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Artificial Intelligence and Human Expertise to Foresee Green, Digital and Entrepreneurial Skill

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ENCORE Webinar Presentation 11_01_2023

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ENCORE
Commons 4.0 License BY-SA-NC
July 2022 - June 2025
ENRICHING CIRCULAR USE OF OER FOR EDUCATION
Mapping the skills of the future
Artificial Intelligence and Human Expertise to Foresee Green, Digital and
Entrepreneurial Skill
Filippo Chiarello, Ph.D
I am an assistant professor of Strategic and
Competitive Intelligence at the University of Pisa.
My research interests include Natural Language
Processing, Innovation Management and Human
Resources Management. I’m proudly part of
Business Engineering 4 Data Science (B4DS)
Research Team and I am the project coordinator of
the ENCORE project.
INTRODUCTION
The digital era is changing the role of educators, that are
moving towards becoming education and experiences
designers. Furthermore, pedagogical contents are now
distributed and accessible, ready to be used for the creation of
courses to answer students’ needs for everchanging skills.
The ENCORE (ENriching Circular use of OeR for Education)
project aims to support this change, by contributing to the
teaching and recognition of the skills most affected by macro-
trends (digitalization, climate change and post-COVID economic
recovery challenges).
ENCORE will implement a data-driven phase and a expert-driven
phase, to reuse Open Educational Resources (OER), and support
educators in teaching and learning design.
PARTNERS
• UNIPI
• CHA
• UNISA
• UNIPD
• VAL
• BMU
• ADE
• OREC
• KFRU
• HOU
• ULS
• FBK
• EADTU
CHALLENGES
ENCORE aims at facing the following challenges:
(1) help the students and workers to acquire the skills to face
economical, ecological and technological challenges;
(2) mitigate the skills mismatch between the demand of companies
and the supply of educational institutions;
(3) support educators to be aligned with the ever-evolving
landscape of relevant skills;
(4) support educators to face the evolution of the educational
context with proper pedagogical approaches;
(5) facilitate students in the certification of the skills they acquire
through non-standard pedagogical approaches
OUR
WORKFLOW
With the ENCORE project, the partners want to
develop courses to teach skills that will help students
face the macro-trends of digitalization, climate change
and post-COVID economic recovery challenges.
The project is thus focused on three macro skills:
• Green Skills (G), knowledge, skills and attitudes
linked to the transition to a circular and greener
economy;
• Digital Skills (D), knowledge, skills and attitudes
linked to the confident, critical and responsible use
of, and engagement with, digital technologies for
learning, at work, and for participation in society
and;
• Entrepreneurial & Intrapreneurial Skills (E),
knowledge, skills and attitudes linked to the
capacity to act upon opportunities and ideas, and
transform them into value (financial, cultural or
social) for others (source EntreComp).

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Artificial Intelligence and Human Expertise to Foresee Green, Digital and Entrepreneurial Skill

  • 1. ENCORE Commons 4.0 License BY-SA-NC July 2022 - June 2025 ENRICHING CIRCULAR USE OF OER FOR EDUCATION Mapping the skills of the future Artificial Intelligence and Human Expertise to Foresee Green, Digital and Entrepreneurial Skill
  • 2. Filippo Chiarello, Ph.D I am an assistant professor of Strategic and Competitive Intelligence at the University of Pisa. My research interests include Natural Language Processing, Innovation Management and Human Resources Management. I’m proudly part of Business Engineering 4 Data Science (B4DS) Research Team and I am the project coordinator of the ENCORE project.
  • 3. INTRODUCTION The digital era is changing the role of educators, that are moving towards becoming education and experiences designers. Furthermore, pedagogical contents are now distributed and accessible, ready to be used for the creation of courses to answer students’ needs for everchanging skills. The ENCORE (ENriching Circular use of OeR for Education) project aims to support this change, by contributing to the teaching and recognition of the skills most affected by macro- trends (digitalization, climate change and post-COVID economic recovery challenges). ENCORE will implement a data-driven phase and a expert-driven phase, to reuse Open Educational Resources (OER), and support educators in teaching and learning design.
  • 4. PARTNERS • UNIPI • CHA • UNISA • UNIPD • VAL • BMU • ADE • OREC • KFRU • HOU • ULS • FBK • EADTU
  • 5. CHALLENGES ENCORE aims at facing the following challenges: (1) help the students and workers to acquire the skills to face economical, ecological and technological challenges; (2) mitigate the skills mismatch between the demand of companies and the supply of educational institutions; (3) support educators to be aligned with the ever-evolving landscape of relevant skills; (4) support educators to face the evolution of the educational context with proper pedagogical approaches; (5) facilitate students in the certification of the skills they acquire through non-standard pedagogical approaches
  • 6. OUR WORKFLOW With the ENCORE project, the partners want to develop courses to teach skills that will help students face the macro-trends of digitalization, climate change and post-COVID economic recovery challenges. The project is thus focused on three macro skills: • Green Skills (G), knowledge, skills and attitudes linked to the transition to a circular and greener economy; • Digital Skills (D), knowledge, skills and attitudes linked to the confident, critical and responsible use of, and engagement with, digital technologies for learning, at work, and for participation in society and; • Entrepreneurial & Intrapreneurial Skills (E), knowledge, skills and attitudes linked to the capacity to act upon opportunities and ideas, and transform them into value (financial, cultural or social) for others (source EntreComp).
  • 8. Vito Giordano, Ph.D Vito Giordano is a research fellow at the School of Engineering, University of Pisa. His research focuses on the use of Natural Language Processing techniques for studying technological and Organizational-related phenomena.
