Introduction to Android Environment


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Introduction to Android Environment

  1. 1. Introduction to Android Environment By Ankita Gahoi
  2. 2. Agenda .. <ul><li>What is Android? </li></ul><ul><li>Introducing to Open Handset Alliance. </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding Android software stack </li></ul><ul><li>What is Dalvik virtual machine? </li></ul><ul><li>Different version of Android OS. </li></ul><ul><li>Prominent instruments of Android Environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Android Environment programming. </li></ul><ul><li>How Android manages memory. </li></ul><ul><li>Compare – what all app have been developed. </li></ul><ul><li>Android market </li></ul><ul><li>How is the Android environment growing. </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is Android? <ul><li>A mobile operating system initially developed by Android Inc, a firm acquired by Google in 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>Android- software stack for mobile devices that includes an operating system, middle-ware, and key applications. </li></ul><ul><li>Based on the Linux kernel </li></ul><ul><li>Google and other members of the Open Handset Alliance collaborated to develop and release Android to the world.‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Unveiling of the Android platform was announced on 5 November 2007 with the founding of OHA </li></ul><ul><li>First device working on Android OS was HTC G1(Dream) which was launched on October 22 nd 2008. </li></ul>
  4. 4. What is the Open Handset Alliance (OHA)? -> It's a collaboration of several companies.Its a group of 79 hardware,software and telecom companies devoted to advancing open standards for mobile devices.
  5. 5. Android software stack
  6. 6. Architecture <ul><li>Linux Kernel </li></ul><ul><li>Android relies on Linux version 2.6 for core system services such as security, memory management, process management, network stack, and driver model. The kernel also acts as an abstraction layer between the hardware and the rest of the softwarestack. It helps to manage security, memory management, process management, network stack and other important issues. </li></ul><ul><li>Libraries </li></ul><ul><li>I n the next level there are a set of native libraries written in C/C++, which are responsible for stable performance of various components. </li></ul><ul><li>Media framework -> Gives libraries for all media and static image files. </li></ul><ul><li>Free Type -> provides all bitmaps and vector fonts. </li></ul><ul><li>Sqlite -> Data storage </li></ul>
  7. 7. Architecture <ul><li>Application Framework </li></ul><ul><li>After that, there is Application Framework, written in Java language. It is a tool kit that all applications use, ones which come with mobile device like Contacts or SMS box, or applications written by Google and any Android developer. It has several components. </li></ul><ul><li>Application Layer </li></ul><ul><li>At the top of Android Architecture we have all the applications, which are used by the final user. By installing different applications, the user can turn his mobile phone into the unique, optimized and smart mobile phone. All applications are written using the Java programming language. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Dalvik virtual machine <ul><li>Dalvik is the process virtual machine (VM) in Google's Android operating system. </li></ul><ul><li>Before execution, Android applications are converted into the compact Dalvik Executable (.dex) format, which is designed to be suitable for systems that are constrained in terms of memory and processor speed. </li></ul><ul><li>Dalvik, like the rest of Android, is open-source software. It was originally written by Dan Bornstein, who named it after the fishing village of Dalvík in Iceland. </li></ul><ul><li>Dalvik has been designed so that a device can run multiple instances of the VM efficiently. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Different versions of Android OS <ul><li>Android 1.5 </li></ul><ul><li>Code Name: Cupcake </li></ul><ul><li>Release Date: 30 April 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Major Features: </li></ul><ul><li>Uploading videos to YouTube and pictures to Picasa directly from the phone </li></ul><ul><li>New widgets and folders that can populate the Home screens </li></ul><ul><li>Bluetooth A2DP support </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to record and watch videos through camcorder mode </li></ul><ul><li>A new soft-keyboard with text-prediction. </li></ul><ul><li>Animated screen transitions. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Different versions of Android OS <ul><li>Android 1.6 </li></ul><ul><li>Code Name: Donut </li></ul><ul><li>Release Date: 15 September 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Major Features: </li></ul><ul><li>An integrated camera, camcorder, and gallery interface </li></ul><ul><li>Gallery now enables users to select multiple photos for deletion </li></ul><ul><li>Updated Voice Search, with faster response and deeper integration with native applications, including the ability to dial contacts </li></ul><ul><li>Updated search experience to allow searching bookmarks, history, contacts, and the web from the home screen. </li></ul><ul><li>Updated technology support for CDMA/EVDO, 802.1x, VPNs, and a text-to-speech engine. </li></ul><ul><li>Support for WVGA screen resolutions. </li></ul><ul><li>Speed improvements in searching and camera applications. </li></ul><ul><li>Gesture framework and GestureBuilder development tool. </li></ul><ul><li>Google free turn-by-turn navigation. