WHAT IS ANDROID? Android is a software stack for mobile devices that includes an operating system, middleware and key applications.
BRIEF HISTORY 2005 Google acquires startup Android Inc. to start Android platform Work on Dalvik VM begins 2007 Open Handset Alliance announced Early look at SDK 2008 Google sponsors 1st Android Developer Challenge T-Mobile G1 announced SDK 1.0 released Android released open source (Apache License) Android Dev Phone 1 released
Brief History cont. 2009 SDK 1.5 (Cupcake) New soft keyboard with “autocomplete” feature SDK 1.6 (Donut) Support Wide VGA SDK 2.0/2.0.1/2.1 (Eclair) Revamped UI, browser 2010 Nexus One released to the public SDK 2.2 (Froyo) Flash support, tethering SDK 2.3 (Gingerbread) UI update, system-wide copy-paste
Brief History cont. 2011 SDK 3.0/3.1/3.2 (Honeycomb) for tablets only New UI for tablets, support multi-core processors SDK 4.0/4.0.1/4.0.2/4.0.3 (Ice Cream Sandwich) Changes to the UI, Voice input, NFC Ice cream SandwichHoneycomb Android 4.0+Android 3.0-3.2
What is an Android Phone? SinceGoogle built Android as an open standard device, anyone can build applications for the phone and enhance them. Android is completely customizable!
Applications for AndroidMore than 10,000 applications are available for free or for purchase on Android Market.
Android Apps Built using Java and new SDK libraries No support for some Java libraries like Swing & AWT Oracle currently suing Google over use Java code compiled into Dalvik byte code (.dex) Optimized for mobile devices (better memory management, battery utilization, etc.) Dalvik VM runs .dex files
Building and running Compiled resources (xml files) Android Debug Bridge ADB is a client server program that connects clients on developer machine to devices/emulators to facilitate development. An IDE like Eclipse handles this entire process for you.http://developer.android.com/guide/developing/building/index.html#detailed-build
What is an Android Phone? LikeApple’s iPhone, Android has a touch screen. Some Android phones also have keyboards.
The (bad) Reviews Resizing is clumsy and difficult. No easy way to get your music library onto phone. Video/music player are “hideous.” Official apps not as polished as iPhone counterparts. Looking through apps on phone and syncing with computer can be tedious. Not the simplest device to figure out. Phone controls inconsistent. Can be slow.
The (good) Reviews Google’s apps are “simply awesome.” A bit cheaper. Very good mobile browser. Good for tech-savvy people. Developing and improving faster than any other phone on the market. Large room for potential growth and improvements!
Mobile Devices: Advantages(as compared to fixed devices) Always with the user Typically have Internet access Typically GPS enabled Typically have accelerometer & compass Most have cameras & microphones Many apps are free or low-cost
Mobile Devices: Disadvantages Limited screen size Limited battery life Limited processor speed Limited and sometimes slow network access Limited or awkward input: soft keyboard, phone keypad, touch screen, or stylus Limited web browser functionality Range of platforms & configurations across devices
Building and running (more details) Android Asset Packing Tool Expand figure Allows processes across apps to communicate. Android Interface Definition Language (AIDL) – Definitions to exchange data between applications (think SOAP)http://developer.android.com/guide/developing/building/index.html#detailed-build
Applications Are Boxed By default, each app is run in its own Linux process Process started when app’s code needs to be executed Threads can be started to handle time- consuming operations Each process has its own Dalvik VM By default, each app is assigned unique Linux ID Permissions are set so app’s files are only visible to that app
Publishing and Monetizing Paid apps in Android Market, various other markets Free, ad-supported apps in Android Market Ad networks (Google AdMob, Quattro Wireless) Sell your own ads Services to other developers Ex. Skyhook Wireless (http://www.skyhookwireless.com/) Contests (Android Developer Challenge) Selling products from within your app
Android Market http://www.android.com/market/ Has various categories, allows ratings Have both free/paid apps Featured apps on web and on phone The Android Market (and iTunes/App Store) is great for developers Level playing field, allowing third-party apps Revenue sharing
Publishing to Android Market Requires Google Developer Account $25 fee Link to a Merchant Account Google Checkout Link to your checking account Google takes 30% of app purchase price
Android Design Philosophy Applications should be: Fast Resource constraints: <200MB RAM, slow processor Responsive Apps must respond to user actions within 5 seconds Secure Apps declare permissions in manifest Seamless Usability is key, persist data, suspend services Android kills processes in background as needed
Apple vs. Google Android Open Handset Alliance 30+ technology companies Commitment to openness, shared vision, and concrete plans Compare with Mac/PC battles Similar (many PC manufacturers, one Apple) Different (Microsoft sells Windows, Google gives away Android)