  • 11. Objective Identify the knowledge, skills and attitudes that are relevant in the context of Green, Digital and Entrepreneurial skills
  • 12. Approach Questionnaire on GDE Skills Skills Panorama Text Mining on Scientific literature
  • 13. TABLE OF CONTENT Categorising ESCO skills on GDE skills Paper retrieval; Skill extraction with NER; Results Cleaning; Unwrapped GDE skills Enhancement and revision of the identified skills by the companies Questionnaire; Future Skill Prospect of Skills Panorama Skill2Esco Skill2Esco methodology; Skills to suggest to ESCO 1 2 3
  • 14. TABLE OF CONTENT Categorising ESCO skills on GDE skills Paper retrieval; Skill extraction with NER; Results Cleaning; Unwrapped GDE skills Enhancement and revision of the identified skills by the companies Questionnaire; Future Skill Prospect of Skills Panorama Skill2Esco Skill2Esco methodology; Skills to suggest to ESCO 1
  • 15. Questionnaire on GDE Skills Skills Panorama Text Mining on Scientific literature 1. Categorising ESCO skills on GDE skills M e t h o d o l o g y
  • 16. Questionnaire on GDE Skills Skills Panorama Text Mining on Scientific literature 1. Categorising ESCO skills on GDE skills M e t h o d o l o g y
  • 17. Text Mining on Scientific literature 1. Categorising ESCO skills on GDE skills M e t h o d o l o g y Data mining is an interdisciplinary subfield of computer science and statistics with an overall goal to extract from a data set and transform the information into a comprehensible structure for further use. Hastie, T., Tibshirani, R., & Friedman, J. (2009). The elements of statistical learning: data mining, inference, and prediction. Springer Science & Business Media. Text mining is a subfield of Data Mining with the main goal to extract information from unstructured textual data. TEXT MINING Gupta, V., & Lehal, G. S. (2009). A survey of text mining techniques and applications. Journal of emerging technologies in web intelligence, 1 (1), 60-76. Natural Language Processing (NLP) is a branch of artificial intelligence (AI) that focuses on how computers can understand and manipulate human language (natural language in jargon). It involves the analysis of textual data and the use of algorithms and statistical models to interpret and understand natural language. Surabhi, M. C. (2013, July). Natural language processing future. In 2013 International conference on optical imaging sensor and security (ICOSS) (pp. 1-3). IEEE.
  • 18. Results Cleaning Remove noise entities, validate by expert opinions and normalize the GDE skills Paper Retrieval Collect a set of scientific papers on the GDE domains from Scopus Results Analyze the Unwrapped GDE skills ~60,000 Scientific Papers 1. Categorising ESCO skills on GDE skills M e t h o d o l o g y Skill Extraction Identify the GDE skills related with the domain under the analysis using Named Entity Recognition (NER) techniques
  • 19. 1. Categorising ESCO skills on GDE skills P a p e r r e t r i e v a l Paper Retrieval Collect a set of scientific papers on the GDE domains from Scopus ~60,000 Scientific Papers
  • 20. 1. Categorising ESCO skills on GDE skills P a p e r r e t r i e v a l Paper Retrieval Collect a set of scientific papers on the GDE domains from Scopus ~60,000 Scientific Papers Build a Query
  • 21. 1. Categorising ESCO skills on GDE skills P a p e r r e t r i e v a l Paper Retrieval Collect a set of scientific papers on the GDE domains from Scopus ~60,000 Scientific Papers Description of the GDE fields in the proposal
  • 22. Paper Retrieval Collect a set of scientific papers on the GDE domains from Scopus ~60,000 Scientific Papers Description of the GDE fields in the proposal European policies and directives about the GDE domains 1. Categorising ESCO skills on GDE skills P a p e r r e t r i e v a l
  • 23. Paper Retrieval Collect a set of scientific papers on the GDE domains from Scopus ~60,000 Scientific Papers 1. Categorising ESCO skills on GDE skills P a p e r r e t r i e v a l
  • 24. Paper Retrieval Collect a set of scientific papers on the GDE domains from Scopus ~60,000 Scientific Papers 1. Categorising ESCO skills on GDE skills P a p e r r e t r i e v a l SKILL DOMAIN
  • 25. Paper Retrieval Collect a set of scientific papers on the GDE domains from Scopus ~60,000 Scientific Papers 1. Categorising ESCO skills on GDE skills P a p e r r e t r i e v a l
  • 26. 1. Categorising ESCO skills on GDE skills S k i l l E x t r a c t i o n w i t h N E R Skill Extraction Identify the GDE skills related with the domain under the analysis using Named Entity Recognition (NER) techniques
  • 27. 1. Categorising ESCO skills on GDE skills S k i l l E x t r a c t i o n w i t h N E R Rule based Gazetteer based Gazetteer based method aims to map mentions of entities within texts to terminological resources, such as: Rule based method uses lexicons, regular expressions and lexical information to express knowledge based systems able to extract a certain type of entity. Nominal Entity Recognition (NER) Skill Extraction Identify the GDE skills related with the domain under the analysis using Named Entity Recognition (NER) techniques
  • 28. 1. Categorising ESCO skills on GDE skills S k i l l E x t r a c t i o n w i t h N E R ESCO contains 13890 skills, 3008 occupations, and many qualifications. We selected the concepts in the category skills. For each skill, the following information are selected: preferred labels, the typical name for a given concept alternative labels, other format for the same concept Skills are usually define with a verb and one or more noun, knowledge are usually identified with noun. https://esco.ec.europa.eu/en O*NET includes a set of variables that describe work and worker characteristics, including skill requirements. The lexical pattern of those data is aligned with the structure of ESCO concepts. The linkages among the data included in O*NET have been used to enlarge the lexicon replicating the pair structure of preferred labels- alternative labels. https://www.onetcenter.org/ EntreComp depicts the entrepreneurial capabilities in a transversal perspective, by defining 3 competence areas, a list of 15 competences, learning outcomes and proficiency levels. For each competence, the related hint and threads were selected. The lexical pattern of those data is aligned with the structure of ESCO concepts. The linkages among the data included in EntreComp have been used to enlarge the lexicon replicating the pair structure of preferred labels-alternative labels.
