf www.cre.ie/Themed%20meetings/Munoo_Prasad_site_selection.pdf