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Different versions of Android OS <ul><li>` </li></ul><ul><li>Android 2.1 </li></ul><ul><li>Code Name: Eclair </li></ul><ul><li>Release Date: 26 October 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Major Features: </li></ul><ul><li>Optimized hardware speed </li></ul><ul><li>Support for more screen sizes and resolutions </li></ul><ul><li>New Browser UI and HTML5 support </li></ul><ul><li>New Contacts List </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft Exchange support </li></ul><ul><li>MotionEvent class enhanced to track multi-touch events </li></ul><ul><li>Bluetooth 2.1 </li></ul><ul><li>Improved Google Maps 3.1.2 </li></ul><ul><li>Built in flash support for Camera </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Zoom </li></ul><ul><li>Live Wallpapers </li></ul>
  12. 12. Different versions of Android OS <ul><li>Android 2.2 </li></ul><ul><li>Code Name: Froyo </li></ul><ul><li>Release Date: 20 May 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Major Features: </li></ul><ul><li>Android OS speed, memory, and performance optimizations </li></ul><ul><li>Application speed improvements courtesy of JIT implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Integration of Chrome's V8 JavaScript engine into the Browser application </li></ul><ul><li>Increased Microsoft Exchange support (security policies, auto-discovery, GAL look-up, calendar synchronization, remote wipe)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Improved application launcher with shortcuts to Phone and Browser applications </li></ul>
  13. 13. Different versions of Android OS <ul><li>Android 2.2(Continued....)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Code Name: Froyo </li></ul><ul><li>Release Date: 20 May 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Major Features: </li></ul><ul><li>USB tethering and Wi-Fi hotspot functionality </li></ul><ul><li>Updated Market application with batch and automatic update features </li></ul><ul><li>Quick switching between multiple keyboard languages and their dictionaries </li></ul><ul><li>Voice dialing and contact sharing over Bluetooth </li></ul><ul><li>Browser can now display animated GIFs </li></ul><ul><li>Support for installing applications to the expandable memory </li></ul><ul><li>Adobe Flash 10.1 support </li></ul>
  14. 14. Different versions of Android OS <ul><li>Android 2.3 </li></ul><ul><li>Code Name: Gingerbread </li></ul><ul><li>Release Date: 2 Feb 2011 </li></ul><ul><li>Major Features: </li></ul><ul><li>Support for WebM video playback </li></ul><ul><li>Support for Near Field Communication(NFC)‏ </li></ul>
  15. 15. Different versions of Android OS <ul><li>Android 2.4 </li></ul><ul><li>Code Name: Icecream sandwitch </li></ul><ul><li>Release Date: Upcoming Version </li></ul><ul><li>Major Features: </li></ul><ul><li>UI inspiration from Honeycomb for Phone form factor </li></ul><ul><li>Gaming improvements </li></ul><ul><li>Cloud Music </li></ul><ul><li>Tight Cloud integration to backup apps, app data, preferences. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Prominent instruments of Android Environment <ul><li>Setting up the Java managed code Android environment on Windows is straight forward, involving the following four steps: </li></ul><ul><li>Install the Java SE Development Kit .This is a standard Windows installer file, follow the on screen instructions for installation. </li></ul><ul><li>Install the Eclipse IDE for Java Developers from . </li></ul><ul><li>Install the Android SDK according to OS. </li></ul><ul><li>Install the ADT Plug-in for Eclipse as described here. </li></ul><ul><li>To verify your installation of Eclipse, Android SDK, ADT, and Java, you can build a sample “Hello World” application using the instructions located here: You can single step the Java code or let it run freely to display the “Hello World” message on the Android emulator screen. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Programming Android Applications are written in Java package; import; import android.os.Bundle; public class HelloActivity extends Activity { public HelloActivity() { } @Override public void onCreate(Bundle icicle) { super.onCreate(icicle); setContentView(R.layout.hello_activity); }
  18. 18. Android applications are compiled to Dalvik bytecode Transformed to Dalvik bytecode Compiled in Java Write app in Java Linux OS Loaded into Dalvik VM
  19. 19. Android emulators
  20. 20. How Android manages memory? <ul><li>Android’s process and memory management is a little unusual. Like Java and .NET, Android uses its own run time and virtual machine to manage application memory. </li></ul><ul><li>Each Android application runs in a separate process within its own Dalvik instance. </li></ul><ul><li>Android manages opened applications which are running in the background, so officially you shouldn’t care about that. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Compare-what all app have been developed. In Compare,We have 8 android applications in different fields live in android Market -
  22. 22. <ul><li>TwitSnaps </li></ul>Twitsnaps is a photo sharing application.It allows you to tweet your snaps and share with your friends on twitter.You can also use features of twitter like view timelines,RT,DM and more.