  • 29. 1. Categorising ESCO skills on GDE skills S k i l l E x t r a c t i o n w i t h N E R
  • 30. 1. Categorising ESCO skills on GDE skills R e s u l t s C l e a n i n g Results Cleaning Remove noise entities, validate by expert opinions and normalize the GDE skills All the skills are manual revised from the research group for the validation. We cleaned the results by removing automatically noise entities Group together similar skills based on Semantic Similarity algorithm (BERT)
  • 31. 1. Categorising ESCO skills on GDE skills R e s u l t s C l e a n i n g Group together similar skills based on Semantic Similarity algorithm (BERT) Extracted Competences Skill Label Work together Cooperate Work in teams Work in groups Working in teams Team-working Work in teams Programming Computer programming Programming languages Computer programming
  • 32. 1. Categorising ESCO skills on GDE skills U n w r a p p e d G D E s k i l l s 377 464 553 No. unique Skills 804 unique Skills
  • 33. 1. Categorising ESCO skills on GDE skills U n w r a p p e d G D E s k i l l s : G r e e n S k i l l s Skill Relevance (# Papers) % of Papers Skill Relevance (# Papers) %of Papers think creatively 2,300 21.60% waste management 508 4.77% environmental engineering 1,813 17.03% bioeconomy 486 4.56% circular economy 1,806 16.96% fossil fuels 476 4.47% innovation processes 716 6.72% lead others 463 4.35% packaging engineering 699 6.57% analyse 360 3.38% electricity 637 5.98% mechanical systems 335 3.15% electricity principles 637 5.98% characteristics of waste 331 3.11% energy 587 5.51% business model 305 2.86% chemistry 559 5.25% monitor assessment 300 2.82% communication 513 4.82% communication principles 286 2.69%
  • 34. 1. Categorising ESCO skills on GDE skills U n w r a p p e d G D E s k i l l s : D i g i t a l S k i l l s Skill Relevance (# Papers) % of Papers Skill Relevance (# Papers) %of Papers think creatively 5,445 27.34% computer programming 844 4.24% communication 4,243 21.30% e-learning 748 3.76% communication principles 3,047 15.30% pedagogy 740 3.72% packaging engineering 2,192 11.01% mathematics 714 3.58% computer technology 2,037 10.23% originality 712 3.57% printed circuit boards testing methods 1,369 6.87% statistics 711 3.57% hardware testing methods 1,362 6.84% computer science 680 3.41% in-circuit test 1,362 6.84% lead others 581 2.92% innovation processes 1,238 6.22% metrology 549 2.76%
  • 35. 1. Categorising ESCO skills on GDE skills U n w r a p p e d G D E s k i l l s : E n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p S k i l l s Skill Relevance (# Papers) % of Papers Skill Relevance (# Papers) %of Papers entrepreneurship 13,466 43.33% lead others 1,263 4.06% innovation processes 6,633 21.34% environmental engineering 1,167 3.75% think creatively 5,850 18.82% statistics 1,039 3.34% originality 3,037 9.77% economics 1,026 3.30% communication 2,414 7.77% mechanical systems 1,020 3.28% packaging engineering 1,771 5.70% computer technology 887 2.85% marketing principles 1,713 5.51% business model 821 2.64% analyze 1,548 4.98% establish collaborative relations 745 2.40% leadership principles 1,520 4.89% history 718 2.31% communication principles 1,313 4.22% collect samples 677 2.18%
  • 36. TABLE OF CONTENT Categorising ESCO skills on GDE skills Paper retrieval; Skill extraction with NER; Results Cleaning; Unwrapped GDE skills Enhancement and revision of the identified skills by the companies Questionnaire; Future Skill Prospect of Skills Panorama Skill2Esco Skill2Esco methodology; Skills to suggest to ESCO 2
  • 37. 2. E n h a n c e m e n t a n d r e v i s i o n o f t h e i d e n t i f i e d s k i l l s b y t h e c o m p a n i e s M e t h o d o l o g y The enhancement and revision of the skills identified in Task 2.1 is performed by: Questionnaire on GDE Skills Skills Panorama
  • 38. 2. E n h a n c e m e n t a n d r e v i s i o n o f t h e i d e n t i f i e d s k i l l s b y t h e c o m p a n i e s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 7 languages
  • 39. 2. E n h a n c e m e n t a n d r e v i s i o n o f t h e i d e n t i f i e d s k i l l s b y t h e c o m p a n i e s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 7 languages
  • 40. 2. E n h a n c e m e n t a n d r e v i s i o n o f t h e i d e n t i f i e d s k i l l s b y t h e c o m p a n i e s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 1. What skills are you missing the most in your organization? 2. What are the skills you are investing the most for upskilling/reskilling? 3. What are the skills you are searching for the most when hiring?
  • 41. 2. E n h a n c e m e n t a n d r e v i s i o n o f t h e i d e n t i f i e d s k i l l s b y t h e c o m p a n i e s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Dissemination: different approaches have been implemented to reach a bigger audience for the ENCORE questionnaire
  • 42. 2. E n h a n c e m e n t a n d r e v i s i o n o f t h e i d e n t i f i e d s k i l l s b y t h e c o m p a n i e s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 340 answers
  • 43. 2. E n h a n c e m e n t a n d r e v i s i o n o f t h e i d e n t i f i e d s k i l l s b y t h e c o m p a n i e s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 340 answers 1,492 Skills
  • 44. 2. E n h a n c e m e n t a n d r e v i s i o n o f t h e i d e n t i f i e d s k i l l s b y t h e c o m p a n i e s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 340 answers 1,492 Skills 305 skills are removed 1,184 skills matched to a skill collected in task 2.1 3 skills are news: Industry 4.0; Software development; Docker
  • 45. 2. E n h a n c e m e n t a n d r e v i s i o n o f t h e i d e n t i f i e d s k i l l s b y t h e c o m p a n i e s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 340 answers 1,492 Skills 305 skills are removed, because not respecting the format requested by the questionnaire (e.g., Internet instead of paper), skills explained too much in general (e.g., Agility, Moderation) or not meaningful (e.g., I don’t know, Nothing) 1,184 skills matched to a skill collected in task 2.1 3 skills are news: Industry 4.0; Software development; Docker.c 300 unique Skills
  • 46. 2. E n h a n c e m e n t a n d r e v i s i o n o f t h e i d e n t i f i e d s k i l l s b y t h e c o m p a n i e s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e : G r e e n S k i l l s Skill Relavance Index % of Questionnaires waste management 190 44.41% circular economy 159 35.88% energy efficiency 152 30% bioeconomy 103 24.71% ecological principles 51 12.35% ecology 25 5.59% manage waste 25 6.47% promote sustainability 24 5% electricity consumption 23 5% renewable energy technologies 18 4.71% energy 13 3.24% climate change impact 9 1.76% solar energy 9 1.76% assume responsibility 8 4.12% environmental threats 8 1.76%
  • 47. 2. E n h a n c e m e n t a n d r e v i s i o n o f t h e i d e n t i f i e d s k i l l s b y t h e c o m p a n i e s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e : D i g i t a l S k i l l s Skill Relavance Index % of Questionnaires analyse big data 198 39.71% principles of artificial intelligence 191 36.76% cyber security 162 34.12% computer programming 121 26.76% data analytics 65 15.88% machine learning 47 10.59% data mining 42 9.12% Python (computer programming) 42 8.53% business intelligence 32 10% operate digital hardware 30 7.35% project management 22 10% manage data 15 3.82% cloud technologies 14 2.35% analyze 13 3.53% analyse scientific data 12 2.65%
  • 48. 2. E n h a n c e m e n t a n d r e v i s i o n o f t h e i d e n t i f i e d s k i l l s b y t h e c o m p a n i e s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e : E n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p S k i l l s Skill Relavance Index % of Questionnaires leadership principles 228 45,88% work in teams 166 32,35% think creatively 150 30,88% negotiate compromises 71 16,18% marketing principles 69 17,35% communication 42 9,41% meet commitments 35 7,35% moderate in negotiations 23 5% project management 19 10% involvement 16 3,53% think critically 14 2,65% motivate employees 13 3,24% assertiveness 11 2,94% personnel management 11 2,65% entrepreneurship 10 1,47%
  • 49. 2. E n h a n c e m e n t a n d r e v i s i o n o f t h e i d e n t i f i e d s k i l l s b y t h e c o m p a n i e s F u t u r e S k i l l P r o s p e c t o f S k i l l s P a n o r a m a Assessing the relevance of the skills collected in T2.1, updated after the first step of task T2.2, using the European platform Skills Panorama
  • 50. 2. E n h a n c e m e n t a n d r e v i s i o n o f t h e i d e n t i f i e d s k i l l s b y t h e c o m p a n i e s F u t u r e S k i l l P r o s p e c t o f S k i l l s P a n o r a m a The future job prospects indicator compares future number of job openings in a particular occupation to total employment in that occupation. If the number of future job opportunities is high compared to total employment (for example for scores above 60 it means that there will be more job openings than number of current jobs in the occupations), we say that there will be high job prospects. On the contrary, if the score is below 40, the job prospects will be relatively low.
  • 51. 2. E n h a n c e m e n t a n d r e v i s i o n o f t h e i d e n t i f i e d s k i l l s b y t h e c o m p a n i e s F u t u r e S k i l l P r o s p e c t o f S k i l l s P a n o r a m a We transfer the index from Jobs to Skills Job 1 Skill C Skill A Skill B