  23. 23. <ul><li>DGreetings </li></ul>Android application for DGreetings now comes with a host of services to make E-CARD sharing from mobile device a convenient experience. No matter where you are, the DGreetings application allows you to stay in touch with your close ones by sending e-cards through your mail. Browse through exclusive e-card templates according to special events and categories. Create an e-card by writing your own quotes and lyrics.
  24. 24. <ul><li>MapsOfIndia Quiz </li></ul>you can play India Quiz in all phones with Android Operating Systems. You will get questions on Indian History, Indian cities, Indian culture, India and neighbors, Music, Indian Sports and much more. The quiz is divided into 3 levels. Easy level, Medium level and Tough level.
  25. 25. <ul><li>Visiting card </li></ul>Visiting Card Application allows to create your Business and Personal card by selecting your card background and images. It allows you to edit,delete,send via email and MMS and print your card. You can also update your background and images. You can search your card by:name,email and phone number.
  26. 26. <ul><li>File Explorer </li></ul>File Explorer Lite is an application that helps you to manage your android phone and Sdcard. You can Copy, Paste, Cut, Zip/Unzip, Search, Bookmark your files and folders. You can add folders and send your file via Blue tooth and Email. This application also installs the .apk files in your android mobile. You can also open text, image, audio ,video, .html , .xml, and .zip files through File Explorer Lite.
  27. 27. <ul><li>Appointment maker </li></ul>Appointment Maker helps to schedule and manage all you appointments in a better way. It allows you to create,edit,delete and send appointments. You can search for appointments by:date,place and priority and find the distance between current and destination location of appointment on map. It also allows you to set reminder for your appointments.
  28. 28. <ul><li>Headlines India </li></ul>News Now! Stay current on the latest news with Headlines.mapsofindia mobile news app. Receive freshest collection of top headlines, latest news on business, education, and entertainment happening in India and world.
  29. 29. Android Market <ul><li>You can publish your application and allow users to install it any way you choose, including from your own web server or from Android market. </li></ul><ul><li>Android Market is a service that makes it easy for users to find and download Android applications to their Android-powered devices. </li></ul><ul><li>To publish your application on Android Market, you first need to register with the service using a Google account and agree to the terms of service. Once you are registered, you can upload your application to the service whenever you want, update it as many times as you want, and then publish it when you are ready. Once published, users can see your application, download it, and rate it. </li></ul><ul><li>If you plan to publish your application on Android Market, you must make sure that it meets the requirements listed below, which are enforced by the Market server when you upload the application- </li></ul><ul><li>1)Application must be signed. </li></ul><ul><li>2)must define both version code and version name. </li></ul><ul><li>3)must define android icon and lebel. </li></ul>
  30. 30. How is Android environment growing? <ul><li>Google's Android was expected to become the world's second most-used smart phone OS by 2012, after the Symbian OS. </li></ul><ul><li>5 months ago 200,000 Android devices were activated each day. Today, it’s 350,000 per day. In fact for every baby born in the U.S. each day, 30 Android devices are activated. </li></ul><ul><li>Now Android OS is running on several no of devices . </li></ul>
  31. 31. Devices Running Android OS <ul><li>Mobile Phones </li></ul><ul><li>Phones like HTC G1, HTC Desire, Samsung Galaxy S, Sony Ericsson Xperia X10, Samsung Galaxy S etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Tablet Computers </li></ul><ul><li>Tablets computers like Dell Streak, Notion Ink Adam, Quanta . </li></ul>
  32. 32. Devices Running Android OS <ul><li>Dell Streak </li></ul><ul><li>A tablet computer by Dell, running on Android 2.2 </li></ul><ul><li>Fast 1GHz Snapdragon ARM-based mobile processor from Qualcomm </li></ul><ul><li>A sharp 5-inch capacitive multi-touch WVGA (800x480)‏ </li></ul>
  33. 33. Devices Running Android OS Olive Pad A tablet computer by Olive 7” Capacitive Touch screen Running on Android 2.2(Froyo)‏
  34. 34. Devices Running Android OS
  35. 35. Devices Running Android OS Even Washing machine and oven runs on Android !
  36. 36. Distribution in different versions Android 1.5 - 2.3% Android 1.6 - 3.0% Android 2.1 - 24.5% Android 2.2 - 65.9% Android 2.3 - 1.0% Android 2.3.3 - 3.0% Android 3.0 - 0.3%