  • 52. 2. E n h a n c e m e n t a n d r e v i s i o n o f t h e i d e n t i f i e d s k i l l s b y t h e c o m p a n i e s F u t u r e S k i l l P r o s p e c t o f S k i l l s P a n o r a m a Label Future Skill Prospect capacity building 87 organic chemistry 78 ecotourism 77 communication 75,25 data analytics 74 sustainable development goals 74 social innovation 74 alter management 74 management department processes 74 pharmaceutical industry 73 establish collaborative relations 72,95 sociology 72,5 social sciences 70,7 social justice 70,06 develop food waste reduction strategies 69,75 toxicology 69,67 provide information 69,16 promote sustainability 68,5 climate change impact 68,5 analyse score 68,48 Label Future Skill Prospect capacity building 87 personal development 82 manage feedback 78,24 radiology 78 psychotherapy principles 78 biomedicine 78 writing techniques 77,6 use questioning techniques 77 pathology 75,27 communication 75,25 data analytics 74 sustainable development goals 74 social innovation 74 alter management 74 conflict management 74 management department processes 74 crowdfunding 74 social entrepreneurship 74 manage several projects 74 outplacement 74 Label Future Skill Prospect capacity building 87 personal development 82 manage feedback 78,24 radiology 78 psychotherapy principles 78 biomedicine 78 use questioning techniques 77 ecotourism 77 use computer telephony integration 77 pathology 75,27 communication 75,25 data analytics 74 sustainable development goals 74 social innovation 74 alter management 74 conflict management 74 management department processes 74 crowdfunding 74 social entrepreneurship 74 manage several projects 74
  • 53. 2. E n h a n c e m e n t a n d r e v i s i o n o f t h e i d e n t i f i e d s k i l l s b y t h e c o m p a n i e s F i n a l O u t p u t : G r e e n Label Paper Index Questionnaire Index Future Skills Prospect circular economy 96,87 83,68 45,75 waste management 80,51 100,00 52,74 energy efficiency 71,53 80,00 59,67 bioeconomy 79,94 54,21 63,00 think creatively 100,00 0,00 50,00 environmental engineering 96,92 1,57 49,33 ecological principles 65,39 26,84 61,00 energy 82,37 6,84 55,6 innovation processes 84,93 0,00 60,27 packaging engineering 84,62 0,00 63,00 electricity principles 83,42 0,52 34,67 electricity 83,42 0,00 40,77 chemistry 81,74 0,52 47,46 fossil fuels 79,67 1,57 63,00
  • 54. 2. E n h a n c e m e n t a n d r e v i s i o n o f t h e i d e n t i f i e d s k i l l s b y t h e c o m p a n i e s F i n a l O u t p u t : D i g i t a l Label Paper Index Questionnaire Index Future Skills Prospect principles of artificial intelligence 70,21 96,46 52,5 computer programming 78,34 61,11 44,11 analyse big data 32,22 100 68,33 cyber security 45,93 81,81 45,50 think creatively 100,00 0,50 50,00 communication 97,10 2,52 75,25 communication principles 93,25 0,00 68,38 computer technology 88,57 1,01 51,45 packaging engineering 89,42 0,00 63,00 data analytics 54,20 32,82 74,00 analyze 80,32 6,56 50,00 machine learning 61,64 23,73 42,00 printed circuit boards testing methods 83,95 0,00 3,00 hardware testing methods 83,89 0,00 53,00
  • 55. 2. E n h a n c e m e n t a n d r e v i s i o n o f t h e i d e n t i f i e d s k i l l s b y t h e c o m p a n i e s F i n a l O u t p u t : E n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p Label Paper Index Questionnaire Index Future Skills Prospect leadership principles 77,06 100,00 51,30 think creatively 91,23 65,78 50,00 work in teams 56,03 72,80 50,00 marketing principles 78,31 30,26 62,43 entrepreneurship 100,00 4,38 50,00 communication 81,92 18,42 75,25 innovation processes 92,55 0,87 60,27 negotiate compromises 57,19 31,14 50,00 originality 84,33 0,00 50,00 packaging engineering 78,66 0,00 63,00 analyze 77,25 1,31 50,00 communication principles 75,52 0,43 68,38 lead others 75,11 0,00 50,00 environmental engineering 74,28 0,00 49,33
  • 56. 2. E n h a n c e m e n t a n d r e v i s i o n o f t h e i d e n t i f i e d s k i l l s b y t h e c o m p a n i e s C o m p a r i s o n I n d u s t r y v s S c i e n t i f i c C o m m u n i t y p e r s p e c t i v e Questionnaire on GDE Skills Text Mining on GDE Skills Industry Perspective Scientific Community Perspective
  • 57. 2. E n h a n c e m e n t a n d r e v i s i o n o f t h e i d e n t i f i e d s k i l l s b y t h e c o m p a n i e s C o m p a r i s o n I n d u s t r y v s S c i e n t i f i c C o m m u n i t y p e r s p e c t i v e RQ1 - Are digital skills needs aligned between industrial and scientific communities? RQ2 - Which are the gaps between industrial and scientific communities perspectives on the skills needs?
  • 58. 2. E n h a n c e m e n t a n d r e v i s i o n o f t h e i d e n t i f i e d s k i l l s b y t h e c o m p a n i e s C o m p a r i s o n I n d u s t r y v s S c i e n t i f i c C o m m u n i t y p e r s p e c t i v e Case Survey Analysis Text Mining of research literature Total number of skills Example 1 yes yes 193 think creatively, business intelligence, cyber security, Python (computer programming), natural language processing 2 yes no 14 industry 4.0, renewable energy technologies, work efficiently, software development, docker 3 no yes 271 augmented reality, geographic information systems, MATLAB, originality, ICT system programming Total 478 This is the first evidence of the alignment between the perceptions of the industrial and scientific communities.
  • 59. 2. E n h a n c e m e n t a n d r e v i s i o n o f t h e i d e n t i f i e d s k i l l s b y t h e c o m p a n i e s C o m p a r i s o n I n d u s t r y v s S c i e n t i f i c C o m m u n i t y p e r s p e c t i v e Label Questionnaire Index Paper Index principles of artificial intelligence 96,46 70,21 computer programming 61,11 78,34 analyse big data 100 32,22 cyber security 81,81 45,93 think creatively 0,50 100,00 communication 2,52 97,10 communication principles 0,00 93,25 computer technology 1,01 88,57 packaging engineering 0,00 89,42 data analytics 32,82 54,20 analyze 6,56 80,32 machine learning 23,73 61,64 printed circuit boards testing methods 0,00 83,95 hardware testing methods 0,00 83,89 𝑫𝒆𝒍𝒕𝒂 𝒑𝒆𝒓𝒔𝒑𝒆𝒄𝒕𝒊𝒗𝒆 = 𝑸𝒖𝒆𝒔𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏𝒆𝒓 𝒊𝒏𝒅𝒆𝒙 − 𝑷𝒂𝒑𝒆𝒓 𝑰𝒏𝒅𝒆𝒙
  • 60. 2. E n h a n c e m e n t a n d r e v i s i o n o f t h e i d e n t i f i e d s k i l l s b y t h e c o m p a n i e s C o m p a r i s o n I n d u s t r y v s S c i e n t i f i c C o m m u n i t y p e r s p e c t i v e
  • 61. 2. E n h a n c e m e n t a n d r e v i s i o n o f t h e i d e n t i f i e d s k i l l s b y t h e c o m p a n i e s C o m p a r i s o n I n d u s t r y v s S c i e n t i f i c C o m m u n i t y p e r s p e c t i v e Scientific Community Perspective Aligned Industry Perspective
  • 62. 2. E n h a n c e m e n t a n d r e v i s i o n o f t h e i d e n t i f i e d s k i l l s b y t h e c o m p a n i e s C o m p a r i s o n I n d u s t r y v s S c i e n t i f i c C o m m u n i t y p e r s p e c t i v e RQ1 - Are digital skills needs aligned between industrial and scientific communities? Label Relevance for Questionnaire Relevance for Papers Delta perspective machine learning 23.74 24.24 -0.50 data mining 21.21 17.21 4.00 project management 11.11 16.73 -5.62 automation technology 3.54 9.45 -5.91 embedded systems 2.02 10.06 -8.04 data protection 1.52 8.36 -6.84 human-computer interaction 1.52 8.12 -6.60 natural language processing 3.03 6.55 -3.52 electronic communication 2.02 7.52 -5.50 graphic design 2.02 6.06 -4.04 customer service 1.52 4.12 -2.60 design hardware 2.53 3.03 -0.50 database management systems 2.02 2.42 -0.40 cybernetics 2.53 1.82 0.71 use IT tools 2.53 1.70 0.83 Aligned
  • 63. 2. E n h a n c e m e n t a n d r e v i s i o n o f t h e i d e n t i f i e d s k i l l s b y t h e c o m p a n i e s C o m p a r i s o n I n d u s t r y v s S c i e n t i f i c C o m m u n i t y p e r s p e c t i v e RQ1 - Are digital skills needs aligned between industrial and scientific communities? Label Relevance for Questionnaire Relevance for Papers Delta perspective machine learning 23.74 24.24 -0.50 data mining 21.21 17.21 4.00 project management 11.11 16.73 -5.62 automation technology 3.54 9.45 -5.91 embedded systems 2.02 10.06 -8.04 data protection 1.52 8.36 -6.84 human-computer interaction 1.52 8.12 -6.60 natural language processing 3.03 6.55 -3.52 electronic communication 2.02 7.52 -5.50 graphic design 2.02 6.06 -4.04 customer service 1.52 4.12 -2.60 design hardware 2.53 3.03 -0.50 database management systems 2.02 2.42 -0.40 cybernetics 2.53 1.82 0.71 use IT tools 2.53 1.70 0.83 Aligned
  • 64. 2. E n h a n c e m e n t a n d r e v i s i o n o f t h e i d e n t i f i e d s k i l l s b y t h e c o m p a n i e s C o m p a r i s o n I n d u s t r y v s S c i e n t i f i c C o m m u n i t y p e r s p e c t i v e RQ1 - Are digital skills needs aligned between industrial and scientific communities? Label Relevance for Questionnaire Relevance for Papers Delta perspective machine learning 23.74 24.24 -0.50 data mining 21.21 17.21 4.00 project management 11.11 16.73 -5.62 automation technology 3.54 9.45 -5.91 embedded systems 2.02 10.06 -8.04 data protection 1.52 8.36 -6.84 human-computer interaction 1.52 8.12 -6.60 natural language processing 3.03 6.55 -3.52 electronic communication 2.02 7.52 -5.50 graphic design 2.02 6.06 -4.04 customer service 1.52 4.12 -2.60 design hardware 2.53 3.03 -0.50 database management systems 2.02 2.42 -0.40 cybernetics 2.53 1.82 0.71 use IT tools 2.53 1.70 0.83 Aligned
  • 65. 2. E n h a n c e m e n t a n d r e v i s i o n o f t h e i d e n t i f i e d s k i l l s b y t h e c o m p a n i e s C o m p a r i s o n I n d u s t r y v s S c i e n t i f i c C o m m u n i t y p e r s p e c t i v e RQ1 - Are digital skills needs aligned between industrial and scientific communities? Label Relevance for Questionnaire Relevance for Papers Delta perspective machine learning 23.74 24.24 -0.50 data mining 21.21 17.21 4.00 project management 11.11 16.73 -5.62 automation technology 3.54 9.45 -5.91 embedded systems 2.02 10.06 -8.04 data protection 1.52 8.36 -6.84 human-computer interaction 1.52 8.12 -6.60 natural language processing 3.03 6.55 -3.52 electronic communication 2.02 7.52 -5.50 graphic design 2.02 6.06 -4.04 customer service 1.52 4.12 -2.60 design hardware 2.53 3.03 -0.50 database management systems 2.02 2.42 -0.40 cybernetics 2.53 1.82 0.71 use IT tools 2.53 1.70 0.83 Aligned
  • 66. 2. E n h a n c e m e n t a n d r e v i s i o n o f t h e i d e n t i f i e d s k i l l s b y t h e c o m p a n i e s C o m p a r i s o n I n d u s t r y v s S c i e n t i f i c C o m m u n i t y p e r s p e c t i v e RQ2 - Which are the gaps between industrial and research perspectives on the skills needs? Label Relevance for Questionnaire Relevance for Papers Delta perspective analyse big data 100.00 1.82 98.18 cyber security 81.82 6.18 75.64 principles of artificial intelligence 96.46 50.79 45.67 data analytics 32.83 12.73 20,10 Python (computer programming) 21.21 6.30 14.91 operate digital hardware 15.15 0.61 14.54 business intelligence 16.16 4.24 11.92 Industry Perspective
  • 67. 2. E n h a n c e m e n t a n d r e v i s i o n o f t h e i d e n t i f i e d s k i l l s b y t h e c o m p a n i e s C o m p a r i s o n I n d u s t r y v s S c i e n t i f i c C o m m u n i t y p e r s p e c t i v e RQ2 - Which are the gaps between industrial and research perspectives on the skills needs? Label Relevance for Questionnaire Relevance for Papers Delta perspective analyse big data 100.00 1.82 98.18 cyber security 81.82 6.18 75.64 principles of artificial intelligence 96.46 50.79 45.67 data analytics 32.83 12.73 20,10 Python (computer programming) 21.21 6.30 14.91 operate digital hardware 15.15 0.61 14.54 business intelligence 16.16 4.24 11.92 Industry Perspective
  • 68. 2. E n h a n c e m e n t a n d r e v i s i o n o f t h e i d e n t i f i e d s k i l l s b y t h e c o m p a n i e s C o m p a r i s o n I n d u s t r y v s S c i e n t i f i c C o m m u n i t y p e r s p e c t i v e RQ2 - Which are the gaps between industrial and research perspectives on the skills needs? Label Relevance for Questionnaire Relevance for Papers Delta perspective analyse big data 100.00 1.82 98.18 cyber security 81.82 6.18 75.64 principles of artificial intelligence 96.46 50.79 45.67 data analytics 32.83 12.73 20,10 Python (computer programming) 21.21 6.30 14.91 operate digital hardware 15.15 0.61 14.54 business intelligence 16.16 4.24 11.92 Industry Perspective
  • 69. 2. E n h a n c e m e n t a n d r e v i s i o n o f t h e i d e n t i f i e d s k i l l s b y t h e c o m p a n i e s C o m p a r i s o n I n d u s t r y v s S c i e n t i f i c C o m m u n i t y p e r s p e c t i v e Label Relevance for Questionnaire Relevance for Papers Delta perspective computer technology 1.01 96.73 -95.72 think critically 0.00 64.73 -64.73 statistics 1.01 51.64 -50.63 use learning strategies 0.00 48.73 -48.73 transmission technology 0.00 48.12 -48.12 tutor students 0.00 46.18 -46.18 database 0.51 44.85 -44.34 leadership principles 0.51 41.33 -40.82 Internet of Things 3.54 43.64 -40.10 augmented reality 0.00 39.88 -39.88 visual presentation techniques 0.00 39.03 -39.03 computer programming 61.11 100.00 -38.89 robotics 0.51 36.12 -35.61 knowledge management 1.52 35.76 -34.24 virtual reality 0.51 31.64 -31.13 RQ2 - Which are the gaps between industrial and research perspectives on the skills needs? Scientific Community Perspective
  • 70. 2. E n h a n c e m e n t a n d r e v i s i o n o f t h e i d e n t i f i e d s k i l l s b y t h e c o m p a n i e s C o m p a r i s o n I n d u s t r y v s S c i e n t i f i c C o m m u n i t y p e r s p e c t i v e Label Relevance for Questionnaire Relevance for Papers Delta perspective computer technology 1.01 96.73 -95.72 think critically 0.00 64.73 -64.73 statistics 1.01 51.64 -50.63 use learning strategies 0.00 48.73 -48.73 transmission technology 0.00 48.12 -48.12 tutor students 0.00 46.18 -46.18 database 0.51 44.85 -44.34 leadership principles 0.51 41.33 -40.82 Internet of Things 3.54 43.64 -40.10 augmented reality 0.00 39.88 -39.88 visual presentation techniques 0.00 39.03 -39.03 computer programming 61.11 100.00 -38.89 robotics 0.51 36.12 -35.61 knowledge management 1.52 35.76 -34.24 virtual reality 0.51 31.64 -31.13 RQ2 - Which are the gaps between industrial and research perspectives on the skills needs? Scientific Community Perspective
  • 71. 2. E n h a n c e m e n t a n d r e v i s i o n o f t h e i d e n t i f i e d s k i l l s b y t h e c o m p a n i e s C o m p a r i s o n I n d u s t r y v s S c i e n t i f i c C o m m u n i t y p e r s p e c t i v e Label Relevance for Questionnaire Relevance for Papers Delta perspective computer technology 1.01 96.73 -95.72 think critically 0.00 64.73 -64.73 statistics 1.01 51.64 -50.63 use learning strategies 0.00 48.73 -48.73 transmission technology 0.00 48.12 -48.12 tutor students 0.00 46.18 -46.18 database 0.51 44.85 -44.34 leadership principles 0.51 41.33 -40.82 Internet of Things 3.54 43.64 -40.10 augmented reality 0.00 39.88 -39.88 visual presentation techniques 0.00 39.03 -39.03 computer programming 61.11 100.00 -38.89 robotics 0.51 36.12 -35.61 knowledge management 1.52 35.76 -34.24 virtual reality 0.51 31.64 -31.13 RQ2 - Which are the gaps between industrial and research perspectives on the skills needs? Scientific Community Perspective
  • 72. 2. E n h a n c e m e n t a n d r e v i s i o n o f t h e i d e n t i f i e d s k i l l s b y t h e c o m p a n i e s C o m p a r i s o n I n d u s t r y v s S c i e n t i f i c C o m m u n i t y p e r s p e c t i v e Label Relevance for Questionnaire Relevance for Papers Delta perspective computer technology 1.01 96.73 -95.72 think critically 0.00 64.73 -64.73 statistics 1.01 51.64 -50.63 use learning strategies 0.00 48.73 -48.73 transmission technology 0.00 48.12 -48.12 tutor students 0.00 46.18 -46.18 database 0.51 44.85 -44.34 leadership principles 0.51 41.33 -40.82 Internet of Things 3.54 43.64 -40.10 augmented reality 0.00 39.88 -39.88 visual presentation techniques 0.00 39.03 -39.03 computer programming 61.11 100.00 -38.89 robotics 0.51 36.12 -35.61 knowledge management 1.52 35.76 -34.24 virtual reality 0.51 31.64 -31.13 RQ2 - Which are the gaps between industrial and research perspectives on the skills needs? Scientific Community Perspective
  • 73. 2. E n h a n c e m e n t a n d r e v i s i o n o f t h e i d e n t i f i e d s k i l l s b y t h e c o m p a n i e s C o m p a r i s o n I n d u s t r y v s S c i e n t i f i c C o m m u n i t y p e r s p e c t i v e A total of 478 different digital skills were identified, with some overlap between the perspectives of the industry and research, but also some discrepancies. Digital skills such as “machine learning”, “data mining” and “natural language processing” have a similar relevance for both industrial and scientific community perspectives. However, there were some skills that were seen as important by one group but not the other, which suggests that there are differences in the views of companies and researchers on the importance of certain digital skills. On one hand, companies tend to focus more on (1) skills related to cutting edge technologies, such as “cyber security”, “principles of artificial intelligence” and “analyse big data”; and on (2) skills with a high level of detail with respect to researchers, as for instance the use of “Python”. On the other hand, the analysis of scientific publications allows us to consider more abstract skills, such as “computer programming” or “knowledge management”, and also transversal skills (such as “think critically” and “leadership principles”) to face the digital transformation.
  • 74. TABLE OF CONTENT Categorising ESCO skills on GDE skills Paper retrieval; Skill extraction with NER; Results Cleaning; Unwrapped GDE skills Enhancement and revision of the identified skills by the companies Questionnaire; Future Skill Prospect of Skills Panorama Skill2Esco Skill2Esco methodology; Skills to suggest to ESCO 3
  • 75. 3. Skill2Esco S k i l l 2 E s c o m e t h o d o l o g y Find GDE skills that can be incorporated within the ESCO database
  • 76. 3. Skill2Esco S k i l l 2 E s c o I m p a c t Skill2Esco allows: 1. policy makers to continuously update the ESCO database 2. scholars to explore novel skills in GDE domains 3. managers to plan future hiring, upskilling, and reskilling process
  • 77. 3. Skill2Esco S k i l l 2 E s c o m e t h o d o l o g y New Alternative Label New Skills Automatic similarity matching using BERT Manual revision of similarity matching Manual definitions of Skills comparison OUTPUT
  • 78. 3. Skill2Esco S k i l l 2 E s c o m e t h o d o l o g y Automatic similarity matching using BERT Non-matched concept Top 4 most similar ESCO skills Semantic Similarity zoom mount optical components on frames 0,54 take pictures 0,54 cameras 0,53 Havok Vision 0,52 youtube social media management 0,49 Internet of Things 0,48 select video shots 0,47 apply social media marketing 0,46 working with others instruct others 0,76 communicate professionally with colleagues in other fields 0,75 cooperate with colleagues 0,73 motivate others 0,73 work together work in teams 0,80 develop working procedures 0,75 carry out work-related measurements 0,75 work efficiently 0,74
  • 79. 3. Skill2Esco S k i l l 2 E s c o m e t h o d o l o g y Non-matched concept Top 4 most similar ESCO skills Semantic Similarity zoom mount optical components on frames 0,54 take pictures 0,54 cameras 0,53 Havok Vision 0,52 youtube social media management 0,49 Internet of Things 0,48 select video shots 0,47 apply social media marketing 0,46 working with others instruct others 0,76 communicate professionally with colleagues in other fields 0,75 cooperate with colleagues 0,73 motivate others 0,73 work together work in teams 0,80 develop working procedures 0,75 carry out work-related measurements 0,75 work efficiently 0,74 Manual revision of similarity matching
  • 80. 3. Skill2Esco S k i l l 2 E s c o m e t h o d o l o g y Manual definitions of Skills comparison
  • 81. 3. Skill2Esco S k i l l s t o s u g g e s t t o E S C O Extracted concept ESCO Skills/Knowledge Preferred Label NEW Alternative Label proposed for existing ESCO Skills/ Knowledge active learning use learning strategies “perform active learning” bargaining power negotiate price “leverage on bargaining power” blackboard collaborate collaborate through digital technologies “use blackboard to collaborate” complex problem solving solve problems “perform complex problem solving” cooperation establish collaborative relations “cooperate” data analysis software perform data analysis “use data analysis software” digital databases database “digital databases” economy economics “economy” electronic mail electronic communication “electronic mail” entrepreneur entrepreneurship “entrepreneur behavior” entrepreneurs entrepreneurship “entrepreneurs behavior” google classroom learning technologies “google classroom” google scholar conduct scholarly research “use google scholar” harvest harvest crop “harvest” innovation innovation processes “innovation” instructing training subject expertise “instructing expertise” investment develop investment portfolio “make investment” linux Kali Linux “linux” loom textile technologies “loom” manage risk risk management “techniques for managing risk” memorization memorise information “use memorization techniques” New Alternative Label 76
  • 82. 3. Skill2Esco S k i l l s t o s u g g e s t t o E S C O New Skills 15 Extracted concept NEW Skill / Knowledge Label Description Skills Type atlas.ti atlas.ti A computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software that facilitates analysis of qualitative data for qualitative research, quantitative research, and mixed methods research. Software used for scientific research and analysis that generate deep insights from qualitative data analysis. knowledge bootstrap bootstrap Bootstrap is a free and open-source CSS framework directed at responsive, mobile-first front-end web development. knowledge data acquisition systems data acquisition systems The types of systems that allow one to measure or control the physical characteristics of something in the real world. knowledge dropbox dropbox File hosting service. knowledge educational software educational software Educational software is a term used for any computer software which is made for an educational purpose. knowledge geogebra geogebra Mathematics learning and teaching software that provides tools for the study of geometry, algebra and analysis. knowledge github github Provider of Internet hosting for software development and version control using Git. knowledge inductive reasoning inductive reasoning Inductive reasoning is a method of reasoning in which a body of observations is considered to derive a general principle. knowledge modeling software modeling software A computer program to build simulations or other models. knowledge rss rss RSS is a web feed that allows users and applications to access updates to websites in a standardized, computer-readable format. knowledge simulation software simulation software A program that allows the user to observe an operation through simulation without actually performing that operation. knowledge verilog verilog A hardware description language (HDL) used to model electronic systems. knowledge youtube youtube Online tool to communicate and share video contents. knowledge learn to learn pursuit lifelong learning The ability to pursue and persist in learning, to organize one's own learning, including through. effective management of time and information, both individually and in groups. This competence includes awareness. skill social orientation show social orientation Social orientation designates how a person is aware of, relates, and adapts to other people. skill
  • 83. Conclusion Data It is important to collect data to support the decision-making process with objective evidence Method We should rely on structured methods to analyse the data and leading the decision-making process Results Technical expert knowledge should need to interpret the insights resulted from the analysis
  • 84. THANK YOU For more information visit our website www.project-encore.eu This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY Funded by the European Union. Views and opinions expressed are however those of the author(s) only and do not necessarily reflect those of the European Union or the European Education and Culture Executive Agency (EACEA). Neither the European Union nor EACEA can be held responsible for them. vito.Giordano@phd.unipi.it filippo.chiarello@unipi.it